双语:《民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践》白皮书 PDF下载

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民族区域自治制度在西藏的成功实践
Successful Practice of Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Tibet

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2015年9月
September 2015, Beijing

目 录
Contents

前 言
Preface

一、旧西藏的黑暗与落后
I. Old Tibet: Dark and Backward

二、走上发展进步道路
II. Embarking on the Road to Development and Progress

三、符合国情的政治制度
III. The Political System Suited to China’s Actual Conditions

四、保障人民当家作主
IV. The People as Masters of the Country

五、大力增进人民福祉
V. Improving People’s Welfare

六、保护和弘扬优秀传统文化
VI. Protecting and Carrying Forward the Excellent Traditional Culture

七、尊重和保护宗教信仰自由
VII. Respecting and Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

八、推进生态文明建设
VIII. Promoting Ecological Progress

结束语
Conclusion

*********************************

前言
Preface

民族区域自治,是中国特色社会主义的一项基本政治制度,是中国解决民族问题的基本政策。
Regional ethnic autonomy is a fundamental political system under socialism with Chinese characteristics – a basic policy through which to solve problems relating to ethnic minorities.

中国的民族区域自治,是指在国家的统一领导下,各少数民族聚居地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。中国民族自治地方的设立是根据当地民族关系、经济发展等条件,并参酌历史情况而确定的。目前,中国的民族自治地方依据少数民族聚居区人口的多少、面积的大小分为自治区、自治州、自治县三级,行政地位分别相当于省、设区的市和县。
Regional ethnic autonomy in China means, under the unified leadership of the central government, that regional autonomy is exercised and organs of self-government are established for the exercise of the right of autonomy in areas where various ethnic minorities live in compact communities. The establishment of ethnic autonomous areas is determined by local ethnic relations, economic development and other conditions, with reference to historical background. China’s ethnic autonomous areas are divided, according to the population and size of the compact communities in which ethnic minorities live, into autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures, and autonomous counties at three levels equivalent to provinces, cities divided into districts, and counties in the administrative division.

在中国,西藏是一个藏族占多数的民族聚居区,目前总人口317.55万,其中藏族占92%以上;除藏族外,西藏还有汉族、蒙古族、回族、纳西族、怒族、独龙族、门巴族、珞巴族以及僜人、夏尔巴人等40多个民族成分。根据中国宪法,国家在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,建立西藏自治区,并设有门巴、珞巴、纳西等民族乡,依法保障西藏各族人民平等参与管理国家和地方事务的政治权利。
Tibet is an ethnic region mostly inhabited by Tibetans, who account for more than 92 percent of its present 3,175,500 population, which also includes 40 other ethnic groups, including the Han, Mongolian, Hui, Naxi, Nu, Drung, Monba, Lhoba, Deng and Sherpa people. According to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), regional ethnic autonomy has been exercised in Tibet, and Tibet Autonomous Region, under which are the Monba, Lhoba and Naxi ethnic townships, has been founded, protecting by law the political rights of various ethnic groups in Tibet to participate as equals in administering state and local affairs.

自1959年实行民主改革和1965年实行民族区域自治制度以来,西藏不仅建立起全新的社会主义制度,而且实现了经济社会发展的历史性跨越。西藏成功地走上了与全国各族人民共同团结奋斗、共同平等发展、共同繁荣进步的光明大道。藏民族作为中华民族大家庭的一员,实现了平等参与管理国家事务的权利,成为管理西藏地方社会事务、主宰自己命运的主人,成为西藏社会物质财富、精神财富的创造者和享有者。
Since the democratic reform was carried out in 1959 and regional ethnic autonomy came into practice in 1965, Tibet has established the new socialist system and achieved historic leaps and bounds in its economic and social development. Tibet has taken a road that unites it with all China’s ethnic groups and struggles to develop equally, achieve prosperity, and make progress with them. As part of the Chinese nation, the Tibetan people fulfill the right to participate equally in the management of state affairs; they are thus managers of local social affairs and masters of their own destiny, creating and sharing the material and spiritual wealth of Tibet.

虽然西藏自治区从成立至今只有50年,但带来了翻天覆地的巨大变化。今日的西藏,是其历史上最为辉煌的时期。
Although it has been only 50 years since the founding of Tibet Autonomous Region, great changes have taken place. Tibet is now in its golden age.

一、旧西藏的黑暗与落后
I. Old Tibet: Dark and Backward

直至20世纪50年代,西藏社会依然处于政教合一的封建农奴制统治之下。这种存在了几百年的黑暗制度,扼杀人权,摧残人性,是人类社会最为落后的制度。在这种制度下,人民既无民主权利,也无经济、社会、文化权利,各项基本人权根本得不到保障。旧西藏与现代文明的距离,十分遥远。
Even in the 1950s, Tibet was still a society ruled by feudal serfdom under theocracy. Having existed for several centuries, this wretched system stifled human rights and destroyed human qualities. It was thus the most backward mode of human society under which the people had no democratic, economic, social, or cultural rights, and their basic human rights were not protected. Old Tibet was a far cry from modern civilization.

在封建农奴制度统治之下,农奴遭受残酷的政治压迫,没有任何人身自由,丧失了基本人权。
Under feudal serfdom, serfs suffered cruel political oppression and had no personal freedom or fundamental rights.

旧西藏实行以《十六法典》《十三法典》为代表的法律,对广大农奴实行野蛮压迫。这些《法典》将人分成“三等九级”,大贵族、大活佛和高级官员被认为是天生高贵的人,处于最上等地位,而广大农奴则被划为下等人。命价也有高低不同,上等人“命价为与尸体等重的黄金”,屠夫、铁匠等下等下级的人,“命价仅值一根草绳”。不同等级的人触犯同一刑律,量刑标准和处置方法也不相同。仆人使主人受伤的,要砍掉仆人的手或脚;主人打伤仆人,则不付给任何赔偿费。农奴主和农奴在法律上的地位极其不平等,农奴主拥有对农奴和奴隶的生杀予夺权,他们用剜目、割肉、割舌、断手、剁脚、抽筋、戴铐等野蛮刑罚,来维护对农奴和奴隶的统治。
Old Tibet implemented laws, as represented by the “16-Article Code” and “13-Article Code,” that oppressed serfs. These laws divided people into three classes and nine ranks, whereby nobles, Living Buddhas and senior officials were born into and thus constituted the upper class, while the broad masses of serfs constituted the lower class. Value accorded to life correspondingly differed. The value of the life of a person of the upper class was measured in gold according to his weight. The value of the lives of butchers, blacksmiths, and others of the lowest rank of the lower class was equivalent to hempen rope. When people of different classes and ranks violated the same criminal law, the criteria in old Tibet for imposing penalties and the means of punishment were quite different. The laws stipulated that the punishment for a servant who injured his master was to have his hands or feet chopped off, but a master who injured a servant was not required to pay compensation. Serf owners and serfs had overtly unequal standing according to law. Serf owners held absolute power over the lives of serfs and slaves, and ensured their rule over the latter through savage punishments, including gouging out eyes, cutting out flesh or tongues, cutting off hands or feet, pulling out tendons, and being put in manacles.

旧西藏的噶厦政府规定,农奴只能固定在所属领主的庄园土地上,不得擅自离开,绝对禁止逃亡。“人不无主、地不无差”,三大领主强制占有农奴人身,农奴世世代代依附领主,作为土地的附属物束缚在土地上。凡是人力和畜力能种地的,一律得种差地,并支乌拉差役。农奴一旦丧失劳动能力,就收回牲畜、农具、差地,降为奴隶。三大领主还把农奴当作私有财产随意支配,用于赌博、抵债、赠送、转让和买卖。农奴的婚姻必须取得领主的同意,不同领主的农奴婚嫁要缴纳“赎身费”。农奴生小孩要到领主那里缴纳出生税,登记入册,注定终身为奴。农奴如果被迫流落外地谋生,要向原属领主交“人役税”,持交税证明,才不至于被当作逃亡户处理。
The Kashag (cabinet) of old Tibet prescribed that all serfs must stay on the land within the manors of their owners. They were not allowed to leave without permission; fleeing the manor was forbidden. “All serfs have owners and all plots of land are assigned.” Serfs were possessed by the three major estate-holders (local government officials, nobles and upper-ranking lamas in monasteries). They remained serfs from generation to generation, and confined to the land of their owners. All serfs and their livestock able to labor had to till the plots of land assigned to them and provide corvee labor. Once serfs lost their ability to labor, they were deprived of livestock, farm tools and land, and their status was degraded to that of slave. Since serfs were their private property, the three major estate-holders could use them as gambling stakes, mortgages for debt, present them as gifts, or transfer and trade them. All serfs needed permission from their owners to marry, and male and female serfs belonging to different owners had to pay “redemption fees” before such permission was granted. After marriage, serfs were also taxed on their newborn children, which were registered the moment they were born, so sealing their fate as lifelong serfs. Serfs that needed to make a living in other places were required to pay “servitudetax,” and had to produce proof of having paid such tax or they would otherwise be punished as fugitives.

1940年前往主持十四世达赖喇嘛坐床的国民政府蒙藏委员会委员长吴忠信在《奉使办理藏事报告书》中,对旧西藏统治者对人民的压迫以及人民的悲惨痛苦处境有这样的描述:“西藏因地处高寒,农产稀少,人民生活本极困难,而西藏当局压迫剥削更无所不用其极,使藏民生活堕入人间地狱,其苦乃不可言。西藏当局视人民直如奴隶牛马,照例不付代价,即伙食马料亦须由人民自备,而差徭纷繁几无宁日,人民受扰之剧可以想见。政府复可一纸命令无代价的征收人民之财产,或将此种财产赏给寺庙或贵族中之有功者。总之,在西藏境内,人民已失去其生存与自由之保障,其生活之痛苦实非言语所可形容也。”
After presiding over the enthronement ceremony of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1940, Wu Zhongxin, chief of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs of the Kuomintang Government, described the rulers’ oppression and the people’s sufferings in old Tibet in his “Report on Tibetan Affairs on a Mission”: “Located in frigid highlands, Tibet has rare agricultural products. The people live a hard life, whereas the Tibetan authorities do their utmost to oppress and exploit them, making the lives of the Tibetans one of hell and misery. The Tibetan authorities regard the people as slaves and beasts of burden and do not pay them as a rule; the people even have to find their own food and horse fodder; meanwhile they endure incessant, copious and complicated corvee labor and never enjoy days of peace. You can thus imagine how harassed they are. The authorities can issue an order to appropriate the people’s property without compensation and bestow such property on lamaseries or meritorious nobles. In short, in Tibet, the people have lost their guarantee of survival and freedom, and their miserable life is beyond description.”

在封建农奴制度统治之下,农奴没有生产资料,生存权受到严重威胁。
Ruled by feudal serfdom under theocracy, serfs had no means of production, and their right to subsistence was under threat.

旧西藏,占人口只有5%的三大领主(官家、贵族、寺庙上层僧侣)及其代理人,几乎占有全部的耕地、牧场、森林、山川、河流、河滩以及大部分牲畜,而占人口多达95%的农奴,包括“差巴”(领种份地,向农奴主支差役的人)、“堆穷”(意为冒烟的小户)、“朗生”(一无所有,世代为奴),却不掌握生产资料,遭受残酷的经济剥削。
In old Tibet, the three major estate-holders and their agents accounted for only five percent of Tibet’s population, but they owned almost all of Tibet’s farmland, pastures, forests, mountains, rivers, and beaches, as well as most of the livestock. About 95 percent of old Tibet’s population was made up of serfs, including “tralpa” as they are known in the Tibetan language (people who tilled plots of land assigned to them and who were obligated to provide corvee labor for serf owners), “duiqoin” (small households with chimneys emitting smoke), and “nangzan” (hereditary household slaves who were deprived of any means of production and personal freedom). They had no means of production and suffered cruel economic exploitation.

农奴遭受的第一重剥削是地租。在庄园里,农奴主把土地分成两部分:大部分为农奴主的自营地,一小部分是以奴役性的条件分给农奴耕种的“份地”。农奴为了领得“份地”,必须自带工具和口粮,在农奴主的自营地上无偿服劳役。这些无偿的劳动,就是缴纳给农奴主的劳役地租。而农奴在“份地”里收获的大部分粮食最终又都被领主收走了。“差巴”一年所得不过二三百斤,连糊口都不够,主要靠吃野菜和野草,再掺上一点粮食过日子。除了通过劳役缴纳沉重的地租外,农奴还必须缴纳名目繁多的税费。
The first exploitation serfs suffered was land rent. Serf owners on feudal manors divided the land into two parts: The largest part was kept as manor demesne while smaller lots were rented to serfs under stringent conditions. To use the lots, serfs had to work on the demesne with their own farm implements and provide their own food. Such unpaid labor constituted the rent they paid to serf owners. Most of the grain that serfs harvested from the lots was finally taken away by estate-holders. A “tralpa” could only keep 100-150 kilograms of grain annually, which was not enough to live on; his diet mainly consisted of wild herbs and weeds mixed with a little grain. In addition to the heavy land rent paid in the form of labor, serfs had to pay numerous taxes and fees.

农奴遭受的第二重剥削是乌拉差。乌拉差是一种包括徭役、赋税、地(畜)租在内的含义十分广泛的差税总称。旧西藏仅地方政府征收的差税就达200多种。农奴为地方政府和庄园领主所支的差,一般要占农奴户劳动量的50%以上,有的高达70%-80%。乌拉差役又有内、外差之分。内差是农奴向直接依附的领主及其代理人支的差役。外差是农奴给西藏地方政府及其下属机构支的差役。其中农奴负担最重的是运输差。西藏地广人稀,交通不便,各种物资的运输全靠人背畜驮。农奴长年累月跋山涉水为地方政府运输物资,支差之苦正如谚语所言:“靴子无底,牛背无毛。”
The second exploitation serfs suffered was corvee labor – a broad term covering not only corvee, but taxes and levies, and rents for land and livestock. The former local government of Tibet alone levied more than 200 kinds of taxes. Serfs had to contribute more than 50 percent or sometimes even 70 to 80 percent of their labor, unpaid, to the government and estate-holders. Corvee labor was divided into two kinds: one was that which serfs provided to the estate-holders they were bonded to and their agents; the other was the unpaid work serfs did for the local government of Tibet and its subordinates. The heaviest was transport corvee, because Tibet is large but sparsely populated and transport was inconvenient, necessitating the transport of all kinds of goods by humans or pack animals. Year after year, serfs were made to transport materials over mountains and rivers for the local government. This gave rise to the saying, “The boots have no soles, and the backs of the cattle are hairless.”

农奴遭受的第三重剥削是高利贷。在旧西藏,三大领主都是大大小小的高利贷剥削者。西藏地方政府设有放债机构,放债、收息成为各级官员的行政职责。西藏很多寺庙也参与放债,高利贷盘剥的收入占三大寺总收入的25%-30%。贵族绝大多数也放高利贷,债息在其家庭收入中一般要占15%。农奴为了活命不得不频繁举债,欠债的农奴占农奴总数的90%以上。农奴所负的债务,形式上分为新债、子孙债、连保债、集体摊派债等等。其中1/3以上是子孙债,也称旧债,是祖祖辈辈欠下的。这种债由于利上加利,永远也还不完。
The third exploitation serfs suffered was usury. In old Tibet, the three major estate-holders were all exploiters of usury. The local government of Tibet had many money-lending agencies, and lending money and collecting interest were among officials’ duties. Many monasteries also participated in money-lending. Revenue from usury made up 25 to 30 percent of the total revenue of the three major monasteries, namely Drepung, Sera and Ganden. Most aristocrats were also engaged in usury, the interest of which accounted for 15 percent of their family revenues. Serfs had to borrow money to survive, and more than 90 percent of serf households were in debt. Serfs were burdened with new debts, debts passed down from previous generations, debts resulting from joint liability, and debts apportioned among all the serfs. One third of these were the debts passed down from previous generations which could never be repaid, even by succeeding generations, due to the imposition of compound interest.

