双语:中共中央 国务院关于完整准确全面贯彻新发展理念做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见 PDF下载

双语全文(PDF见文末)

中共中央 国务院关于完整准确全面贯彻新发展理念做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见
WORKING GUIDANCE FOR CARBON DIOXIDE PEAKING AND CARBON NEUTRALITY IN FULL AND FAITHFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY

(2021年9月22日)
Sept 22, 2021

 

实现碳达峰、碳中和,是以习近平同志为核心的党中央统筹国内国际两个大局作出的重大战略决策,是着力解决资源环境约束突出问题、实现中华民族永续发展的必然选择,是构建人类命运共同体的庄严承诺。为完整、准确、全面贯彻新发展理念,做好碳达峰、碳中和工作,现提出如下意见。
To peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality is a major strategic decision taken by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core in light of both domestic and international imperatives. This is the natural choice for China to address acute resource and environmental constraints and achieve sustained development of the Chinese nation, and constitutes China’s solemn commitment to building a shared future for mankind. In full and faithful implementation of the new development philosophy, the work on carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality should be guided by the following:

一、总体要求
I. GENERAL GUIDANCE

(一)指导思想。以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,深入贯彻习近平生态文明思想,立足新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,坚持系统观念,处理好发展和减排、整体和局部、短期和中长期的关系,把碳达峰、碳中和纳入经济社会发展全局,以经济社会发展全面绿色转型为引领,以能源绿色低碳发展为关键,加快形成节约资源和保护环境的产业结构、生产方式、生活方式、空间格局,坚定不移走生态优先、绿色低碳的高质量发展道路,确保如期实现碳达峰、碳中和。
1.Guiding Principles
We must follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, fully implement the guiding principles from the 19th CPC National Congress and the second through fifth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, and thoroughly apply Xi Jinping’s thought on ecological civilization. We need to ground our work in the new stage of development, apply the new development philosophy, and foster a new pattern of development. Through the application of systematic thinking, we will strike a balance between development and emissions reduction, between overall and local imperatives, and between short-term and longer-term considerations. Endeavors to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality must be incorporated into the overall economic and social development framework. In this way, we aim to effect a comprehensive green transformation in respect of economic and social development, with a special focus on the development of green and low-carbon energy, with a view to expediting the development of industrial structures, production modes, living patterns, and spatial zones that will conserve resources and protect the environment. We are firmly committed to a green, low-carbon and high-quality development path that gives primacy to ecological civilization. This will ensure that the carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality goals are achieved as planned.

 

(二)工作原则

实现碳达峰、碳中和目标,要坚持“全国统筹、节约优先、双轮驱动、内外畅通、防范风险”原则。
2.Working Guidelines
To achieve the objectives for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality, we must follow the principles of exercising nationwide planning, prioritizing conservation, leveraging the strengths of the government and the market, coordinating efforts on the domestic and international fronts, and guarding against risks.

 

——全国统筹。全国一盘棋,强化顶层设计,发挥制度优势,实行党政同责,压实各方责任。根据各地实际分类施策,鼓励主动作为、率先达峰。
 Exercising nationwide planning. Taking a whole-of-nation approach, we will strengthen top-level design, leverage institutional strengths, hold both CPC committees and governments responsible, and ensure responsibilities are fulfilled by all parties. Policies will be implemented on a categorized basis in light of local circumstance in order to encourage local authorities to act on their own initiative and take the lead in peaking carbon dioxide emissions.

——节约优先。把节约能源资源放在首位,实行全面节约战略,持续降低单位产出能源资源消耗和碳排放,提高投入产出效率,倡导简约适度、绿色低碳生活方式,从源头和入口形成有效的碳排放控制阀门。
 Prioritizing conservation. To give first priority to the conservation of energy and resources, we need to introduce a comprehensive conservation strategy. We will continue to reduce energy and resource consumption and carbon emissions per unit of output, improve resource input-output efficiency, advocate simple, moderate, green and low-carbon living patterns, and effectively control carbon emissions at their source and point of entry.

——双轮驱动。政府和市场两手发力,构建新型举国体制,强化科技和制度创新,加快绿色低碳科技革命。深化能源和相关领域改革,发挥市场机制作用,形成有效激励约束机制。
 Leveraging the strengths of the government and the market. Both the government and the market have an important role to play. We need to establish a new system for mobilizing the nation to boost technological and institutional innovation and accelerate the revolution in green and low-carbon technology. We will deepen reform in energy and related fields, give full play to the role of market mechanisms, and create effective incentive and restraint mechanisms.

——内外畅通。立足国情实际,统筹国内国际能源资源,推广先进绿色低碳技术和经验。统筹做好应对气候变化对外斗争与合作,不断增强国际影响力和话语权,坚决维护我国发展权益。
 Coordinating efforts on the domestic and international fronts. Based on China’s national context, we will coordinate planning for domestic and international energy and resources and promote advanced green and low-carbon technologies and practices. In the international response to climate change, we need to be prepared to both stand our ground and engage in cooperation, continue to increase China’s influence and voice on the world stage, and resolutely safeguard our development rights and interests.

——防范风险。处理好减污降碳和能源安全、产业链供应链安全、粮食安全、群众正常生活的关系,有效应对绿色低碳转型可能伴随的经济、金融、社会风险,防止过度反应,确保安全降碳。
 Guarding against risks. The efforts to reduce pollution and carbon emissions must be balanced with the need to ensure the security of energy, industrial chains, supply chains, and food, as well as normal daily life. We need to respond appropriately to any economic, financial, and social risks that may arise during the green and low-carbon transformation to prevent any excessive response and ensure carbon emissions are reduced in a safe and secure way.

 

二、主要目标
II. MAIN OBJECTIVES

到2025年,绿色低碳循环发展的经济体系初步形成,重点行业能源利用效率大幅提升。单位国内生产总值能耗比2020年下降13.5%;单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2020年下降18%;非化石能源消费比重达到20%左右;森林覆盖率达到24.1%,森林蓄积量达到180亿立方米,为实现碳达峰、碳中和奠定坚实基础。
By 2025, China will have created an initial framework for a green, low-carbon and circular economy and greatly improved the energy efficiency of key industries. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will be lowered by 13.5% from the 2020 level; carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit of GDP will be lowered by 18% from the 2020 level; the share of non-fossil energy consumption will have reached around 20%; the forest coverage rate will have reached 24.1%, and the forest stock volume will have risen to 18 billion cubic meters. All the above will lay a solid foundation for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality.

到2030年,经济社会发展全面绿色转型取得显著成效,重点耗能行业能源利用效率达到国际先进水平。单位国内生产总值能耗大幅下降;单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2005年下降65%以上;非化石能源消费比重达到25%左右,风电、太阳能发电总装机容量达到12亿千瓦以上;森林覆盖率达到25%左右,森林蓄积量达到190亿立方米,二氧化碳排放量达到峰值并实现稳中有降。
By 2030, China will see significant accomplishments from the comprehensive green transformation in economic and social development, with energy efficiency in key energy-consuming industries reaching advanced international levels. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will have declined significantly; CO2 emissions per unit of GDP will have dropped by more than 65% compared with the 2005 level; the share of non-fossil energy consumption will have reached around 25%, with the total installed capacity of wind power and solar power reaching over 1200 gigawatts; the forest coverage rate will have reached about 25%, and the forest stock volume will have reached 19 billion cubic meters. CO2 emissions will reach peak and stabilization and then decline.

到2060年,绿色低碳循环发展的经济体系和清洁低碳安全高效的能源体系全面建立,能源利用效率达到国际先进水平,非化石能源消费比重达到80%以上,碳中和目标顺利实现,生态文明建设取得丰硕成果,开创人与自然和谐共生新境界。
By 2060, China will have fully established a green, low-carbon and circular economy and a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system. Energy efficiency will be at the advanced international level, and the share of non-fossil energy consumption will be over 80%. China will be carbon neutral, and it will have achieved fruitful results in ecological civilization and reached a new level of harmony between humanity and nature.

三、推进经济社会发展全面绿色转型
III. PROMOTING COMPREHENSIVE GREEN TRANSFORMATION IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

(三)强化绿色低碳发展规划引领。将碳达峰、碳中和目标要求全面融入经济社会发展中长期规划,强化国家发展规划、国土空间规划、专项规划、区域规划和地方各级规划的支撑保障。加强各级各类规划间衔接协调,确保各地区各领域落实碳达峰、碳中和的主要目标、发展方向、重大政策、重大工程等协调一致。
3.Strengthening guidance in planning of green and low-carbon development. We will fully incorporate the objectives for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality into the medium- and long-term plans for economic and social development, and we will reinforce the support and safeguards of national development plans, territorial spatial plans and sector-based plans, as well as plans at the regional and local level. We will enhance coordination between various categories and levels of plans to ensure that across all regions and sectors, carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality objectives, development directions, and major policies and projects are aligned and consistent.