政教合一的封建农奴制度严重阻碍着社会进步。直到1951年和平解放前,西藏没有现代工商业,现代科技、教育、文化、卫生事业几乎是空白,没有一条现代意义上的公路,西藏与外界几乎隔绝;农业生产长期处于原始耕作状态,劳动工具原始简单,牧业基本是自然游牧方式,农牧品种单一且退化,整个生产力水平和社会发展十分低下,社会发育程度极低。
Feudal serfdom under theocracy seriously obstructed social progress in Tibet. At the time of the peaceful liberation in 1951, there was almost no trace of modern industry, commerce, science and technology, education, culture, or health care. With no roads in the modern sense, Tibet was cut off from the outside world. Primitive farming had long been used in agricultural production, and farm tools were rudimentary. Herdsmen had to travel from place to place to find pasture for their livestock. There were few strains and breeds of grains and animals, and some had even degenerated. The level of both the productive forces and social development was thus extremely low.

法国旅行家亚历山大·大卫·妮尔在《古老的西藏面对新生的中国》一书中这样描写当时人民的情形:“这些可怜的人们只能永远待在他们贫瘠的土地上。他们完全失去了一切人的自由,一年更比一年穷。”广大人民没有基本的生存权,更没有发展权。他们被剥夺了受教育的权利,不能学习民族的语言文化,到20世纪50年代时,西藏仅有2000多贵族子弟在旧式官办学校和私塾学习,青壮年文盲率高达95%。广大人民没有经济发展权,三大领主只从农奴那里榨取暴利,却不更新生产工具,农奴没日没夜地劳作,也不能创造更多的社会产品,没有社会再生产的能力。
French traveler Alexandra David-Neel described people’s life in her book Le vieux Tibet Face a la Chine nouvelle (When Old Tibet Meets New China), “These poor people can only stay on their sterile land forever. They lose all human freedom, and become poorer and poorer each year.” The people had no basic right to subsistence, much less to development. They were deprived of the right to education, and could not be schooled in their native language and culture. By the 1950s, the 2,000 or more studying in old-style government-run schools and old-style private schools were exclusively aristocrats; the illiteracy rate of the young and the middle-aged was 95 percent. The people had no right to economic development. The three major estate-holders squeezed profits from serfs, but did not update their tools; serfs worked day and night, but could not make more social products because they had no capability for social reproduction.

旧西藏政教合一的封建农奴制度之野蛮、残酷、落后,犹如黑暗的欧洲中世纪。1904年到过拉萨的英国随军记者埃德蒙·坎德勒在《拉萨真面目》中有这样的描述:当时的西藏“人民还停留在中世纪的年代,不仅仅是在他们的政体、宗教方面,在他们的严厉惩罚、巫术、灵童转世以及要经受烈火与沸油的折磨方面是如此,而且在他们日常生活的所有方面也都不例外”。
The feudal serfdom under theocracy in old Tibet was savage, cruel and backward, like the dark society of medieval Europe. In his book The Unveiling of Lhasa, British military journalist Edmund Candler, who visited Lhasa in 1904, recorded details of the old Tibetan society: “…at present, the people are medieval, not only in their system of government and their religion, their inquisition, their witchcraft, their incarnations, their ordeals by fire and boiling oil, but in every aspect of their daily life.”

二、走上发展进步道路
II. Embarking on the Road to Development and Progress

西藏走上民族区域自治道路,经历了和平解放、民主改革和自治区成立三个重要历史发展阶段。这一历史发展过程,是人民翻身解放、实现当家作主的正确选择,符合西藏各族人民的根本利益。
After three important historical stages – from its peaceful liberation and democratic reform to the establishment of the autonomous region – Tibet has taken the road of regional ethnic autonomy. This historic process was a correct choice the people made to realize liberation and be their own masters, and it was in the fundamental interest of all ethnic groups of Tibet.

——驱逐帝国主义势力,实现和平解放
— Driving out imperialist forces, and realizing peaceful liberation

1840年鸦片战争后,帝国主义侵华日甚一日,中国逐步沦为半殖民地半封建社会。中国的西藏地区也遭到了帝国主义的侵略。1888年和1904年,面对英国的侵略,西藏军民进行了英勇的抵抗,但由于清朝政府的腐败、国力的衰落和封建农奴制度的没落,抵抗以失败告终。英国通过强迫当时的清朝政府甚至绕开清朝政府直接胁迫西藏地方政府与其签订不平等条约,在西藏攫取了严重损害中国主权的一系列特权。经济上开设商埠,强行通商,划定江孜、亚东为商埠,常驻英国商务代表,设立固定的官方机构。军事上驻扎军队,在江孜常驻一个连,在亚东常驻一个排。建立由英国人管理、经营并为掠夺服务的基础设施,包括邮电设施和驿站等,长期为英、印人员和少数西藏分裂分子提供服务。
After the Opium War of 1840, imperialist forces intensified aggression on China, gradually reducing the country to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society. China’s Tibet region also suffered imperialist aggression. In face of the British invasions of 1888 and 1904, Tibetan military and civilians put up a heroic resistance, but it failed due to the corrupt Qing government and declining national strength, and feudal serfdom. Britain coerced the Qing government, even bypassing it and directly forcing the local government of Tibet to sign unequal treaties, thus grabbing a series of privileges in Tibet that seriously damaged the sovereignty of China. Economically, it forcibly opened trading ports there, making Gyantse and Yadong two ports where permanent British trade representatives resided and official institutions were set up. Militarily, it stationed troops, one company in Gyantse and a platoon in Yadong. In addition, it built such infrastructure as posts, telecommunications, and courier stations managed and run by the British that served Britain’s pillaging, and provided long-term service for British and Indian officers and a few Tibetan separatists.

摆脱帝国主义侵略,是西藏各族人民和上层爱国人士的迫切愿望。1949年10月1日新中国成立,对西藏人民产生巨大鼓舞,他们热切盼望中央人民政府早日解放西藏,驱逐帝国主义势力。十世班禅于中华人民共和国成立当日,致电毛泽东主席和朱德总司令,表示热忱拥护中央人民政府,请求人民解放军早日解放西藏。1949年12月,遭受亲英势力迫害而逃往内地的原西藏摄政热振活佛的近侍堪布益西楚臣,到青海西宁向人民解放军控诉帝国主义破坏西藏内部团结的罪行,要求迅速解放西藏。著名藏传佛教大师喜饶嘉措在西安发表谈话,谴责帝国主义策划拉萨当局进行所谓“独立”的阴谋。
It was the urgent desire of all ethnic groups in Tibet and of upper-class patriots to free Tibet from imperialist aggression. The founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 was a great inspiration for the people of Tibet. They keenly expected the Central People’s Government of China to liberate Tibet and drive out imperialist powers at the earliest opportunity. On October 1, 1949, the very day the People’s Republic was founded, the 10th Panchen Erdeni telegraphed Chairman Mao Zedong and Commander-in-Chief Zhu De, expressing his support for the Central People’s Government and urging the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to liberate Tibet as soon as possible. In December 1949, Reting Yeshe Tsultrim, aide to the Fifth Regent Reting Rinpoche who suffered persecution from pro-British forces, arrived in Xining, Qinghai Province, to report to the PLA on imperialist attempts to destroy Tibet’s internal unity, urging the PLA to liberate Tibet without delay. Sherab Gyatso, a famous master of Tibetan Buddhism, delivered a talk in Xi’an, denouncing the imperialists for hatching a plot through which Lhasa authorities would seek “independence.”

在中央政府和西藏人民的共同努力下,1951年5月23日签订了《中央人民政府和西藏地方政府关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》(简称“十七条协议”)。“十七条协议”第一条便是:“西藏人民团结起来,驱逐帝国主义侵略势力出西藏,西藏人民回到中华人民共和国祖国大家庭中来。”在“十七条协议”中,西藏地方政府也承诺,“积极协助人民解放军进入西藏,巩固国防。”5月25日中央人民政府人民革命军事委员会主席毛泽东发布进军训令,全面拉开进军西藏序幕。西藏各族人民衷心拥护、热烈欢迎人民解放军进藏,支持帮助进藏部队。
Through the efforts of the Central People’s Government and of the people of Tibet, the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (the “17-Article Agreement”) was signed on May 23, 1951. The first article stipulated, “The people of Tibet should unite and drive out imperialist aggressive forces; they will return to the family of the People’s Republic of China.” In the agreement, the local government of Tibet promised to “actively assist the PLA in entering Tibet and consolidating national defense.” On May 25, Chairman Mao Zedong of the People’s Revolutionary Military Committee of the Central People’s Government issued an order, so marking the PLA’s entry into Tibet. All ethnic groups of Tibet expressed heartfelt support for and a warm welcome to the PLA, and helped the troops enter Tibet.

中国人民解放军进军西藏,驱逐帝国主义势力出西藏,废除帝国主义强加给西藏人民的不平等条约,是实现包括藏族人民在内的中华民族解放和独立的重大历史事件,自此彻底改变了西藏的历史命运,为实现西藏各族人民翻身当家作主提供了根本保障。
The PLA troops’ entry to Tibet to drive out imperialist forces and abolish unequal treaties that imperialist forces had imposed on the people of Tibet was a major historical event signifying that the Chinese nation, including the Tibetan group, had realized liberation and independence. It utterly changed the history and destiny of Tibet, and provided its various ethnic groups with a fundamental guarantee of being liberated and becoming masters.

——废除封建农奴制,实现人民翻身作主
— Abolishing feudal serfdom, and the people becoming masters

20世纪50年代中叶,西藏政教合一的封建农奴制度走到了尽头。1959年3月10日,西藏反动上层为永保政教合一的封建农奴制度不变,公然撕毁“十七条协议”,在拉萨地区发起全面武装叛乱。22日,中共中央发出《关于在西藏平息叛乱中实行民主改革的若干政策问题的指示(草案)》,要求在平息叛乱的战斗中,必须同时坚决地放手发动群众,实行民主改革。28日,周恩来总理发布国务院命令,决定解散西藏地方政府,由西藏自治区筹备委员会行使西藏地方政府职权,由十世班禅额尔德尼代理西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员职务。与此同时,中央人民政府提出“边平叛边改革”的方针,领导西藏人民掀起了波澜壮阔的民主改革运动。通过民主改革,彻底摧毁了政教合一的封建农奴制度,实现了人民翻身解放,为建立民族区域自治制度,创造了重要社会历史条件。
In the mid-1950s, feudal serfdom under theocracy came to an end. To preserve serfdom, the reactionary forces from the upper class of Tibet tore up the “17-Article Agreement” and staged an all-out armed rebellion in Lhasa on March 10, 1959. On March 22, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) issued the Instructions on Several Policy Issues about Carrying out Democratic Reform in Suppressing the Rebellion in Tibet (draft), demanding that troops mobilize the people to carry out democratic reform amid the battles to suppress the rebellion. On March 28, Premier Zhou Enlai promulgated a State Council decree, dissolving the local government of Tibet and ordering that local government power be taken over by the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region, with the 10th Panchen Erdeni acting as its chairman. In the meantime, the Central People’s Government implemented a policy of “suppressing the rebellion while conducting reform,” and led the Tibetan people in a surging tide of democratic reform. The reform wrecked the feudal serfdom under theocracy, liberating the people and making them their own masters, so creating important social and historical conditions for the establishment of regional ethnic autonomy.

废除封建农奴制度,建立起人民政权,为在西藏实行民族区域自治,提供了制度条件。到1960年底,全区成立乡级政权1009个,区级政权283个;78个县(包括县级区)和8个专区(市)也成立了人民政权。与此同时,有4400多名翻身农奴和奴隶出身的基层干部成长起来。乡级干部全是藏族,区级干部90%以上是藏族,并且有300多名藏族干部担任了县以上领导职务。
Abolishing the feudal serfdom and establishing the people’s regime created institutional conditions for regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. By the end of 1960, Tibet had established 1,009 organs of state power at the township level, 283 at the district level, 78 at the county level (including county-level districts), and eight at the prefecture (city) level. Meanwhile, more than 4,400 liberated serfs and slaves had become government officials at various levels. All township-level government officials were from the Tibetan group, 90 percent of district-level government officials were Tibetan, and more than 300 Tibetans held leading posts at or above the county level.

1961年4月,西藏各地乡一级基层普选开始,百万翻身农奴开始行使从来没有过的民主权利。1965年8月,西藏乡县选举工作完成,有1359个乡、镇进行了基层选举,有567个乡、镇召开了人民代表会议代行人民代表大会职权,西藏大约92%的地方建立了以翻身农奴和奴隶为主的乡人民政权,54个县召开了第一届人民代表会议,选出了正副县长,建立了县人民委员会,并选出了人民代表大会代表。
In April 1961, general elections at the township level were held all over Tibet. Hundreds of thousands of liberated serfs and slaves exercised the democratic rights that they had never enjoyed. In August 1965, elections at the township and county levels were completed in Tibet. Altogether 1,359 townships and towns conducted elections at the basic level, and 567 townships and towns held their people’s congresses to exercise their functions and power. The people’s democratic organs of state power at the township level were established in 92 percent of the Region, the majority of participants being liberated serfs and slaves. In addition, 54 counties held their first session of people’s congresses to elect the county magistrates and deputy magistrates, established people’s committees and elected deputies to the people’s congresses.

废除农奴主的经济特权,人民成为生产资料的主人,极大地解放了生产力,保障了西藏人民的生存权利,为实行民族区域自治,奠定了物质基础。封建农奴制度不仅侵犯人权,摧残人性,而且严重阻碍社会生产力发展,人民连基本的温饱都没有保障。民主改革中,约2万朗生安了家,得到安家粮504万斤。民主改革解放和发展了西藏的社会生产力,西藏劳动人民再不受农奴主的沉重差税和高利贷剥削,劳动果实全部留归自己,生产积极性空前高涨。
Abolishing economic privileges of serf owners enabled the people to become owners of the means of production, greatly liberated the productive forces, and protected Tibetan people’s right to subsistence, laying the physical foundation for the practice of regional ethnic autonomy. The feudal serfdom not only infringed upon human rights and destroyed human qualities, but also effectively put a brake on development of social productivity and left people’s basic need for clothing and food unguaranteed. During the democratic reform, about 20,000 “nangzan” settled, and were allotted 2,520,000 kilograms of grain. The democratic reform liberated and developed Tibet’s social productivity; as a result, the working people of Tibet were freed from heavy corvee, taxes, and usurious exploitation, and were able to keep all the fruits of their hard work. Their enthusiasm for production ran unprecedentedly high.

废除农奴主的宗教特权,打碎了精神枷锁,为实行民族区域自治,提供了思想文化条件。在“政教合一”的制度下,宗教直接掌握在农奴主手中,被异化为实施统治压迫人民的工具。三大领主为了使封建特权神圣化,从精神上奴役人民,凡是与其意志相违背的任何新思想、新文化和科技知识,都被视为异端邪说,禁锢人们的思想,阻碍教育的普及和科学文化的发展。民主改革后,西藏废除一切封建特权,实行宗教信仰自由政策,实行政教分离,宗教不得干预政治、经济、文化和社会生活,人民群众从政教合一的精神枷锁中解放出来。
Abolishing religious privileges of serf owners shattered the people’s spiritual shackles, providing ideological and cultural conditions for the implementation of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. Under theocracy, religion was directly controlled by serf owners and used as a tool for ruling and oppressing the people. To sanctify feudal privileges and enslave the people spiritually, the three major estate-holders regarded any new idea, new culture or scientific knowledge that was contrary to their will as heresy, imprisoning people’s thinking and hindering the spread of education and scientific and cultural development. Through the democratic reform, Tibet abolished all feudal privileges, implemented the policy of freedom of religious belief, and separated religion from government, so preventing religion from interfering in its politics, economy, culture and social life. The people were thus freed from the spiritual shackles of theocracy.

——成立自治区,走上社会主义道路
— Establishing Tibet Autonomous Region, and taking the socialist road

实行民族区域自治制度,是西藏广大人民的共同愿望。“十七条协议”中规定:“根据中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领的民族政策,在中央人民政府统一领导之下,西藏人民有实行民族区域自治的权利。”1954年第一届全国人民代表大会闭幕后,中央政府领导人毛泽东接见十四世达赖和十世班禅,并告诉他们,“今后西藏不成立军政委员会,而直接成立西藏自治区筹备委员会,为实行民族区域自治做准备。”两人均表示同意。之后,根据宪法中关于实行民族区域自治制度的规定,中央着手西藏自治区成立事宜。1954年11月,中央提出了成立西藏自治区筹备委员会的意见。1955年3月,国务院第七次全体会议专题研究了成立西藏自治区筹备委员会和西藏建设的有关问题。此后,中央对西藏自治区筹备委员会的成立进行了具体指导。1956年4月22日,西藏自治区筹备委员会成立大会在新落成的拉萨大礼堂隆重举行,包括西藏各地区、各民族、各阶层、各教派和各群众团体在内的300多名代表参加或列席了大会,这是西藏历史上第一次有如此广泛代表性的人士欢聚一堂,民主协商、共议大事。十四世达赖为西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员,十世班禅为西藏自治区筹备委员会第一副主任委员。西藏自治区筹备委员会是一个具有政权性质的协商办事机构,是西藏实行民族区域自治的重要步骤。西藏自治区筹备委员会的成立,使自治区成立工作得到积极推进,但1959年武装叛乱的发生,严重影响了自治区成立工作的进行。平息叛乱后,自治区成立工作得到顺利进行。
It was a common wish of the people of Tibet to exercise regional ethnic autonomy. The “17-Article Agreement” stipulated, “According to the ethnic policy in the Common Program of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), under the unified leadership of the Central People’s Government, the Tibetan people shall have the right to exercise regional ethnic autonomy.” In 1954, after the First National People’s Congress closed, Mao Zedong, top leader of the Central People’s Government, met with the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni. Mao told them, “Tibet will not have a military and political committee; instead, the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region will be established to prepare for the exercise of regional ethnic autonomy.” The two agreed. Later, according to stipulations in the Constitution about the practice of regional ethnic autonomy, the central government started work on the establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region. In November 1954, the central government proposed to establish the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region. At its Seventh Plenary Meeting held in March 1955, the State Council specifically studied and discussed the matter and issues relating to Tibet’s construction. Following the meeting, the central government gave specific instructions on the matter. On April 22, 1956, the founding conference of the Preparatory Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region was held in the newly built Great Hall of Lhasa. Over 300 delegates and non-voting delegates from all ethnic groups, social strata, religions, and social groups throughout Tibet attended the conference. This was the first time in the history of Tibet that people of broad representation gathered for democratic consultation and discussion. The 14th Dalai Lama became chairman of the Preparatory Committee, while the 10th Panchen Erdeni became first deputy chairman. The Preparatory Committee was a consultative administrative body as an organ of political power, an important stepping stone for the exercise of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. Its establishment pushed forward the establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region. However, the armed rebellion in 1959 seriously affected the work of its establishment. After the rebellion was quelled, the establishment was carried out smoothly.

1965年9月1日,西藏自治区第一届人民代表大会第一次会议在拉萨开幕。西藏自治区第一届人民代表大会选举产生了西藏自治区机关及其领导人,阿沛·阿旺晋美当选为自治区人民委员会主席,一大批翻身农奴担任了自治区各级政权机关的领导职务。西藏自治区的成立,标志着西藏建立了人民民主政权,开始全面实行民族区域自治制度。自此,西藏人民享有了自主管理本地区事务的权利,走上了发展进步的社会主义道路。
On September 1, 1965, the First Session of the First People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region was inaugurated in Lhasa, and the organs and leaders of the Region were elected, with Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme as the chairman of the People’s Committee. A large number of liberated serfs held leading posts in organs of political power at different levels of the Region. The establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region signified that Tibet had set up the people’s democratic government and begun to exercise thoroughgoing regional ethnic autonomy. Since then, the people of Tibet have enjoyed the right to handle local affairs themselves, and embarked on the socialist road to development and progress.

三、符合国情的政治制度
III. The Political System Suited to China’s Actual Conditions

在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,符合中国统一的多民族国家基本国情。
Implementing the system of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet conforms to China’s reality as a unified multiethnic country.

中国是一个统一的多民族国家,除汉族外,还有蒙古、回、藏、维吾尔、壮、朝鲜、满等55个少数民族。中华民族是一个多元一体的大家庭,各民族都对祖国的发展和中华文化的创造作出了贡献。中国各民族的起源和发展有着本土性、多元性、多样性的特点。中国各民族形成和发展的情况虽然各不相同,但总的方向是发展成为统一的多民族国家,汇聚成为统一稳固的中华民族。早在先秦时期,中国先民的“天下”观念和“大一统”理念便已形成。公元前221年,秦朝实现了中国历史上第一次大一统,在全国设郡县加以统治。汉朝(公元前206年—公元220年)及汉以后的历代中央政权发展和巩固了统一的多民族国家的格局。中国历史上虽然出现过短暂的割据局面和局部分裂,但国家统一始终是主流和方向。
China is a unified multiethnic country inhabited by 55 minority ethnic groups, including the Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uygur, Zhuang, Korean, and Manchu, in addition to the Han ethnic group. The Chinese nation is a big, pluralistic and integrated family whose constituent ethnic groups have all contributed to national development and cultural innovation. The origins and development of China’s ethnic groups are indigenous, pluralistic and diverse. All have formed and evolved in different ways, yet in the general trend, have developed into a unified multiethnic country and converged into the unified and stable Chinese nation. As early as the pre-Qin period, Chinese ancestors developed the concepts of “world” and “grand unification.” In 221 BC, the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) realized the first unification in history of China, and established prefectures and counties to rule the country. The central government of the Han Dynasty (206 BC- AD 220) and subsequent dynasties developed and consolidated China’s unified multiethnic pattern. Despite the brief separatist regimes and regional splits that have occurred in Chinese history, unification has always been the mainstream and direction of national development.

西藏自古就是中国的一部分,藏族是中华民族命运共同体的一员。藏族和其他民族的祖先,从远古就生活在西藏高原上,并与中国内地建立了广泛的联系,为中华民族命运共同体的形成与发展作出了重要贡献。自13世纪元朝将西藏纳入中央政府行政管辖起,直至1949年中华人民共和国成立前,中国历代中央政权在将西藏纳入统一国家的前提下,还采取了“因俗而治”“因事而治”等特殊的政策,在行政建制和治理方式上,采取与全国其他地方有所差异的措施。
Ever since ancient times, Tibet has been an integral part of China, and the Tibetan ethnic group has been a communal member of the Chinese nation sharing a common destiny. The ancestors of the Tibetan and other ethnic groups who lived on the Tibetan Plateau in ancient times established extensive contacts with China’s inland, and made significant contributions to the formation and development of the country. From the 13th century, when the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) included Tibet under its central administrative jurisdiction, to the time before 1949 when the People’s Republic of China was founded, the central governments of all dynasties in China ruled Tibet as part of the country. On this footing, they adopted special policies for Tibet, taking into account the “special local customs and conditions,” and adopted an administrative structure and governance approaches that were distinct from those in other parts of China.

元朝(1271-1368年)时期,中央设置总制院(后改为宣政院),在西藏地区设立宣慰使司都元帅府,中央直接管理西藏军政事务。元朝派军驻扎西藏,在宣慰使司下设13个万户府、千户所等机构。元朝在西藏还设立大小驿站,通往大都;派官员入藏进行三次户口清查。元世祖忽必烈任命萨迦派八思巴为帝师。后来噶举派取代萨迦派的地位,元顺帝时封其首领强曲坚赞为“大司徒”。
In the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the central government established the Supreme Control Commission of Buddhism (later renamed the Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs), and set up in Tibet the Chief Military Command under the Pacification Commissioner’s Office to directly manage the region’s political and military affairs. The Yuan court stationed troops in Tibet, and set up 13 organs, including the 10,000-man Brigades and 1,000-man Battalions under the Pacification Commissioner’s Office. The Yuan court set up courier stations on the road leading from Tibet to the capital city of Dadu, and sent officials to Tibet three times to conduct census. Emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan, appointed Phagpa from the Sakya School of Tibetan Buddhism as Imperial Preceptor. Later, when the Kagyu School replaced the Sakya School, Emperor Shundi appointed the Kagyu leader Changchub Gyaltsen “Ta Situ.”

明朝(1368-1644年)时期,基本沿袭了元朝对西藏地方的管理制度。在政治上,实施多封众建,给西藏各地宗教领袖封以“法王”“灌顶国师”等名号;在经济上,发展茶马互市,促进西藏与其他地区的贸易和往来;在机构设置上,在今西藏中部和东部设立“乌斯藏行都指挥使司”“朵甘行都指挥使司”,隶属于陕西行都指挥使司,在西部设立“俄力思军民元帅府”。
The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) generally followed the Yuan administrative system for Tibet. Politically, the Ming court implemented a policy of multiple enfeoffment, conferring the titles “Prince of Dharma” and “Imperial Empowerments Master” upon religious leaders in Tibet; economically, it promoted the tea-horse trade to increase Tibet’s trade and exchanges with other regions; in terms of organizational structure, it established the u-Tsang Regional Military Commission in today’s central Tibet and the Do-kham Regional Military Commission in eastern Tibet, both subordinated to Shaanxi Regional Military Commission, and the Ngari Commanding Tribal Office in western Tibet.

清朝(1644-1911年)时期,由理藩院(清末改为理藩部)主管西藏事务。1653年和1713年清朝皇帝册封兴起于明末的格鲁派达赖世系和班禅世系,后来又建立金瓶掣签制度,完善了活佛转世制度。1727年,清朝中央在西藏建立驻藏大臣制度。1751年,乾隆皇帝授命七世达赖执政,建立噶厦,设噶伦四人。1793年,颁布《钦定藏内善后章程二十九条》,加强了对西藏的管理。
In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the Court of Tribal Affairs (later the Ministry of Tribal Affairs) took charge of Tibetan affairs. In 1653 and 1713, the Qing emperors conferred the Dalai Lamas and Panchen Erdenis of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism that appeared in the late Ming Dynasty, and established the system of lot-drawing from the golden urn to confirm the reincarnated soul boy of a deceased Living Buddha. In 1727, the Qing government started to station grand ministers resident in Tibet. In 1751, Emperor Qianlong appointed the Seventh Dalai Lama to administer the local government of Tibet, established the Kashag (cabinet) composed of four Kalons (ministers). In 1793, Ordinance by the Imperial House Concerning Better Governance of Tibet (the “29 Articles”) was promulgated to enhance the Qing court’s administration of Tibet.

中华民国(1912—1949年)时期,中央政府继续对西藏实施主权管辖。1912年,中央政府设立蒙藏事务局,1914年改为蒙藏院,取代了清朝末年的理藩部职能,派驻藏办事长官履行驻藏大臣职权。1929年,国民政府设立蒙藏委员会,行使对西藏的行政管辖。1940年,国民政府在拉萨设立蒙藏委员会驻藏办事处。《中华民国国会组织法》规定了西藏地方民众参加选举的办法和被选举的议员直接参政的权利。十四世达赖和十世班禅的认定、坐床,均经当时的中华民国政府批准。
The central government continued to exercise sovereignty over Tibet during the Republic of China period (1912-1949). In 1912, the central government established the Bureau of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs (renamed the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Yuan in 1914) to replace the late Qing’s Ministry of Tribal Affairs, and dispatched the commissioner resident in Tibet to exercise the functions and power of the grand minister resident in Tibet. In 1929, the nationalist government established the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission to exercise administrative jurisdiction of Tibet. In 1940, the nationalist government set up the Tibet Office of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission in Lhasa. The Organic Law of the Congress of the Republic of China stipulated the methods whereby the people of Tibet would participate in elections, and the rights of elected congressmen from Tibet to directly participate in deliberation and administration of state affairs. The identification and enthronement of both the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni were approved by the government of the Republic of China.

中国共产党从1921年诞生起就主张中国各民族平等团结,积极探索实现民族平等、解决民族问题的道路。1949年中华人民共和国建立后,中国政府把坚持各民族一律平等、团结、互助、友爱和共同发展、共同繁荣作为解决民族问题、处理民族关系的基本原则。考虑中国的历史国情和近现代社会发展的实际条件,新中国在选择国家结构形式时,没有选择复合制的形式,而是选择了单一制的形式,确定在国家的统一领导下,在少数民族地区实行民族区域自治制度,保证少数民族在国家生活中享有当家作主的权利。
Since its birth in 1921, the CPC has supported ethnic equality and unity in China, vigorously exploring the path through which to achieve ethnic equality and resolve ethnic issues. Since the founding of the PRC in 1949, the Chinese government has promoted equality, unity, mutual support, fraternity, and common development and prosperity among all ethnic groups as fundamental principles under which to address ethnic issues and relations. Taking into consideration China’s history and social conditions in modern times, the PRC did not choose the composite system (also known as the federal system) for its state structure, but the unitary system instead; it decided to exercise regional ethnic autonomy in areas inhabited by minority ethnic groups under unified state leadership, thus to ensure that ethnic minorities enjoy the rights of being masters of the country.

民族区域自治,是中国这样一个统一的多民族国家解决民族问题、处理民族关系的正确选择。中国的民族区域自治,是在国家统一领导下的自治,各民族自治地方都是国家不可分离的部分,各民族自治地方的自治机关都必须服从中央的领导。
Regional ethnic autonomy is the correct choice for China, a unified multiethnic country, to address ethnic issues and relations. China’s regional ethnic autonomy is a form of autonomy under unified state leadership. All ethnic autonomous areas are inseparable from the country, and the organs of self-government of all ethnic autonomous areas shall be subject to the central government’s leadership.

同时,中国的民族区域自治制度又是中国社会主义制度的一个重要组成部分。在社会主义制度下,一切权力属于人民,国家保障广大人民的民主权利。各自治地方在国家生活中享有经济、政治、文化、社会、生态等自治权利,在自治地方有管理本地区事务的权利,这是社会主义民主在民族地区的具体体现。
The regional ethnic autonomy system is also a significant component of China’s socialist system. Under the socialist system, all power belongs to the people, and the state safeguards the democratic rights of the people. All autonomous areas exercise the power of autonomy in their economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological development, and in managing their regional affairs. This exemplifies the exercise of socialist democracy in regions inhabited by ethnic minorities.

在经历了1951年和平解放和1959年民主改革后,西藏于1965年成立自治区,正式建立起民族区域自治制度。在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,实现了统一和自治相结合、民族因素和区域因素相结合。这一制度既继承历史传统,又具有社会主义民主意义;既符合国家和西藏地方的历史传统,又符合各族人民的共同意志和根本利益。
Through the peaceful liberation in 1951 and the democratic reform in 1959, Tibet Autonomous Region was founded in 1965, so officially establishing the system of regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet. The exercise of this system in Tibet has combined unification and autonomy, taking into account both ethnic and regional factors. This system inherits historical traditions and signifies socialist democracy; it conforms to the historical traditions of Tibet and the whole country, as well as to the common will and fundamental interests of the people of all ethnic groups.

目前,西藏自治区的人民代表大会和人民政府,既是自治机关,也是国家的一级地方政权机构,根据本地方的实际贯彻执行国家的法律政策。经过几十年的探索实践,在民族区域自治道路上,西藏自治区各民族人民实现了平等、团结、互助、和谐,这一制度得到了全国各族人民的衷心拥护。
Currently, the People’s Congress and the People’s Government of Tibet Autonomous Region are organs of self-government as well as local organs of state power through which to implement state laws and policies based on local reality. Through several decades of exploring the path of regional ethnic autonomy, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet Autonomous Region have achieved equality, unity, mutual support and harmony, and the system of regional ethnic autonomy has won the wholehearted support of all ethnic groups in China.

四、保障人民当家作主
IV. The People as Masters of the Country

人民当家作主,是中国民族区域自治制度的核心和根本。实行民族区域自治制度,为西藏各族人民实现当家作主,真正成为国家和社会的主人,提供了制度性保障。
That the people are masters of the country is the core and foundation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy. The implementation of this system provides an institutional guarantee for the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet to be masters of the country and of society in the real sense.

——西藏各族人民享有充分的选举权与被选举权
— The people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have the full right to vote and stand for election.

中国宪法规定,凡年满十八周岁的中华人民共和国公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。同时,中国民族区域自治法对各民族代表人数、自治区人大常委会主任、人民政府主席等都做了规定。在西藏,各民族人民依法直接选举县(区)、乡镇人民代表大会的代表,这些代表又选举出席全国和自治区人民代表大会的代表。西藏人口较少的门巴族、珞巴族在全国人大及西藏各级人大中也均有自己的代表。 As stipulated in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, “All citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, other than persons deprived of political rights according to law.” The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy has provisions regarding the numbers of deputies from all ethnic groups to the people’s congress of an autonomous region, the chairperson of the standing committee of the people’s congress of an autonomous region, and chairperson of the people’s government of an autonomous region. In Tibet, the people of all ethnic groups directly elect deputies to the people’s congresses at the county (district), township and town levels in accordance with the law; these deputies elect the deputies to the National People’s Congress (NPC) and the people’s congress of the autonomous region. The Monba and the Lhoba ethnic groups who have a small share in Tibet’s population also have deputies to the NPC and the people’s congresses at all levels in Tibet.