(四)优化绿色低碳发展区域布局。持续优化重大基础设施、重大生产力和公共资源布局,构建有利于碳达峰、碳中和的国土空间开发保护新格局。在京津冀协同发展、长江经济带发展、粤港澳大湾区建设、长三角一体化发展、黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展等区域重大战略实施中,强化绿色低碳发展导向和任务要求。
4.Optimizing plans for regional green and low-carbon development. We will continue to optimize the layout of major infrastructure, major production capacities, and public resources and create a new model of development and protection for territorial space that will help to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality. Stronger guidance and requirements on green and low-carbon development will be provided in the implementation of major regional development strategies, including the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt, the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, and the ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

(五)加快形成绿色生产生活方式。大力推动节能减排,全面推进清洁生产,加快发展循环经济,加强资源综合利用,不断提升绿色低碳发展水平。扩大绿色低碳产品供给和消费,倡导绿色低碳生活方式。把绿色低碳发展纳入国民教育体系。开展绿色低碳社会行动示范创建。凝聚全社会共识,加快形成全民参与的良好格局。
5.Accelerating the formation of green production modes and living patterns. In the endeavor to conserve energy and reduce emissions, we will promote clean production across the board, accelerate the development of a circular economy, and improve comprehensive resource utilization, so as to continuously enhance the level of green and low-carbon development. We will expand the supply and consumption of products and advocate living patterns that are green and low-carbon. We should incorporate green and low-carbon development into our national education system, and we will launch demonstration initiatives for a green and low-carbon society. We will build societal consensus and move quickly to create a system for facilitating full public participation.

 

四、深度调整产业结构
IV. IN-DEPTH INDUSTRIAL RESTRUCTURING

(六)推动产业结构优化升级。加快推进农业绿色发展,促进农业固碳增效。制定能源、钢铁、有色金属、石化化工、建材、交通、建筑等行业和领域碳达峰实施方案。以节能降碳为导向,修订产业结构调整指导目录。开展钢铁、煤炭去产能“回头看”,巩固去产能成果。加快推进工业领域低碳工艺革新和数字化转型。开展碳达峰试点园区建设。加快商贸流通、信息服务等绿色转型,提升服务业低碳发展水平。
6.Optimizing and upgrading industrial structures. We will move faster to promote green agricultural development and improve carbon sequestration and efficiency in agriculture. We will create implementation plans for industries and fields including energy, steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, building materials, transportation and construction. Based on the goals of energy conservation and carbon reduction, we will revise the Catalog for Guiding Industry Restructuring. Authorities will be “looking back” to inspect steel and coal facilities that have cut overcapacity in order to consolidate achievements in this area. We will accelerate innovation in low-carbon industrial processes and the digital transformation of the industrial sector. We will launch the construction of demonstration zones for peaking carbon dioxide emissions. In fields such as goods distribution and information services, green transformations will be accelerated, and low-carbon development will be enhanced in the service sector.

(七)坚决遏制高耗能高排放项目盲目发展。新建、扩建钢铁、水泥、平板玻璃、电解铝等高耗能高排放项目严格落实产能等量或减量置换,出台煤电、石化、煤化工等产能控制政策。未纳入国家有关领域产业规划的,一律不得新建改扩建炼油和新建乙烯、对二甲苯、煤制烯烃项目。合理控制煤制油气产能规模。提升高耗能高排放项目能耗准入标准。加强产能过剩分析预警和窗口指导。
7.Firmly curbing irrational expansion of energy-intensive and high-emission projects. Capacity substitutions must be strictly implemented at equal or reduced levels for new entries and expansion of energy-intensive and high-emission projects in areas such as steel, cement, flat glass, and electrolytic aluminum. We will introduce production capacity control policies for coal-fired power, petrochemical, and coal-based chemical industries. Oil refinery operations not listed in national industrial plans will be prohibited from engaging in new construction, reconstruction, or expansion, and unlisted ethylene, paraxylene, and coal-to-olefins projects will be banned from engaging in new construction. We will keep production capacity for coal-to-liquids and coal-to-gas at an appropriate scale, raise the energy-consumption access standards for energy-intensive and high-emission projects, and enhance analysis, early warnings, and window guidance for overcapacity.

(八)大力发展绿色低碳产业。加快发展新一代信息技术、生物技术、新能源、新材料、高端装备、新能源汽车、绿色环保以及航空航天、海洋装备等战略性新兴产业。建设绿色制造体系。推动互联网、大数据、人工智能、第五代移动通信(5G)等新兴技术与绿色低碳产业深度融合。
8.Vigorously developing green and low-carbon industries. We need to accelerate the development of strategic emerging industries in areas such as next-generation information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, environmental protection, aerospace, and marine equipment. We will establish a green manufacturing system and embed the internet, big data, artificial intelligence, 5G, and other emerging technologies into green and low-carbon industries.