2012年至2013年1月,在四级人大换届选举中,西藏全区有94%以上的选民分别参加了县、乡直接选举。西藏现有各级人大代表34264名。其中,全国人大代表中藏族和其他少数民族代表占66.7%,自治区人大代表中藏族和其他少数民族代表占70.2%。自治区十届人大常委会组成人员45名,其中藏族和其他少数民族24名,常委会主任、副主任14名,其中藏族和其他少数民族8名。西藏自治区成立至今,历任自治区人大常委会主任和自治区人民政府主席均为藏族公民。
From 2012 to January 2013, 94 percent of the constituency of Tibet Autonomous Region participated in direct elections at the county and township levels, among the four levels of the people’s congresses. Currently, Tibet has 34,264 deputies to the people’s congresses at all levels. Among them, deputies from the Tibetan and other minority ethnic groups account for 66.7 percent and 70.2 percent respectively of all deputies from Tibet to the NPC and to the People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region. In the 10th Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region, 24 of the 45 members and eight of the 14 chairperson/vice-chairpersons are from the Tibetan and other minority ethnic groups. Since the founding of Tibet Autonomous Region, all the chairpersons of the standing committee of its people’s congress and all the chairpersons of its people’s government have been Tibetan citizens.

西藏各族人民充分享有自主管理本民族本地区事务的权利。按照中国宪法规定,西藏自治区的自治机关依法行使省级地方国家机关的职权,同时依法行使自治权。西藏自治区人民代表大会享有制定自治条例和单行条例的权力。自治区成立以来,自治区人民代表大会作为自治区最高权力机构,代表西藏人民依法行使了自主管理本民族本地区事务的权利,听取审议自治区人民政府的工作报告,自治区人大常委会、高级人民法院、人民检察院的工作报告,对上述国家机关的工作进行监督;制定重要地方性法规,对自治区经济、社会发展中的重大事项作出决议决定;审查、批准自治区国民经济和社会发展计划、财政预决算;选举产生自治区人大常委会组成人员,自治区主席、副主席,自治区高级人民法院院长、人民检察院检察长等。
The people of all ethnic groups in Tibet fully enjoy the right to manage their ethnic and regional affairs. According to the Chinese Constitution, the organs of self-government of Tibet Autonomous Region exercise the power and functions of provincial-level state organs as well as the power of autonomy in accordance with the law. The People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region has the power to enact regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other separate regulations. Since Tibet Autonomous Region was established, its people’s congress, as the supreme authority in the region and on behalf of the people of Tibet, has exercised the power of autonomy in managing its ethnic and regional affairs: listen to and review the work reports of the people’s government, the standing committee of the people’s congress, the higher people’s court, and the people’s procuratorate of the autonomous region, and supervise the work of these local state organs; enact major local regulations, and make major resolutions and decisions on local social and economic development; review and approve economic and social development plans, financial budgets and final accounts; and elect the members of the standing committee of the people’s congress, chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of the autonomous region, the president of the higher people’s court, and the procurator-general of the people’s procuratorate.

截至2015年7月,西藏自治区人大及其常委会制定、批准地方性法规和作出具有法规性质的决议、决定共300件,其中现行有效的地方性法规123件,具有法规性质的决议、决定148件,废止29件,内容涉及政权建设、经济发展、社会稳定、文化教育、语言文字、文物保护、生态环保等各个方面。政协西藏自治区委员会,每年对自治区人民政府的《政府工作报告》《国民经济和社会发展计划报告》《财政预算报告》和自治区“两院”的工作报告进行协商讨论,先后组织委员参与西藏地方性法规(草案)的协商讨论,以全委会、常委会、主席会议、民主协商会议、专题座谈会议、委员视察、调研、提案及举办“经济发展论坛”等形式,为西藏自治区“八五”“九五”“十五”“十一五”“十二五”计划、规划的制定和实施提出意见和建议,代表西藏各界积极履行参政议政的职能。
By July 2015, the People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region and its Standing Committee had enacted and ratified 123 local regulations that are currently effective, made 148 resolutions and decisions that have the same legal standing as regulations, and 29 regulations, resolutions and decisions it ratified have been repealed. They total 300 in all, covering the building of political power, economic development, social stability, culture, education, language, protection of cultural relics, and environmental protection. Every year the Committee of Tibet Autonomous Region of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference discusses the work report, the economic and social development plan, and the financial budget report of the People’s Government of Tibet Autonomous Region, and the work report of the Higher People’s Court and the People’s Procuratorate of Tibet Autonomous Region; organizes its members to participate in the consultation and discussion of Tibet’s local regulations (draft); voices opinions and offers suggestions on the formulation and implementation of the Eighth, Ninth, 10th, 11th, and 12th Five-year Plans of Tibet Autonomous Region at plenary meetings, standing committee meetings, chairman’s meetings, consultative conferences, special symposiums, or through member inspections and investigations, making proposals and convening “economic development forums.” In this way, it exercises the functions of participating in the deliberation and administration of state affairs on behalf of all circles in Tibet.

中国民族区域自治法规定,上级国家机关的决议、决定、命令和指示,如有不适合民族自治地方实际情况的,自治机关可以报经该上级国家机关批准,变通执行或停止执行。如在执行全国性法定节假日的基础上,西藏自治机关还将“藏历新年”“雪顿节”等藏民族的传统节日列入自治区的节假日。根据西藏特殊的自然地理因素,西藏自治区将职工的周工作时间规定为35小时,比全国法定工作时间少5小时。1981年,西藏自治区人民代表大会常务委员会从西藏少数民族历史婚俗等实际情况出发,通过了《西藏自治区施行〈中华人民共和国婚姻法〉的变通条例》,将《婚姻法》规定的男女法定婚龄分别降低两岁,并规定对执行变通条例之前已经形成的一妻多夫和一夫多妻婚姻关系,凡不主动提出解除婚姻关系者,准予维持。结合西藏实际情况,自治区还先后制定实施了多项国家有关法律的变通条例和补充规定。其中包括《西藏自治区文物保护条例》《西藏自治区环境保护条例》《西藏自治区人民代表大会常务委员会关于严厉打击“赔命金”违法犯罪行为的决定》等多部地方法规。
According to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, “If a resolution, decision, order or instruction of a state organ at a higher level does not suit the conditions in an ethnic autonomous area, the organ of self-government of the area may either implement it with certain alterations or cease implementing it after reporting to and receiving the approval of the state organ at a higher level.” In addition to national holidays, for example, Tibet has also established other public holidays, mostly traditional Tibetan festivals such as the Tibetan New Year and Shoton Festival. Taking into consideration its special natural and geographical conditions, Tibet Autonomous Region applies 35 weekly working hours, five hours less than the national legal level. In 1981, after taking into consideration Tibet’s history and folk customs, the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region promulgated the Alternative Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Implementation of the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, in which the legal age of marriage for both men and women was reduced by two years relative to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, and polyandrous and polygynous relationships that had existed before the regulations took effect would be allowed to continue if no one involved proposed dissolution. In light of the actual conditions in Tibet, the autonomous region enacted and implemented multiple alternative regulations and supplementary provisions on state laws, including the Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Protection of Cultural Relics, the Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on Environmental Protection, and the Decision of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Tibet Autonomous Region on Cracking Down on the Crime of Life Compensation.

——少数民族干部队伍不断成长壮大
— Minority ethnic group officials are improving their capability.

中国宪法规定,民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中应当有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任;自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。为了保障西藏各民族特别是少数民族依照宪法规定,充分行使当家作主的权利,自治区历来非常重视少数民族干部的培养和使用。1965年自治区成立初期,全区只有7600多名少数民族干部;到1976年少数民族干部已发展到1.68万人;到1986年底,全区有3.1万名少数民族干部;到1994年底,有4.4万名少数民族干部;到2014年底,全区少数民族干部已有11万多人,与自治区成立之初相比增长13倍多,占全区干部总量的70%以上。
As stipulated in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China,”Among the chairperson and vice-chairpersons of the standing committee of the people’s congress of an ethnic autonomous area, there must be citizens of the ethnic group(s) exercising regional autonomy in the areas concerned; the heads of all autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties should be citizens of the ethnic group(s) exercising regional autonomy in the areas concerned.” To ensure all ethnic groups, especially ethnic minorities in Tibet, fully exercise their rights as masters of the country, Tibet Autonomous Region always advocates the appointment and training of local officials from minority ethnic groups. In the early days after establishment of Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965, it had only 7,600 or more officials from minority ethnic groups; by 1976 the figure was 16,800; by the end of 1986 it was 31,000; by the end of 1994 it was 44,000; and by the end of 2014 it was more than 110,000, 13 times more than that of 1965, and accounting for 70 percent of the total number of officials in the autonomous region.

目前,西藏自治区省级领导干部中有33名少数民族干部,地厅级干部中有450多名少数民族干部,地(市)、县(区)党政正职大部分由少数民族干部担任,乡镇(街道)党政班子中少数民族干部占70%以上,全区各级党政机关中都依法配备了少数民族领导干部。在自治区十届人大代表、政协委员中,少数民族代表、委员均占到70%以上。此外,还有一批优秀少数民族干部直接参与管理国家事务,在西藏十二届全国人大代表、全国政协委员中,藏族和其他少数民族均占80%以上。十世班禅、阿沛·阿旺晋美、帕巴拉·格列朗杰、热地、向巴平措等先后担任国家级领导职务。
Currently, Tibet Autonomous Region has 33 provincial-level officials from minority ethnic groups, and more than 450 departmental/bureau-level officials from minority ethnic groups; chief Party and government officials at the prefectural/municipal and county/district levels are mostly ethnic minorities; 70 percent or more of the officials in the Party and government leading groups at the township and town/sub-district levels are ethnic minorities; and the Party and government organs at all levels in the Region have ethnic minority leading officials in accordance with the law. Among both the deputies to the 10th People’s Congress and members of the 10th People’s Political Consultative Conference of Tibet Autonomous Region, ethnic minorities account for more than 70 percent. Moreover, a number of outstanding ethnic minority officials in Tibet directly participate in the administration of state affairs. Among the 12th NPC deputies and the 12th CPPCC National Committee members from Tibet, Tibetans and other ethnic minorities account for more than 80 percent. The 10th Panchen Erdeni, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai, Raidi and Qiangba Puncog have all been high-ranking leaders at the state level.

——平等团结互助和谐的民族关系不断巩固和发展
— Ethnic relationships featuring equality, unity, mutual support and harmony have been enhanced and developed.

没有各民族间的平等团结,就没有各民族人民的当家作主。实现民族平等团结,是中国共产党民族理论和民族政策的基本出发点和落脚点。西藏自治区成立50年来,中央政府和自治区坚持实行民族平等团结互助和谐的政策,通过保障各族人民当家作主的权利、加强少数民族干部的培养使用、各民族自发的交往交流交融和全国支援西藏经济社会发展等,形成了各民族在社会主义大家庭中和衷共济、和睦相处、和谐发展的良好局面。
Without equality and unity among all ethnic groups, the people cannot be masters of the country. Achieving ethnic equality and unity is the starting point and ultimate goal of the CPC’s ethnic philosophy and policy. Over the past 50 years since Tibet Autonomous Region was established, the central government and Tibet Autonomous Region have adhered to the policy of ethnic equality, unity, mutual support, and harmony. Through protecting the rights of all ethnic groups as masters of the country, improving the appointment and training of ethnic minority officials, promoting voluntary communication, exchanges and interaction among all ethnic groups, and enhancing support from other parts of the country for Tibet’s social and economic development, China has created a favorable situation wherein all ethnic groups work together in harmony towards common development.

中央政府历来高度重视西藏的发展,十分关心西藏各族人民的福祉,举全国之力支援西藏,以优惠的政策和强大的人力、物力、财力支持,推动西藏的发展进步。从1952年到2014年,中央政府对西藏的各项财政补助达6480.8亿元,占西藏地方公共财政支出的92.8%。1980年以来,中央先后六次召开西藏工作座谈会,从中国社会主义现代化建设全局出发,对西藏的发展建设作出整体规划。从1994年第三次西藏工作座谈会开始,中央实施对口支援西藏的政策,安排60个中央国家机关、18个省市和17家中央企业对口支援西藏。20年来,先后有七批4496名优秀干部、1466名专业技术人才进藏工作,实施援藏项目7615个,投入援藏资金260亿元,主要用于改善民生和基础设施建设,为西藏经济社会发展作出了重要贡献。
The central government always attaches great importance to the development of Tibet, cares for the wellbeing of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet, mobilizes resources from the whole country to assist Tibet, and promotes progress in Tibet through providing preferential policies and full support in personnel, materials, and funds. From 1952 to 2014, the central government provided Tibet with financial subsidies totaling 648.08 billion yuan, which accounted for 92.8 percent of Tibet’s public financial expenditure. Since 1980, there have been six national symposiums on work in Tibet, formulating integrated blueprints for Tibet’s development from the perspective of the country’s overall drive towards modernization. Since the Third National Symposium on Work in Tibet in 1994, the central government has put into effect the policy of pairing-up support for Tibet, whereby 60 central state organs, 18 provinces or municipalities directly under the central government, and 17 centrally managed state-owned enterprises have paired up with various areas of Tibet in order to provide assistance to them. Over the last two decades, 4,496 outstanding officials and 1,466 professionals have been sent to work in Tibet in seven batches; 7,615 assistance projects have been carried out; and 26 billion yuan has been invested in Tibet, mainly directed at improving infrastructure and the quality of life. All of this assistance has made an enormous contribution to Tibet’s social and economic development.

1990年,西藏自治区党委、政府确定每年9月为“民族团结月”。2010年之前,自治区党委、政府先后召开了五次民族团结进步表彰大会,受到表彰的先进集体和个人达1756名,涌现出像孔繁森、李素芝等一大批民族团结先进典型。从2012年起,自治区各级党委、政府坚持每年召开一次民族团结进步模范表彰大会,共表彰模范集体2089个、模范个人3224名。2013年,拉萨市成为创建“全国民族团结进步示范州(地区、市、盟)”试点。近年来,西藏军区军史馆、江孜宗山抗英遗址、自治区博物馆、西藏民族学院、拉萨海关先后被国家民委命名为“全国民族团结进步教育基地”。“汉族离不开少数民族、少数民族离不开汉族、各少数民族也相互离不开”的思想深入人心,“团结稳定是福、分裂动乱是祸”成为全社会的广泛共识。
In 1990, the Party Committee and the government of Tibet Autonomous Region designated September as Ethnic Unity Month. Before 2010, the Party Committee and the government of the autonomous region had held five ethnic unity and progress award ceremonies that commended 1,756 outstanding units and individuals, including Kong Fansen and Li Suzhi. Since 2012, the Party committees and governments at all levels in Tibet have held annual ethnic unity and progress award ceremonies, and commended 2,089 units and 3,224 individuals. In 2013, Lhasa was selected as the pilot city for National Demonstration Prefecture (City/League) for Ethnic Unity and Progress. In recent years, the History Museum of the Tibet Military Command, Dzong Fortress in Gyantse where the Tibetans had fought British invaders, the Museum of Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibet Minzu University, and Lhasa Customs have been designated by the State Ethnic Affairs Commission as Education Bases for National Ethnic Unity and Progress. The thought that “the Han ethnic group cannot develop without minority ethnic groups, and vice versa, while all minority ethnic groups cannot develop separately” has taken root in people’s minds. The public have reached the consensus that “unity and stability are a blessing while secession and riots are a scourge.”

五、大力增进人民福祉
V. Improving People’s Welfare

在民族区域自治制度下,西藏经济社会发展不断迈上新台阶,实现了跨越式发展。经济的快速发展和社会的全面进步,使西藏各族人民得到实实在在的好处,人民的生存权和发展权得到有效保障,社会和谐安宁。
Under the system of regional ethnic autonomy, Tibet’s economic and social development has achieved leapfrog development by constantly reaching higher levels. Rapid economic growth and comprehensive social progress have brought real benefits to all ethnic groups in Tibet, effectively guaranteeing their right to subsistence and development, and maintaining the harmony and stability of its society.

——现代化发展水平日益提高
— Tibet’s modernization level has steadily risen.

西藏生产总值由1965年的3.27亿元增加到2014年的920.8亿元,增长281倍。1994年以来,西藏地区生产总值连续20年保持两位数增长,年均增速高达12.4%。1965年西藏地方财政收入仅为2239万元,2014年达到164.75亿元,年均增长高达14.46%,自我发展的能力不断增强。全区工业增加值由1965年的0.09亿元增加到2014年的66.16亿元,增长735倍,年均增长14.4%。第二产业增加值在地区生产总值中的占比由1965年的6.7%提高到2014年的36.6%。2014年,全区社会消费品零售总额达364.51亿元,比1965年的0.89亿元增长了409倍,以年均13.1%的速度递增;进出口总额达22.55亿美元,比1965年的0.07亿美元增长了321倍,年均增长12.5%。
Tibet’s GDP soared from 327 million yuan in 1965 to 92.08 billion yuan in 2014, a 281-fold increase. Since 1994, the local GDP has grown at an annual rate of 12.4 percent on average, registering double-digit growth for 20 consecutive years. Local fiscal revenues increased from 22.39 million yuan in 1965 to 16.475 billion yuan in 2014, an average annual increase of 14.46 percent, further enhancing Tibet’s self-development capabilities. The Region’s industrial added value skyrocketed from nine million yuan in 1965 to 6.616 billion yuan in 2014, a 735-fold increase, or an average annual growth of 14.4 percent, and the proportion of secondary industry’s added value in the local GDP rose from 6.7 percent in 1965 to 36.6 percent in 2014. Total retail sales of consumer goods increased from 89 million yuan in 1965 to 36.451 billion yuan in 2014, a 409-fold increase, or an average annual growth of 13.1 percent. The total volume of Tibet’s foreign trade rose from US$7 million in 1965 to US$2.255 billion in 2014, a 321-fold increase, or an average annual growth of 12.5 percent.

藏医药业、民族手工业、绿色食饮品和新能源等特色产业得到优先发展。目前,7个产业带初步形成,建设农业标准化示范区20个,培育地市级以上农牧业产业化龙头企业95家。建工、矿业、旅游、藏药、商贸等九大集团相继组建。藏药产业初具规模,全区藏药企业18家,藏药品种360多个。天然饮用水产量突破30万吨,成为新的经济增长点。2014年接待游客1553万人次,比旅游业起步时的1980年增长4436倍,年均增长28.0%;实现旅游总收入204亿元,增长20400倍,年均增长32.8%。
Priority has been given to such industries with Tibetan characteristics as Tibetan medicine, folk handicrafts, green food and drinks, and new energy. At present, seven industrial belts have taken shape, 20 demonstration zones of standardized agriculture have been established, and 95 agricultural and animal husbandry industrialization leading enterprises at or above the prefectural level cultivated. Nine big groups have been established, one by one, including construction and engineering, mining, tourism, Tibetan medicine, and commerce and trade. Tibetan medicine industry has taken shape, with 18 pharmaceutical enterprises producing more than 360 kinds of drugs. The output of natural drinking water has exceeded 300,000 tons, making the industry a new economic growth point. In 2014, Tibet received 15.53 million tourists, a 4,436-fold increase compared with 1980 when the Region first opened to tourism, or an average annual increase of 28 percent. Tourism revenue has now reached 20.4 billion yuan, a 20,400-fold increase or an average annual increase of 32.8 percent.

以公路、铁路、航空为主的综合交通运输体系基本形成,交通更加便利。以拉萨为中心,东连四川、云南,西接新疆,北连青海,南通印度、尼泊尔,地市相通,县乡连接的公路交通网络基本建成。2014年底,全区公路通车里程达到7.5万公里,次高级以上路面里程达到8891公里,占12.6%。全区74个县中65个县通了柏油路,占88%;690个乡镇通公路,通达率99.7%;5408个行政村通公路,通达率99.2%。格尔木至拉萨、拉萨至日喀则铁路相继通车运营,拉萨至林芝铁路开工建设。组建了西藏航空公司,区内通航机场5个,8家航空公司在藏运营,开通国内外航线48条,通航城市达33个,形成以拉萨贡嘎机场为中心,昌都邦达、林芝米林、阿里昆莎和日喀则和平机场为支线的五大民用机场网络。
A comprehensive transportation system including roads, railways and aviation has been built, further facilitating Tibet’s transportation. Radiating from Lhasa to Sichuan and Yunnan in the east, Xinjiang in the west, Qinghai in the north, and India and Nepal in the south, a road transportation network that connects prefectures, cities, counties, and townships has taken shape. At the end of 2014, the total length of roads open to traffic reached 75,000 km, 8,891 km of which have sub-high-grade surfaces or better, accounting for 12.6 percent of the total. Sixty-five, or 88 percent, of all 74 counties in Tibet had access to asphalt roads. As many as 690 townships and 5,408 administrative villages could be reached by road, respectively accounting for 99.7 percent and 99.2 percent of the total. The Golmud-Lhasa and Lhasa-Shigatse railways had opened to traffic, and the construction of the railway connecting Lhasa and Nyingchi started. Tibet Airlines was established, with five airports, and eight airlines operating in Tibet. An airport network has taken shape in Tibet, with Gongkar Airport in Lhasa as the main hub, and Bangda Airport in Qamdo, Menling Airport in Nyingchi, Gunsa Airport in Ngari and Heping Airport in Shigatse as the branches, catering to 48 domestic and international air routes that link Tibet with 33 cities in China and the rest of the world.

以水电为主,地热、风能、太阳能等多能互补的新型能源体系全面建设。拉萨环网工程和输变电工程、青藏直流联网工程、川藏电网联网工程建成投入运行,结束了西藏电网孤网运行的历史;直孔电站、狮泉河电站、雪卡电站、羊八井地热电站、拉萨火力发电等应急电源项目建成发电,区内装机容量最大的水电项目藏木水电站发电,能源点建设加快推进。2014年全区电力装机规模达到169.7万千瓦,全年发电量32.2亿千瓦时。组织实施了那曲尼玛县、双湖县及阿里7县1镇无电地区电力建设项目,累计示范推广光伏系统3万套,建设光伏电站90座,太阳能路灯1200多盏,总装机容量8000千瓦。2012年底,实现行政村全部通电,基本解决无电人口用电问题。
An extensive energy system has now been formed with hydropower as the mainstay, backed up by geothermal, wind, and solar energy sources. Lhasa’s Ethernet ring network project and power transmission and transformation project, the Qinghai-Tibet Power Grid Interconnection Project, and the Sichuan-Tibet Interconnection Project have officially gone into operation, so consigning to history the previously solitary operation of Tibet Autonomous Region power line. Such emergency power supply projects as Zhikong Hydropower Station, Shiquanhe Hydropower Station, Xueka Hydropower Station, Yangbajain Geothermal Power Station, and Lhasa’s thermal power plant have been built and put into operation. Zam Hydropower Station, the hydroelectric project with the biggest installed capacity in the Region, has also become operational. Moreover, the building of energy bases was facilitated. In 2014 the total installed generating capacity reached 1.697 million kw, and the annual output of generated electricity came to 3.22 billion kwh. Tibet initiated and carried out power construction projects in Nyima County and Tsonyi in Nagchu, and in seven counties and one township in Ngari that were without electricity. The Region has demonstrated and promoted 30,000 photovoltaic (PV) systems, established 90 PV power plants, and more than 1,200 solar streetlamps, with a total installed capacity of 8,000 kw. By the end of 2012, all administrative villages had access to electricity, and the problem of electricity access had been basically solved.

以光缆、卫星、网络为主的现代通讯网络体系已逐步建立健全。现在的西藏已进入了卫星、光缆、网络、信息新时代。全区光缆线路长度达到9.7万公里,其中长途光缆线路为3万多公里,累计实现74个县、668个乡镇通光缆,乡镇通光缆率为97.8%;实现5261个行政村移动信号覆盖。全区互联网用户达到217.7万户,普及率为70.7%,农牧区移动互联网覆盖率达到65%以上。
Tibet has now entered the information age, having established a modern telecommunications network with optical cable satellites and the Internet as the backbone. The total length of optical cable lines in the Region has reached 97,000 km, among which over 30,000 km are long-distance optical cable lines. Optical cables have now reached 668 townships and towns in 74 counties, or 97.8 percent of all townships and towns in Tibet, and mobile phone signals cover 5,261 administrative villages. The number of Internet user households has reached 2.177 million, with an Internet penetration of 70.7 percent, and mobile Internet coverage in farming and pastoral areas has surpassed 65 percent.

——人民幸福指数大幅提升
— People’s happiness quotient has been greatly improved.

城乡居民收入快速增长,人民生活更加充实富裕。2014年,城镇居民人均可支配收入达22016元,比1978年的565元增长38倍,年均增长10.7%;农牧民人均可支配收入7359元,年均增长10.9%。城镇化水平不断提升。1982年第三次人口普查时城镇人口所占总人口比重仅为9.48%,1990年提高到11.52%,2000年为19.43%,2010年达到22.67%。随着人民生活逐步富裕,消费结构开始多样化,冰箱、彩电、电脑、洗衣机、摩托车、手机等消费品进入了寻常百姓家。富裕起来的农牧民盖起了舒适宽敞的新房,有的还购买了汽车。广播、电视、通信、互联网等现代信息传递手段,与全国乃至世界同步发展,已经深入到人民群众的日常生活之中。在国家统计局、中国邮政集团公司和中央电视台联合举办的“CCTV经济生活大调查”中,拉萨市连续5年被评为中国幸福指数最高的城市。
People in both urban and rural areas are living a richer and fuller life as their incomes increase rapidly. In 2014 the per capita disposable income of urban residents reached 22,016 yuan, a 38-fold increase, or an average annual increase of 10.7 percent compared with 565 yuan in 1978; and that of farmers and herdsmen was 7,359 yuan, representing an average annual increase of 10.9 percent. The level of urbanization has also steadily risen. The proportion of urban population during the third population census in 1982 was 9.48 percent, but this percentage increased to 11.52 in 1990, to 19.43 in 2000 and to 22.67 in 2010. Along with improvements to the people’s livelihood, diversified consumption patterns have appeared, and such consumer goods as refrigerators, color TV sets, computers, washing machines, motorcycles, and mobile phones have entered ordinary households. Many farmers and herdsmen have become well-off and built new houses; some have even bought automobiles. Radio, television, telecommunications, the Internet and other modern information transmission means, which are at the same level as that of the country and the rest of the world, are now part of Tibetans’ daily life. According to the “CCTV Economic Life Survey” jointly hosted by the National Bureau of Statistics, China Post Group, and China Central Television (CCTV), Lhasa has topped the “happiness index” in China for five consecutive years.

城乡居民居住条件得到极大改善。为改善城乡居民居住条件,西藏从2006年起在全国率先提出全区实施农牧民安居工程,到2013年,全区累计投资278亿元,完成46.03万户的农牧民安居工程建设,使230万农牧民群众住上了安全适用的房屋,农牧民人均居住面积达到30.4平方米,生活条件得到历史性改善。自治区不断加大对周转房建设的投入力度,共建设周转房66076套,总建筑面积404.42万平方米,总投资88.09亿元。积极实施拉萨供暖工程,自2012年开工以来,建成燃气主干管网63公里、燃气次干管网256公里、庭院管网1200余公里,已完成居民小区及单位供暖项目建设768个、10.7万户、2136万平方米,拉萨城区基本实现供暖全覆盖,彻底结束了祖祖辈辈靠烧牛粪取暖的历史。
Both urban and rural residents’ living conditions have greatly improved. Tibet took the lead in 2006 in initiating low-income housing projects for local farmers and herdsmen. By the end of 2013, the Region had appropriated 27.8 billion yuan and finished building 460,300 low-income houses. As many as 2.3 million farmers and herdsmen had moved into safe modern houses, their per capita living space having reached 30.4 sq m, so marking an historic improvement in their living conditions. Constantly increasing input into the building of relocation housing, Tibet has built 66,076 more such houses covering 4.0442 million sq m, with an input of 8.809 billion yuan. The Region has proactively carried out the city heating project in Lhasa. Since initiation of the project in 2012, Tibet has built 63 km of a main gas pipe network, 256 km of a secondary pipe network and more than 1,200 km of a courtyard pipe network. It has completed 768 heating projects for residential areas and workplaces, so benefiting 107,000 households in a 21.36 million sq m area. The heating system has become available to almost all urban areas in Lhasa. The burning of dung for heating is now history.

农牧民人居环境整洁美丽。大力实施水、电、路、气、通讯、邮政、广播电视、优美环境“八到农家”工程,基本解决农牧民的安全饮水问题。实现了村村通电话、村村通广播电视、乡乡通宽带,完成4500个行政村人居环境建设,近24万户农牧民用上了清洁的沼气能源,农牧区碘盐覆盖率达到95%以上。2010年,自治区按照“清洁水源、清洁田园、清洁家园”的要求,开展人居环境和综合环境整治工作。截至目前,已完成投资44亿元,实施4500个行政村村容村貌及环境整治。
Farmers and herdsmen are living in a clean and beautiful environment. Tibet has also improved its facilities in the areas of water, electricity, highways, gas, telecommunications, postal services, radio and television, and the environment in farming and pastoral areas, basically solving the problem of drinking water safety. It has also realized telephone communication and radio and TV coverage in all villages, and broadband connection in all townships. Tibet has improved the living environment of 4,500 administrative villages. Almost 240,000 farmer and herdsman households use clean biogas, and more than 95 percent of rural households cook with iodized salt. Since 2010, work on improving the people’s living environment and the ecological environment has been carried out in Tibet according to the requirement of “clean water, clean farm and clean home.” At present programs for improving the appearance of villages and the ecological environment have been carried out in 4,500 administrative villages with an input of 4.4 billion yuan.

贫困人口大幅减少。2006-2014年实施贫困户、大骨节病搬迁和“兴边富民行动”,使11.63万户贫困群众人均住房面积增加了20%-30%。昔日许多低矮、阴暗、人畜混杂居住的土坯房变成了安全适用的住房。扶贫开发项目的实施,使57.8万户、260万人受益。新修和维修乡村道路3223公里,水渠3371.6公里、水塘347座232.94万立方米,新增和改善灌溉面积30万亩,新建农用桥883座、12834米,温室4583座,棚圈3.5万套。改良天然草场、草场围栏、人工种草28.78万亩,贫困地区生态环境进一步改善。农牧民收入明显增加,2003年以来连续12年保持了两位数增长。生活在每人每年2300元(2010年不变价)的国家农村扶贫标准下的全区农村贫困人口由2010年的117万人减少到2014年底的61万人,累计减少贫困人口56万人。贫困人口占全区农牧民人口比例,由2010年的49.2%下降至2014年的23.7%。2006年以来,直接、间接落实强农惠农补贴资金累计达到706.36亿元,落实粮食直补资金1.89亿元,落实农资综合补贴3.58亿元,落实家电、家具下乡补贴资金3.4亿元。这些补贴政策提高了农牧民群众收入,提高了农牧民的购买能力,提升了农牧民的生活品质。
The poverty-stricken population has been substantially reduced. From 2006 to 2014, Tibet launched the “Campaign to Develop Border Areas and Improve the Lives of the People,” relocated poverty-stricken families and people with Kashin-Beck disease, and increased by 20 to 30 percent the per capita living area of 116,300 poverty-stricken families. Many people have moved from small, dark, adobe houses, where they lived alongside livestock, to safe, more suitable homes. Poverty relief projects have benefited 2.6 million people in 578,000 households. Tibet has built and renovated a total of 3,223 km of country roads, 3,371.6 km of irrigation channels, 347 ponds covering a total 2.3294 million sq m; it has built 883 bridges for agricultural purposes of a total 12,834 m in length, 4,583 greenhouses, and 35,000 pens. It has also installed or improved irrigation systems for 300,000 mu (one mu = 1/15 hectare) of farmland. Tibet has moreover improved the ecological environment of poverty-stricken areas, and the total area of fenced grassland, improved grassland, and planted grassland has reached 287,800 mu. Since 2003, the income of farmers and herdsmen has recorded double-digit growth for 12 consecutive years. The poverty-stricken population – people with a per capita per annum income of less than 2,300 yuan (at constant price of 2010) – has fallen from 1.17 million in 2010 to 610,000 at the end of 2014. The proportion of poverty-stricken population in the Region’s total population of farmers and herdsmen fell from 49.2 percent in 2010 to 23.7 percent in 2014. Since 2006, the Region has directly or indirectly allocated a total of 70.636 billion yuan in subsidies to strengthening agriculture and benefiting farmers, 189 million yuan in subsidies to grain production, 358 million yuan as general subsidies for purchasing agricultural supplies, and 340 million yuan as subsidies for purchasing home appliances and furniture. Those subsidies have increased the income and purchasing power of farmers and herdsmen and improved their living standards.

社会保障事业不断迈上新台阶。实施积极的就业政策,就业率保持较高水平。2014年,西藏城镇登记失业率控制在2.5%以内,新增就业4.3万人,提供高校毕业生公职岗位1.1万个,各援藏省市和中央企业共提供就业岗位5335个,1500多名高校毕业生实现了区外就业,全区公益性岗位总量达3万个,通过公益性岗位安置就业26018人,2500多户零就业家庭实现了动态消零,就业形势稳定。近年来,覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系全面建立。继续加强“五大险种”保障制度,完善城乡居民社会养老保险制度,扩大最低生活保障,实施免费意外保险,建立了寺庙僧尼基本养老和医疗保险制度,全区各项社会保险参保达260.6万人次。企业退休职工基本养老金月人均水平达3338元,居全国前列。城市居民最低生活保障标准提高至每月534元,农村低保标准提高至每年2231元,五保户供养标准提高至每年3873元,分散供养标准提高至每年3874元,集中收养孤儿基本生活保障标准达到月人均1200元。及时发放城乡困难群众慰问金。2013年底,全区各类社会福利机构共有263个,公办儿童福利院8所,民办儿童福利院2所。72%有意愿的五保对象实现集中供养,5900多名孤儿得到有效救助。
Tibet’s social security has entered a new stage. Due to its proactive employment policy, Tibet has maintained a high employment rate. In 2014 the registered urban unemployment rate was maintained at below 2.5 percent, and newly increased urban employment totaled 43,000. Graduates from institutions of higher learning were provided with 11,000 jobs in the public sector, while provinces, municipalities directly under the central government and centrally managed state-owned enterprises offered 5,335 job vacancies. More than 1,500 graduates from Tibet found jobs in other parts of the country. The number of public welfare jobs in the Region totaled 30,000, and 26,018 people found jobs in public welfare sectors. More than 2,500 zero-employment households were provided with jobs in a timely manner, and the employment situation remained stable. In recent years, the social security system that covers both urban and rural residents has been established in an all-round way. Tibet strengthened the security system of “five major insurance types” (endowment insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, and maternity insurance), improved the social endowment insurance system for urban and rural residents, expanded the basic living allowance, implemented free accident insurance, and established the basic endowment insurance and medical insurance systems for monks and nuns. These moves have benefited 2.606 million insurance participants. The basic old-age pension for enterprise retirees in Tibet reached 3,338 yuan per person per month, one of the highest in the country. The basic living allowance for urban residents was raised to 534 yuan per person per month and to 2,231 yuan for rural residents per person per year. The yearly payment to those who enjoy the “five guarantees” (for food, clothing, medical care, housing and funeral expenses) was significantly raised to 3,873 yuan per person per year, the standard of rural decentralized support rose to 3,874 yuan per person per year, and the minimum subsistence guarantees for children housed in orphanages was 1,200 yuan per person per month. Condolence money was also timely extended to impoverished urban and rural residents. By the end of 2013, there were 263 social welfare organizations, eight state-run children’s welfare homes, and two private children’s welfare homes in Tibet. Centralized support covered 72 percent of those who enjoy the “five guarantees,” and more than 5,900 orphans were effectively supported.

医疗卫生事业快速发展。目前,西藏已经建成了中、西、藏医结合,以拉萨为中心、遍布城乡的医疗卫生网。以免费医疗为基础的农牧区医疗制度覆盖全体农牧民,全区已建成71个县医院和678个乡镇卫生院,覆盖城乡的医疗卫生服务体系逐步完善。2014年底,全区医疗卫生机构发展到1430所,每千人病床数和卫生技术人员数分别达到3.79张和4.08人,建成了覆盖县乡村三级的医疗卫生网络。城镇职工、城镇居民基本医疗保险年度最高支付限额分别提高到30万元、20万元。城镇居民基本医疗保险财政补助标准提高到年人均380元,政策范围内住院费用支付比例达到75%左右。农牧民人口100%被纳入到以免费医疗为基础的医疗保障体系之中,农牧区医疗政府补助标准达到年人均420元,最高报销补偿限额达6万元,政策范围内报销补偿比例达到80%以上。寺庙僧尼等人群全部纳入基本医疗保险范围。取消了医疗救助起付线,率先在全国实现了医疗救助城乡一体化和社会全覆盖。对城乡居民实施免费健康检查,城乡居民健康档案建档率达99%。2013年,孕产妇死亡率和婴儿死亡率分别下降到154.51/10万人和19.97‰。人均寿命由20世纪50年代的35.5岁增加到68.17岁。全区实现了基本消除碘缺乏病目标。
Tibet’s medical undertakings are also rapidly improving. A medical and health network that integrates traditional Chinese, Western and Tibetan medicines has been established in Tibet, covering all cities and villages in the Region, with Lhasa as the center. The Region has built 71 county hospitals and 678 township clinics that provide free basic medical services to all farmers and herdsmen. The medical service system that covers all urban and rural areas is improving, and a three-tier medical service network that covers counties, townships and villages is in place. By the end of 2014, there were 1,430 medical organizations in Tibet, and 3.79 hospital beds and 4.08 medical workers for every 1,000 residents. Maximum payment of basic medical insurance for urban employees reached 300,000 yuan, and for urban residents 200,000 yuan. The fiscal subsidy standard for urban residents’ basic medical insurance increased to 380 yuan per person every year, and the inpatient reimbursement rate for urban residents covered by the medical insurance policy reached 75 percent. All farmers and herdsmen in Tibet are now covered by a medical system based on free medical service. It provides each farmer and herdsman with an annual medical allowance of 420 yuan, and an 80 percent reimbursement rate for medical services that the policy covers, with a maximum medical reimbursement of 60,000 yuan. All monks and nuns are included in the basic medical insurance system. Tibet has abolished the deductible line of medical assistance, and was among the earliest in China to realize full coverage and urban-rural integration of medical assistance. Tibet also provides free physical examinations for urban and rural residents, and 99 percent of the Region’s urban and rural residents have health records. In 2013, the childbirth mortality rate had fallen to 1.5451 per thousand and the infant mortality rate to 19.97 per thousand. Average life expectancy has risen from 35.5 years in the 1950s to the present 68.17 years. The Region has basically stamped out diseases caused by iodine deficiency.

——各项社会事业全面发展
— Progress has been made in all social undertakings.

教育事业日新月异,实现学有所教。全区所有县(区)全面完成普及九年义务教育,一个涵盖学前教育、基础教育、职业教育、高等教育、成人教育、特殊教育的比较完整的现代教育体系已经形成。实现了从学前到高中阶段15年免费教育,农牧区义务教育学生营养改善计划全面落实,政策和资金覆盖率均达到100%。“三包”(包吃、包住、包学习费用)政策覆盖学前教育到高中阶段所有农牧民子女和城镇困难家庭子女,且不断提高标准,年生均标准已提高到3000元。全面启动实施城镇三年、农牧区两年学前双语教育工程。2014年底,幼儿园在园幼儿达8万多人,学前教育毛入园率达60%。2014年底,全区拥有普通高等院校6所;中等职业学校9所,在校生1.7万人;高级中学22所,完全中学4所,初级中学93所,十二年和九年一贯制学校各3所,小学829所。小学适龄儿童入学率达到99.64%,青壮年文盲率下降至0.57%以内,人均受教育年限达到8.6年,新增劳动力受教育年限达到12年以上。1984年,中央政府作出“在内地为西藏办学培养人才”的重大战略决策,现有21个省市办有西藏班(校),已累计为西藏培养了大中专毕业生3.2万余人。目前西藏不仅有了自己培养的硕士、博士,而且有了一批享誉全国的专家、学者,逐步建立了近30个科研院所,有各类专业技术人员69709人,学科领域涉及历史、经济、人口、语言、宗教和农业、畜牧、林业、生态、生物、藏医药、盐湖、地热、太阳能等数十个门类。其中,藏学、高原生态、藏医药等学科研究在全国处于领先水平,产生了一批有世界影响的学术成果。
Tibet’s education has taken on a new look, and all children can now go to school. Nine-year compulsory education is practiced in all counties in the Region, and a complete modern education system is in place, covering preschool education, basic education, vocational education, higher education, adult education, and special education. Tibet has realized 15-year free education from the preschool stage to senior middle school, fully implemented the nutrition improvement plan for students under compulsory education in agricultural and pastoral areas, and realized 100 percent coverage in terms of both policies and funds. Tibet has covered all tuition, food, and boarding expenses for students from farmers’ and herdsmen’s families and those from families in urban areas with financial difficulties from preschool education to senior middle school education, and raised the subsidy standard many times to today’s 3,000 yuan per student every year. Tibet has launched the campaign to provide three-year bilingual education for preschool children in urban areas, and two years for those in agricultural and pastoral areas. At the end of 2014, there were more than 80,000 children in kindergartens, and the gross enrollment rate for preschool education had reached 60 percent; there were six higher education institutions, nine secondary vocational schools with 17,000 students, 22 senior middle schools, four six-year middle schools, 93 junior middle schools, three nine-year education schools, three 12-year education schools, and 829 primary schools. The primary school enrollment rate reached 99.64 percent among school-age children, the illiteracy rate among young and middle-aged people fell to less than 0.57 percent, and the average length of education reached 8.6 years for the Region’s general population and above 12 years for the newly-increased working population. Since the central government adopted the strategy in 1984 of “cultivating talent for Tibet in other parts of China,” Tibetan schools and classes in 21 provinces and municipalities directly under the central government have cultivated more than 32,000 graduates from junior colleges and secondary technical schools for Tibet. Tibet has now cultivated its own postgraduate and Ph.D. students, built almost 30 scientific research institutions, compiled a group of renowned experts and scholars, and an army of 69,709 professionals in such areas as history, economics, demographics, languages, religion, agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, ecology, biology, Tibetan medicine, salt lakes, and geothermal and solar energy. Tibet tops China in areas such as Tibetan studies, plateau ecology, and Tibetan medicine, and boasts academic achievements of world influence.

公共文化服务覆盖城乡,人们精神生活不断丰富。全区已建成群众艺术馆8座、公共图书馆5座、博物馆3座,建成县综合文化活动中心74座,乡镇综合文化站692座,建成文化信息资源共享工程自治区分中心、7个地市支中心、74个县支中心、692个乡镇基层点、5389个村基层点,区、地、县、乡四级公共文化设施网络初步形成。投资近13亿元的“十二五”文化设施建设项目全面推进,到2015年底,西藏将基本实现“地市有公共图书馆和文化馆,馆藏文物丰富地区有博物馆,县县有图书馆、文化馆或综合性文化活动中心,乡乡有综合文化站,53%的县国有艺术团有排练场”目标,公共文化设施总量将达到790个。建成1600余个文化广场,形成拉萨雪顿节等群众性、常态化品牌文化活动90个。全面启动了公共设施的免费开放工作,近5年来,全区公共文化设施共开展免费群众文化活动4万余场,受益群众达到800余万人次。全区专业文艺团体和县民间艺术团年均下乡演出近1万场次,送书下乡10万余册。
Public cultural services now cover both urban and rural areas in Tibet, and have enriched people’s cultural life. The Region has built eight public art centers, five public libraries, three museums, 74 county-level cultural activity centers, and 692 township-level cultural stations. In addition, it has built one regional center, seven prefecture-level sub-centers, 74 county-level sub-centers, 692 township-level stations, and 5,389 village-level stations as part of the project to share cultural information and resources. A cultural facility network covering the four levels of autonomous region, prefecture, county, and township is also taking shape. The cultural facility construction project as an important part of the 12th Five-year Plan (2011-2015) with a total input of nearly 1.3 billion yuan is making full progress. By the end of 2015, all prefectures and cities in Tibet will have public libraries and cultural centers, areas rich in cultural relics will have museums, all counties will have libraries, cultural centers or comprehensive cultural activity centers, all townships will have cultural stations, and 53 percent of the county-level state-owned art troupes will have rehearsal spaces. The total number of public cultural venues will reach 790. Tibet has built more than 1,600 cultural squares, and launched 90 regularly-staged popular cultural activities, including the Lhasa Shoton Festival celebrations. Tibet also initiated the campaign to provide free access to public facilities. In the recent five years, the Region’s public cultural venues have launched more than 40,000 free mass cultural events, benefiting more than eight million people. The Region’s professional art groups and folk art groups at the county level staged more than 10,000 shows, and sent more than 100,000 books to the countryside.

新闻出版事业迅速发展,文化产品日益丰富。西藏人民出版社、西藏藏文古籍出版社累计出版各类图书(教材)19052种、2.8263亿册。西藏音像出版社、雪域音像电子出版社2014年出版音像电子产品115种37.96万盘。报纸、期刊分别发展到25种、35种。全区出版发行单位发展到576家,其中区、地、县新华书店89家,边境口岸新华书店5家,民营发行网点482家。2014年全区共发行图书约3395万册,图书销售码洋3.23亿元。全区印刷企业38家,其中规模以上重点印刷企业1家。2014年全区印刷业总产值3.6亿元。目前,全面建成5609个农家书屋、1700多个寺庙书屋,实现所有行政村有农家书屋、寺寺有寺庙书屋,有效解决了农牧民群众和寺庙僧尼读书难、用书难问题。
Tibet’s press and publishing are growing fast, and more and more cultural products are appearing. Tibet People’s Publishing House and Tibetan Ancient Books Publishing House published 19,052 book and textbook titles, totaling 282.63 million printed copies. In 2014, the Tibet Audio-Visual Publishing House and the Snowfield Electronic Audio-Visual Publishing House published 115 audio-visual and electronic book titles, totaling 379,600 copies. Tibet has 25 newspapers, 35 periodicals, and 576 publishing and distribution entities, among which 89 are Xinhua Bookstores at regional, prefectural and county levels, five are Xinhua Bookstores at frontier ports, and 482 are private distribution networks. In 2014, the autonomous region distributed 33.95 million copies of books, with a total value of 323 million yuan. The Region has 38 printing enterprises, one of which is a key enterprise with its turnover over 20 million yuan per annum. In 2014, the total output of the Region’s printing industry reached 360 million yuan. The Region has built 5,609 rural libraries and 1,700 monastery libraries, bringing libraries to all administrative villages and monasteries, and providing all farmers, herdsmen, monks and nuns with access to books.

广播影视事业得到长足发展。已累计新建、改扩建100瓦以上调频转播台78座,50瓦以上电视转播发射台78座,中波广播发射台27座,卫星地球站1座,村村通广播电视站9371座,全区所有的1787座寺庙实现了广播影视全覆盖。目前,有省级广播电台1座5个频率,听众遍及世界50个国家和地区;有省级电视台1座4个频道,其中,藏语卫视已在尼泊尔、印度、不丹等周边国家部分落地,全台节目实现数字化,覆盖全国人口7亿多人;有地市级广播电台6座,电视台1座。目前,全区广播、电视综合覆盖率由1965年的12%和0%提高到现在的94.78%和95.91%,90%以上农牧户实现了“户户通”。通过直播卫星接收设备,农牧民每家每户能够收听收看到40至70多套数字广播电视节目。目前,全区共有566个电影机构,其中478个农村电影放映队全部实现数字化放映。
Tibet’s radio, film and television undertakings have also made significant headway. The Region has built, rebuilt or expanded 78 FM stations above 100 w, 78 television transmitters above 50 w, 27 medium wave broadcast transmitters, one satellite earth station, and 9,371 radio and television stations for all villages. All 1,787 monasteries in the Region now have radio, film and television coverage. At present, Tibet has one provincial broadcast station with five frequencies, and its audiences are found in 50 countries and regions. It has one provincial TV station with four channels. Its programs, all digitized, cover more than 700 million people in China, and its satellite TV programs in Tibetan language can be viewed in neighboring Nepal, India, and Bhutan. Tibet has six prefectural-level radio stations, and one TV station. The coverage of radio in Tibet has increased from 12 percent in 1965 to today’s 94.78 percent and that of television from zero in 1965 to today’s 95.91 percent. More than 90 percent of farmer and herdsman families have access to radio and television. Through direct broadcast satellite receivers, each rural family can receive 40 to 70 digital radio and TV program channels. At present, Tibet has 566 film agencies, including 478 digitized film projection teams in the countryside.

六、保护和弘扬优秀传统文化
VI. Protecting and Carrying Forward the Excellent Traditional Culture

在漫长的历史发展过程中,藏族人民创造了辉煌的藏文化。藏文化丰富了中华文化,是中华文化的重要组成部分。自治区成立50年来,在尊重、保护、传承和弘扬藏民族优秀传统文化方面,做了大量工作,取得显著成就。当今西藏,在传统与现代的交融中,藏文化不断焕发出新的活力。
In the long course of history, the Tibetan people have created their own splendid culture that enriches and is an important component of Chinese culture. During the 50 years since its establishment, Tibet Autonomous Region has done much and made remarkable achievements towards respecting, protecting, inheriting, and carrying forward Tibet’s excellent traditional culture. Tibetan culture today manifests new vitality by blending tradition and modernity.

藏语文的学习使用得到有效保护。《中华人民共和国宪法》和《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》均明确规定,各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由。西藏学校教育全面实行藏汉双语教育,藏语文在学习中传承。目前,农牧区和部分城镇小学实行藏汉语文同步教学,主要课程用藏语授课。中学阶段开设藏语文课(包括内地西藏中学),其他课程用汉语文授课。在高校和中等专业学校的招生考试中,藏语文作为考试科目,成绩计入总分。学前、中小学现有双语教师30642人,中小学校有藏语专任教师约5800人。西藏自治区已编译完成从小学到高中共13门学科的821种课本、410种教学参考书、56种教学大纲或课程标准和73种教学辅助用书。
Tibetan language learning is efficiently protected. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China and Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy both specify that every ethnic group has the freedom to use and develop its own language. Bilingual teaching in Tibetan and Chinese is carried out in all schools in Tibet to inherit the Tibetan language in the course of learning. At present, synchronous bilingual teaching is conducted at primary schools in agricultural and pastoral areas and certain cities and towns of the Region, and major courses are taught in Tibetan. Middle schools (including inland Tibetan middle schools) have Tibetan language courses, and other courses are taught in Chinese. Tibetan language is listed as an exam subject in college and secondary vocational school entrance exams and so figures in the final score. There are now 30,642 bilingual teachers in kindergartens, primary and middle schools, and 5,800 teachers of Tibetan language in primary and middle schools. Tibet Autonomous Region has compiled 821 textbook titles for 13 courses, 410 reference books, 56 syllabuses and curriculum standards, and 73 supplementary books.

藏语文在使用中得到弘扬。自治区大型会议和行文坚持使用藏汉两种文字,司法机关在执法、法治宣传等工作中着重使用藏语文,农牧、科技等涉农部门也加强藏语文的使用。2014年,西藏人民出版社、西藏藏文古籍出版社出版各类图书547种、1302.5万册,其中藏文图书种数占比超过80%;共有14种藏文期刊、11种藏文报纸出版发行。目前,西藏人民广播电台共开办有42个藏语(包括康巴话)节目(栏目),藏语新闻综合频率每天播音达21小时15分钟,康巴话广播频率每天播音18小时,西藏电视台藏语卫视实现了24小时滚动播出。此外,藏语文在邮政、通讯、交通、金融等领域中也得到了广泛使用,有力地推动了全区经济社会的快速发展。
Use of the Tibetan language is being popularized. Tibetan and Chinese are used in important meetings and their documents held in the autonomous region; Tibetan is the first choice for judicial organs in publicizing legal knowledge and law enforcement, and its use is also stressed by departments related to agriculture and technology. In 2014, Tibet People’s Publishing House and Tibetan Ancient Books Publishing House published altogether 547 book titles totaling 13.025 million copies, more than 80 percent of which were in Tibetan. The Region publishes 14 Tibetan-language periodicals and 11 Tibetan-language newspapers. At present, Tibet People’s Broadcasting Station broadcasts 42 Tibetan-language programs (including Kangba language) each day, including 21 hours and 15 minutes of news in Tibetan language and 18 hours of Kangba programs. Tibetan TV airs 24 hours of Tibetan-language programs. Wide use of the Tibetan language in postal services, communications, transport, and finance also promotes the autonomous region’s rapid social and economic development.

优秀传统文化得到保护传承。国家建立了西藏大学、西藏民族大学、藏医学院、中国藏学研究中心、西藏社会科学院、天文历算研究所等一批教育培训基地和门类齐全的研究机构。几十年来,西藏先后组织了大规模、有系统的普查、搜集、整理、研究和出版工作,收集各种音乐(歌曲)、曲艺一万多首,文字资料3000多万字,录制了大量音像资料,拍摄图片近万幅,发表有关藏民族传统文化学术论文1000多篇,整理出版了《中国戏曲志·西藏卷》《中国民族民间舞蹈集成·西藏卷》《中国民族民间器乐曲集成·西藏卷》等10大文艺集成志书和文艺研究专著30多部,抢救、整理、出版藏文古籍261部,诸多濒临灭绝的民族民间文化得到全面抢救和有效保护,重新焕发出光彩。2005年西藏非物质文化遗产普查与保护工作正式启动以来,中央政府和西藏投资近2亿元,对藏戏、格萨尔、传统歌舞、手工技艺等重要非物质文化遗产进行了全面保护,基本形成了国家、自治区、市、县四级非物质文化遗产名录体系。目前,西藏各类非物质文化遗产项目1000余项,涵盖了非物质文化遗产包含的10个资源种类。其中,藏戏和《格萨尔》史诗入选联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录,国家级非物质文化遗产项目89个,国家级生产性保护示范基地4个,自治区级项目323个,代表性传习场所113处。国家级代表性传承人68名,自治区级传承人350名。国家珍贵古籍158部,全国古籍重点保护单位4个。“中国民间文化艺术之乡”4个,“西藏自治区民间文化艺术之乡”65个。拉萨雪顿节、山南雅砻文化节等一大批群众性文化传统节庆得到恢复和创新,成为地域性民族文化品牌。
Excellent traditional culture is protected and inherited. The state has founded education centers and research institutes, such as Tibet University, Xizang Minzu University, Tibetan Traditional Medical College, China Tibetology Research Center, Tibetan Academy of Social Sciences, and Tibetan Institute of Astronomy, all of which cover extensive studies. Over the decades, Tibet has organized large-scale and systematic campaigns to restore its traditional culture, having collected more than 10,000 pieces of music, songs and folk art forms, and more than 30 million words of written texts. It has also recorded copious audios and videos, taken about 10,000 photos, and published more than 1,000 papers on Tibetan ethnic and traditional culture and 10 volumes on Tibetan arts, such as Chinese Drama – Tibetan Volume, Collection of Folk Dances of Chinese Ethnic Groups – Tibetan Volume, and Collection of Chinese Ethnic and Folk Music – Tibetan Volume. It has moreover published more than 30 treatises on Tibetan culture, having restored, reorganized and published 261 Tibetan ancient books. All these efforts help to save, protect and revitalize endangered ethnic and folk culture. Since 2005, when the work of surveying and protecting Tibetan intangible cultural heritage was officially launched, the central government and Tibet have channeled about 200 million yuan into efforts to preserve items of important intangible heritage, such as Tibetan opera, Gesar, traditional singing and dancing, and craftsmanship, thus forming a four-level intangible heritage protection category at the state, autonomous region, prefecture, and county level. Currently, there are more than 1,000 intangible heritage items covering 10 categories as defined on the intangible heritage list. Among them, Tibetan opera and Gesar have been chosen as Masterpieces of UNESCO Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and 89 are on the state level intangible heritage list. There are four production pilots under state level protection and 323 items under the autonomous regional protection, 113 sites for the teaching and learning of intangible heritage, and 68 state level inheritors and 350 inheritors at the autonomous region level. The Region is home to 158 precious ancient books and four state key protection units, four Hometowns of Chinese Folk Art, and 65 Hometowns of Folk Art in Tibet Autonomous Region. Traditional festivals such as the Shoton Festival and Yarlung Cultural Festival have been resumed and innovated, so becoming local cultural brands.

文物得到有效保护。50年来,国家不断加大对西藏文物保护的投入力度,重点实施了西藏自治区所辖的文物保护单位文物保护维修工程,及时修缮和保护了大批文物。投资10亿余元的“十二五”46项重点文物维修保护项目,目前进展顺利。《西藏自治区文物保护条例》《西藏自治区布达拉宫保护管理办法》等一批文物保护地方性法规陆续出台。西藏重要历史和革命文物发掘工程有效加强,第三次全区不可移动文物普查工作全面完成,共调查录入近现代重要史迹及代表性建筑物241处,各类文物点4277处。首次可移动文物普查工作全面启动,初步统计,全区可移动文物将达数百万件。野外文物看管人员得到落实,全区文物安全进一步加强。贝叶经普查保护和研究工作取得阶段性成果,《西藏自治区珍藏贝叶经总目录》《西藏自治区珍藏贝叶经影印大全》等陆续整理出版。目前,全区有世界文化遗产1处3点,国家重点文物保护单位55处,自治区级文物保护单位391处,市县级文物保护单位978处,国家历史文化名城3座。
Cultural relics are under effective protection. Over the past 50 years, the state has constantly renewed its efforts to protect Tibetan cultural relics, particularly with regard to the maintenance and protection of cultural relics under the jurisdiction of Tibet Autonomous Region, restoring and saving them in a timely manner. The 46 key cultural relics renovation and protection projects listed in the 12th Five-year Plan at a cost of more than one billion yuan is proceeding smoothly. Relevant local regulations have been issued, such as the Regulations of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Protection of Cultural Relics, and the Measures of Tibet Autonomous Region for the Protection and Management of the Potala Palace. Excavation of important historical and revolutionary cultural relics has been strengthened, and the third survey of immovable cultural relics across the Region is complete, which recorded 241 important historical sites and renowned architectures and 4,277 cultural relics sites of all kinds. The first survey of movable cultural relics has also been launched. According to statistics, there are millions of such relics across the Region. Security staff has been assigned to guard cultural relics in the wild, so further strengthening the security of cultural relics across the Region. Phased progress has been made in survey, protection and research of Pattra-leaf Scriptures, and The Tibet Autonomous Region Pattra-leaf Scripture Catalogue and Photocopy of Tibet Autonomous Region Pattra-leaf Scriptures have been published. Currently there is one world cultural heritage site spread over three places, 55 cultural relics protection units at state level, 391 at autonomous region level, 978 at city and county level, and three state historical and cultural cities.

七、尊重和保护宗教信仰自由
VII. Respecting and Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

中国宪法规定,宗教信仰自由是公民的一项基本权利。在今天的西藏,多种宗教并存,既有藏传佛教、苯教,也有伊斯兰教、天主教等。在藏传佛教内部,还存在不同教派。经过民主改革,西藏废除了政教合一制度,实行政教分离,恢复宗教的本来面目。多年来,中央政府和西藏自治区政府,充分尊重公民的宗教信仰自由权利,各种宗教、各个教派都平等地得到尊重和保护,正常的宗教活动和宗教信仰依法受到保护。
The Constitution stipulates that freedom of religious belief is one of citizens’ fundamental rights. Today’s Tibet is home to various religions, such as Tibetan Buddhism, within which exist different sects, Bon, Islam, and Catholicism. After democratic reform, Tibet put an end to theocracy, separating politics from religion and so restoring the latter’s true significance. For years, the central government and the local government of Tibet Autonomous Region have fully respected citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief, and given equal attention and protection to all religions and sects to ensure normal religious activities and religious beliefs are protected according to law.

宗教活动得到尊重和保护。目前,西藏有各类宗教活动场所1787处,住寺僧尼4.6万多人。西藏自治区和7个地市均设有佛教协会,中国佛协西藏分会办有西藏佛学院、藏经文印经院和藏文会刊《西藏佛教》。藏族和其他各少数民族都按照自己的宗教传统过宗教生活,进行社会宗教活动。在西藏自治区,各大宗教的各种传统节庆活动正常进行,大型宗教活动如转神山神湖活动、萨噶达瓦节、展佛节、跳神节、朝觐等40多种群众性重大宗教节庆活动得以保护和继承。信教群众家中几乎都设有小经堂或佛龛。每年到拉萨朝佛敬香的信教群众达百万人次。在西藏到处可以看到善男信女悬挂的经幡,以及堆积的刻有佛教经文的嘛呢堆。各大寺院内常年挤满了磕长头、转经、朝佛的信教群众。西藏信教群众享受开展正常宗教活动的充分自由。为满足不同信教群众的宗教需求,目前西藏还有清真寺4座,天主教堂1座。这些宗教也依法得到了尊重和保护,依法依规开展正常宗教活动,与其他宗教平等和谐相处。
Religious activities are respected and protected. Currently, there are 1,787 sites for different religious activities in Tibet, and more than 46,000 resident monks and nuns. Tibet Autonomous Region and seven cities all have Buddhist associations. The Tibetan branch of the Buddhist Association of China has set up the Tibetan Buddhist Institute, the Tripitaka Scripture Printing Lamasery, and the Tibetan Buddhism journal in Tibetan language. Tibetan and other minority ethnic groups lead their religious lives and carry out religious activities according to native traditions. In Tibet Autonomous Region, religious festivals are celebrated in the same way they always were. They include more than 40 major religious activities, such as pilgrimages to holy mountains and lakes, the Saga Dawa Festival, the Buddha Exhibition Festival, and the Lamaist Devil Dance Festival, all of which are protected and inherited. Almost all religious believers have scripture halls or shrines at their homes. Each year, millions of pilgrimages to Lhasa are made. In Tibet, prayer flags and mani stones are seen everywhere. All major temples are full of believers prostrating themselves before Buddha, spinning prayer wheels and paying homage to Buddha. Tibetan people enjoy full freedom in their conduct of religious activities. To meet the religious needs of different believers, Tibet has four mosques and one Catholic church. These religions are also respected and protected according to law and coexist in harmony with other religions.

藏传佛教文化得到尊重和保护。中央和西藏自治区政府始终把藏传佛教文化作为中华民族传统文化的重要组成部分,一直以来给予有效保护,不断加强对宗教典籍的收集、整理、出版和研究工作。中央政府支持4000多万元,组织上百名藏文专家,历时20余年,完成了对藏文大藏经《甘珠尔》《丹珠尔》的校勘出版。20世纪90年代以来,藏文《中华大藏经·丹珠尔》(对勘本)《藏汉对照西藏大藏经总目录》《因明七论庄严华释》《慈氏五论》《释量论解说·雪域庄严》等陆续整理出版。已经印出《甘珠尔》大藏经达1490多部,还印出大量藏传佛教的仪轨、传记、论著等经典的单行本,供给寺庙,满足僧尼和信教群众的学修需求。宗教研究机构、高僧、学者的有关佛教专著,如《贝叶经的整理、研究》《西藏拉萨现存梵文贝叶经的整理》《西藏宗教源流与教派研究》《活佛转世制度》《郭扎佛教史》《西藏苯教寺庙志》《中国藏传佛教寺庙》《西藏佛教寺院壁画艺术》等,都正式出版发行。
Tibetan Buddhist culture is respected and protected. The central government and the local government of Tibet Autonomous Region have always regarded Tibetan Buddhist culture as an important component of traditional Chinese culture, offering protection and reinforcing the collection, compilation, publication, and research of religious classics. The central government set a budget of more than 40 million yuan for the revision and publication of the Tibetan Buddhist canons Kangyur and Tengyur, a 20-year project entailing the efforts of more than 100 Tibetan experts. Since the 1990s, the Tibetan-language Chinese Tripitaka – Tengyur (collated edition), A Tibetan-Chinese General Catalogue of the Tibetan Tripitaka, A Commentary on Tshad-ma sde-bdun, Five Treatises of Maitreya, and Annotations on Pramanavarttika Karika – the Solemn Snowland have been successively compiled and published. More than 1,490 copies of Kangyur have been printed, and the ritual procedures, biographies, and treatises on Tibetan Buddhism have also been published to meet the study demands of monasteries, Buddhist monks and nuns, and lay believers. Treatises on Buddhism written and published by religious research institutes, eminent monks and scholars, such as Collation and Research of Pattra-leaf Scriptures, Collation of Sanskrit Pattra-leaf Scriptures Extant in Lhasa, Studies of the Origin and Development of Religions and Religious Sects in Tibet, Reincarnation System of Living Buddhas, History of Buddhism by Guta, Records of Tibetan Bonist Temples, Records of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in China, and The Art of Murals of Buddhist Monasteries in Tibet have been published.

寺庙得到维修和保护。20世纪80年代以来,国家每年都拨专项资金和黄金、白银等用于寺庙的维修、修复和保护。20世纪80年代以来,中央政府累计投入14亿多元对西藏文物和重点寺庙进行了大规模维修。国家资助专款670万元、黄金111公斤、白银2000多公斤及大量珠宝,修复了五世至九世班禅灵塔祀殿。为修建十世班禅灵塔祀殿,国家一次就拨专款6620万元、黄金650公斤。1994年,国家又拨款2000万元,继续修复甘丹寺。从1995年开始,中央财政通过国家重点文物保护专项资金,对西藏布达拉宫、罗布林卡、萨迦寺等列入国家重点文物保护单位名单的寺庙维修与保护予以积极支持。
Temples are maintained and protected. Since the 1980s, the state has allocated funds, gold, and silver to maintain, renovate and protect temples. More than 1.4 billion yuan has been spent on restoring Tibetan cultural relics and refurbishing key monasteries. A total of 6.7 million yuan, 111 kg of gold, 2,000 kg of silver, and a large amount of jewelry has been used to renovate stupas and prayer halls from the Fifth Panchen Erdeni to the Ninth Panchen Erdeni. The state budget to build these for the 10th Panchen Erdeni was 66.2 million yuan and 650 kg of gold. In 1994, the state allocated another 20 million yuan to renovate Ganden Monastery. Since 1995, the central budget has given active support to the maintenance and protection of monasteries listed as state key cultural relics units, such as the Potala Palace, Norbulingka and Sakya Monastery.

活佛转世有序进行。活佛转世制度作为西藏宗教特有的信仰和传承方式,得到国家和西藏自治区各级政府的尊重,国家制定出台了《藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法》。1995年,西藏自治区按照宗教仪轨和历史定制,经过金瓶掣签,报国务院批准,完成了第十世班禅大师转世灵童的寻访、认定以及第十一世班禅的册立和坐床。据最新统计,西藏现有活佛358名,其中60多位新转世活佛按历史定制和宗教仪轨得到认定。
The Living Buddha reincarnation is proceeding well. The Living Buddha reincarnation is a succession system unique to Tibetan Buddhism, and is respected by the state and governments at different levels of the autonomous region, the state having issued the Measures on the Management of the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas of Tibetan Buddhism. Through traditional religious rituals and historical conventions like drawing lots from a golden urn, in 1995 Tibet Autonomous Region sought out and identified the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Erdeni, and conferred and enthroned the 11th Panchen Erdeni, with the approval of the State Council. Tibet now has 358 Living Buddhas, more than 60 of whom have been confirmed through historical conventions and traditional religious rituals.

藏传佛教僧人学经制度不断完善。自治区制定出台《办好西藏佛学院分院的意见》《西藏佛学院学衔授予办法(试行)》,在北京和拉萨分别建有中国藏语系高级佛学院和西藏佛学院,作为藏传佛教高级宗教人才培养基地,系统招收培养藏传佛教教职人员。西藏60多座各教派寺庙开办有寺庙自办的学经班,完全按照传统习惯进行宗教学修和学位学衔的考核晋升。2005年开始,每年在北京中国藏语系高级佛学院举行藏传佛教“拓然巴”高级学衔考试和授予仪式,在大昭寺和拉萨三大寺进行格西“拉让巴”学位考试。截至目前,已有84名学经僧人获得了格西“拉让巴”学位,46名僧人获得了中国藏语系高级佛学院“拓然巴”高级学衔。
The system whereby Tibetan Buddhist monks learn sutras is improving since the autonomous region issued the Opinions on Building a Branch of the Tibetan Buddhist Institute and Methods of Awarding Academic Ranks in the Tibetan Buddhist Institute (trial). The China Tibetan Language High-level Institute of Buddhism has been set up in Beijing, and the Tibetan Buddhist Institute in Lhasa. Both recruit and train senior Buddhist teaching personnel. More than 60 monasteries of various sects in Tibet have their own sutra learning classes, and teach and confer degrees according to tradition. Since 2005, senior academic ranks examinations and degree conferring ceremonies have been held each year at the China Tibetan Language High-level Institute of Buddhism in Beijing, and degree examinations unique to Gelug held in Jokhang Temple and the three major monasteries in Lhasa. So far, a total of 84 monks have received senior academic titles in Lhasa and 46 in Beijing.

八、推进生态文明建设
VIII. Promoting Ecological Progress

西藏是中国重要的生态安全屏障。多年来,西藏自治区政府遵循经济规律、社会规律和自然规律,注重经济、社会、生态的和谐统一,坚持走可持续发展之路。近年来,自治区政府提出了建设西藏生态安全屏障以及建设生态西藏、美丽西藏的战略目标,对西藏的生态环境保护与建设进行全面规划和部署。
Tibet is an important ecological safety barrier in China. Over past decades, in keeping with economic, social and natural laws, Tibet has followed a sustainable path compatible with the harmonious coexistence of economy, society, and the ecological environment. In recent years, with the strategic objectives of building an ecological safety barrier as well as an ecologically healthy and beautiful Tibet, the regional government has drawn up systematic plans to build and protect Tibet’s ecological environment.

西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划全面实施。2009年2月18日国务院第50次常务会议审议通过了《西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划(2008—2030年)》(以下简称《规划》),提出投资155亿元,到2030年基本建成西藏生态安全屏障。截至目前,共落实投资56.46亿元,《规划》确定的天然草地保护工程、森林防火及有害生物防治工程、野生动植物保护及保护区建设工程、重要湿地保护工程、农牧区传统能源替代工程、防护林体系建设工程、人工种草与天然草地改良工程、防沙治沙工程、水土流失治理工程、生态安全屏障监测工程3大类10项工程得到全面实施。
Plans to build and protect Tibet as an ecological safety barrier have been carried out. On February 18, 2009, the 50th executive meeting of the State Council deliberated and approved the Plan for Ecological Safety Barrier Protection and Improvement in Tibet (2008-2030), aiming to complete building the Tibet ecological safety barrier by 2030 with an investment of 15.5 billion yuan. So far, 5.646 billion yuan has been spent on the project. The 10 projects in three categories specified in the Plan, including natural grassland protection, forest fire prevention and pest control operation, wild animal and plant protection and nature reserves construction, key wetland protection, energy substitution program in agricultural and pastoral areas, shelterbelt network building, man-made grassland and deteriorated pastureland improvement, desertification control, water and soil conservation, and ecological safety barrier monitoring, are in full swing.

生物多样性与重要生态功能区得到有效保护。目前,西藏已建立各级各类自然保护区47处,总面积41.22万平方公里,约占全区国土面积的34.35%。建立生态功能保护区22个(国家级2个)、国家级风景名胜区4个、国家森林公园9个、国家湿地公园10个、地质公园4个(国家级3个),使西藏拥有的141种国家重点保护野生动物、38种国家重点保护野生植物和196种西藏特有动物物种、855种西藏特有植物物种以及重要生态系统得到了有效保护。西藏大中型野生动物种群数量居全国前列,藏羚羊种群数量由1995年的5万-7万只上升到目前的20万只以上,黑颈鹤由1995年的1000-3000只上升到目前的7000只左右,野牦牛、藏野驴等珍稀濒危野生动物种群数量稳中有增。
Biological diversity and key ecological reserves are under effective protection. Currently, Tibet has 47 nature reserves, which cover 412,200 sq km, or 34.35 percent of the total land area of the entire Region. It has also set up 22 ecological reserves (two at state level), four state level scenic spots, nine national forest parks, 10 national wetland parks, and four geological parks (three at state level), wherein 141 wild animal species and 38 species of wild plants are under state protection, 196 indigenous animal species, and 855 indigenous plants and important ecological systems are under effective protection. The large and medium-sized wildlife populations of Tibet lead the country: numbers of Tibetan antelopes have grown from 50,000 to 70,000 in 1995 to more than 200,000, and black-necked cranes from 1,000 to 3,000 in 1995 to 7,000. Numbers of such rare and endangered species as wild yaks and Tibetan wild donkeys are also steadily growing.

林业和草原生态建设成效显著。据2014年第八次全国森林资源清查结果,西藏森林覆盖率已达11.98%,森林面积1471.56万公顷,森林蓄积量22.62亿立方米,天然林蓄积22.61亿立方米、乔木林单位面积蓄积267立方米/公顷、重点公益林面积1011.27万公顷。西藏已经创造了人均森林面积、森林蓄积、天然林蓄积、乔木林蓄积、重点公益林面积5项指标全国第一。第四次与第三次全国荒漠化和沙化监测结果比较,西藏荒漠化土地减少了7.89万公顷,沙化土地减少了6.57万公顷,全区荒漠化和沙化土地扩展趋势得到遏制并首次出现逆转。截至2014年底,西藏有天然草地面积8433万公顷,其中可用天然草地面积7067万公顷。
Ecological development in forestry and grassland is making remarkable progress. According to the eighth national survey of forest resources conducted in 2014, the Region’s forest coverage rate was as high as 11.98 percent, covering a total area of 14.7156 million ha. Wood stock accounted for 2.262 billion cubic meters of forest, 2.261 billion cubic meters of virgin forest, and 267 cubic meters per ha. of high forest. The key non-commercial forest totals 10.1127 million ha. Tibet leads the country in terms of per capita forest coverage, stock of forest, virgin forest and high forest, and area of key non-commercial forest. Compared with the third national survey of desertification and sandification, the fourth survey shows a 78,900 ha. decline in desertification and 65,700 ha. decline in sandification in Tibet. This signifies that the situation has been checked and is now taking a turn for the better. By the end of 2014, there was 84.33 million ha. of natural grassland in Tibet, 70.67 million of which is usable.

生态补偿试点工作深入推进。中央在西藏实施森林、草地等生态补偿政策,每年全区落实各类补偿资金40余亿元。国家制定《西藏自治区森林生态效益补偿基金管理办法》,从2010年起,中央财政每年安排森林生态效益补偿资金7.72亿元,对全区生态公益林实施补偿。在2009-2010年5个县开展草原生态保护奖励机制试点工作的基础上,2011年开始在全区74个县区全面实施草原生态保护补助机制政策,每年落实补助奖励资金20.0981亿元,既保护了草原生态环境,又促进了农牧民增收。国家实施了重点生态功能保护区转移支付政策,将西藏18个县纳入了国家重点生态功能区转移支付范围,2014年落实资金10.83亿元。这些措施有效保护了国家和自治区重点公益林、基本草原及重要生态区域。
Eco-compensation pilot work is progressing. The central government applies eco-compensation policies to forest and grassland etc., in Tibet, having allocated more than four billion yuan each year to the Region. The state has also formulated the Measures for Management of Eco-Compensation Funds for Forest in Tibet Autonomous Region. From 2010, the central budget began granting annual 772 million yuan of eco-compensation to the Region’s non-commercial forest. Based on the pilot work to award grassland ecological protection to five counties from 2009 to 2010, in 2011 a policy to subsidize grassland ecological protection was fully implemented in 74 counties across the Region. It entailed spending 2.00981 billion yuan of subsidies and awards each year on protecting the grassland environment and increasing the income of farmers and herdsmen. The state has implemented the transfer payment policy in key ecological reserves, covering 18 counties of Tibet and spending 1.083 billion yuan in 2014. These measures help to protect key non-commercial forest, prime grassland and key ecological areas.

生态文明制度建设先行先试。2014年,国家发展和改革委员会等六部门联合印发了《关于开展生态文明先行示范区建设(第一批)的通知》,西藏山南地区、林芝地区被列为首批生态文明先行示范区,将着力在独立进行环境监督和行政执法、完善污染物排放许可制和企业单位污染物排放总量控制制度、建立生态环境损害赔偿责任终身追究制等方面先行先试,探索自然生态资源丰富、生态区位重要、边疆民族贫困地区生态文明建设的有效模式。
Tibet takes the lead in building ecological culture. In 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission and five other departments jointly issued the Notice on Building Ecological Culture Demonstration Areas (The First Group), listing Shannan and Nyingchi prefectures as the first group, which will take the lead in conducting independent environmental monitoring and enforcing environmental laws, improving the pollution discharge permit system and enterprise pollutant cap control system, and establishing a lifelong accountability system for environmental damage to explore effective models for building ecological culture in impoverished border areas mostly inhabited by ethnic minorities with rich ecological resources and value.

中科院和相关部门的监测评估显示,西藏高原各类生态系统结构整体稳定,生态质量稳定向好。西藏生态系统类型拥有除海洋生态系统之外的所有陆地生态系统类型,仍然是中国和全球重要的生物物种基因库和生物多样性保护重点地区。水、气、声、土壤、辐射及生态环境质量均保持良好状态,全区的江河、湖泊、森林、草场、湿地、冰川、雪山和野生动植物等都得到了有效保护,大部分区域仍处于原生状态。
As the surveys and evaluations of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and relevant departments show, Tibet Plateau boasts a stable and balanced ecological system with a stable eco-quality. Encompassing all terrestrial ecosystems, the Tibetan ecosystems remain important gene pools of China and the entire globe’s biological species, and a key area for biodiversity conservation. Its water, air, noise, soil, radiation, and ecological and environmental quality all remain in good condition, and its rivers, lakes, forests, grasslands, wetlands, glaciers, snow mountains, and wildlife are all under effective protection, most in the Region maintaining their original natural state.

结束语
Conclusion

过去的50年,在中国共产党和中央政府的坚强领导下,通过实行民族区域自治制度,西藏从落后走向进步,从贫穷走向富裕,从封闭走向开放,社会制度实现了历史性跨越,社会面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化。实践充分证明,实行民族区域自治制度,是西藏历史发展和社会进步的客观要求,符合西藏各族人民的根本利益。民族区域自治制度,完全适合中国国情和西藏地方的实际,是西藏发展进步的正确选择。
Over the past 50 years, under the firm leadership of the CPC and the central government, great changes have taken place in Tibet through implementing regional ethnic autonomy, achieving a historical leapfrog from a backward, impoverished, and isolated society into one which is now progressing, prospering, and open. Practice has fully demonstrated that regional ethnic autonomy is a requirement for Tibet’s development and progress, and conforms to the fundamental interests of all ethnic groups in Tibet. This system fits China’s national conditions and the reality of Tibet, and is thus the right choice for Tibet.

实行民族区域自治制度,使西藏各族人民实现了当家作主,享有充分的民主权利和广泛的经济社会文化权利。然而,多年来,十四世达赖集团出于“西藏独立”的政治目的,不断鼓吹“中间道路”,大肆兜售“大藏区”“高度自治”,否定民族区域自治制度,否定在民族区域自治制度下西藏的发展进步。十四世达赖集团的分裂行径,完全违背了中国宪法和中国国家制度,极大损害了西藏各族人民的根本利益,遭到了包括西藏各族人民在内的全体中国人民的坚决反对,注定逃脱不了失败的命运。
The Region’s ethnic autonomy helps people of all ethnic groups in Tibet become their own masters and enjoy full democratic and extensive economic, social and cultural rights. Over the years, the 14th Dalai Lama clique, in plotting towards “Tibetan independence,” has constantly preached the “middle way,” peddled the concept of a “Greater Tibet,” and lobbied for “a high degree of autonomy,” so negating regional ethnic autonomy and its contribution to Tibet’s progress. The 14th Dalai group’s separatist activities violate the Constitution of China and its state system, and greatly damage the fundamental interests of all ethnic groups in Tibet, which is why they have met strong opposition from all Chinese people, including those of all ethnic groups in Tibet, and hence why they are doomed to fail.

当前,西藏各族人民正与全国人民一道,为全面建成小康社会、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗。随着中国特色社会主义建设事业的不断发展,民族区域自治制度必将进一步发展和完善,西藏各族人民必将在更高的起点上谱写当家作主的新篇章。 Currently, people of all ethnic groups in Tibet are working hard, along with the whole nation, to build China into a prosperous society in all respects and realize the great dream of rejuvenating the Chinese nation. With the advance of the socialist undertaking with Chinese characteristics, the system of regional ethnic autonomy will be further developed and improved, enabling people of all ethnic groups in Tibet to be their own masters at an even higher level.

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