 

五、加快构建清洁低碳安全高效能源体系
V. ACCELERATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CLEAN, LOW-CARBON, SAFE AND EFFICIENT ENERGY SYSTEM

(九)强化能源消费强度和总量双控。坚持节能优先的能源发展战略,严格控制能耗和二氧化碳排放强度,合理控制能源消费总量,统筹建立二氧化碳排放总量控制制度。做好产业布局、结构调整、节能审查与能耗双控的衔接,对能耗强度下降目标完成形势严峻的地区实行项目缓批限批、能耗等量或减量替代。强化节能监察和执法,加强能耗及二氧化碳排放控制目标分析预警,严格责任落实和评价考核。加强甲烷等非二氧化碳温室气体管控。
9.Strengthening dual-controls over energy intensity and gross energy consumption. Adhering to a conservation-first energy development strategy, we will strictly control energy consumption and CO2 emission intensity, appropriately control total energy consumption, and establish a system to control the total volume of CO2 emissions. We must ensure proper linkages among the spatial distribution of industries, structure adjustment, energy conservation audit, dual-controls over energy intensity and total energy consumption, so that regions in danger of missing energy intensity reduction targets will face delay or restriction of project approvals and introduce energy substitutions at equal or reduced levels. We will step up supervision and law enforcement of energy conservation, enhance analysis and early warning for energy consumption and CO2 emission control targets, and ensure strict responsibility implementation and performance evaluations. Controls over methane and other non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs) will also be strengthened.

(十)大幅提升能源利用效率。把节能贯穿于经济社会发展全过程和各领域,持续深化工业、建筑、交通运输、公共机构等重点领域节能,提升数据中心、新型通信等信息化基础设施能效水平。健全能源管理体系,强化重点用能单位节能管理和目标责任。瞄准国际先进水平,加快实施节能降碳改造升级,打造能效“领跑者”。
10.Significantly improving energy efficiency. Energy conservation must be a key feature of the entire process and all sectors of economic and social development. We must continue to improve energy conservation in key areas including industry, construction, transportation, and public institutions and enhance the energy efficiency of data centers, new communications, and other information infrastructure. We will improve the energy management system and strengthen management for major energy consumers and assign them stronger targets and responsibilities. To reach advanced international efficiency standards, we should accelerate energy conservation and carbon reduction retrofits and upgrades and work to cultivate leaders in energy efficiency.

(十一)严格控制化石能源消费。加快煤炭减量步伐,“十四五”时期严控煤炭消费增长,“十五五”时期逐步减少。石油消费“十五五”时期进入峰值平台期。统筹煤电发展和保供调峰,严控煤电装机规模,加快现役煤电机组节能升级和灵活性改造。逐步减少直至禁止煤炭散烧。加快推进页岩气、煤层气、致密油气等非常规油气资源规模化开发。强化风险管控,确保能源安全稳定供应和平稳过渡。
11.Strictly controlling fossil fuel consumption. Coal consumption will be reduced at an accelerated pace. We will strictly limit the increase in coal consumption over the 14th Five-Year Plan period and phase it down in the 15th Five-Year Plan period, when petroleum consumption will reach its peak plateau. Coal-fired power will be developed in coordination with power supplies and peak shaving capacities, so as to strictly control coal-fired power generation projects. Upgrades and power flexibility retrofitting projects should be accelerated for existing coal power generators. The burning of bulk coal will be gradually phased out before the introduction of a complete ban. Scaled development of unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale gas, coal bed gas, and tight oil and gas will pick up pace. Risk management must be enhanced to ensure a stable and safe energy supply and a smooth transition.

(十二)积极发展非化石能源。实施可再生能源替代行动,大力发展风能、太阳能、生物质能、海洋能、地热能等,不断提高非化石能源消费比重。坚持集中式与分布式并举,优先推动风能、太阳能就地就近开发利用。因地制宜开发水能。积极安全有序发展核电。合理利用生物质能。加快推进抽水蓄能和新型储能规模化应用。统筹推进氢能“制储输用”全链条发展。构建以新能源为主体的新型电力系统,提高电网对高比例可再生能源的消纳和调控能力。
12.Actively developing non-fossil energy. We will carry out initiatives to substitute renewable energy for fossil fuels, vigorously develop wind, solar, biomass, marine, and geothermal energy sources among others, and continuously increase the share of non-fossil energy in total energy consumption. We will advocate both centralized and distributed energy production, while prioritizing local development and use of wind and solar power. We will develop hydro power according to local circumstances, actively develop nuclear power in a safe and orderly manner, and take appropriate steps to develop biomass energy. Faster moves must be made to scale up the use of pumped storage hydro power and other new forms of energy storage. We will coordinate the development of a complete hydrogen energy chain covering production, storage, transmission, and use. To develop new electric power systems based on new energy sources, we must boost the capacity of the power grid to uptake and accommodate a high proportion of renewable energy.

(十三)深化能源体制机制改革。全面推进电力市场化改革,加快培育发展配售电环节独立市场主体,完善中长期市场、现货市场和辅助服务市场衔接机制,扩大市场化交易规模。推进电网体制改革,明确以消纳可再生能源为主的增量配电网、微电网和分布式电源的市场主体地位。加快形成以储能和调峰能力为基础支撑的新增电力装机发展机制。完善电力等能源品种价格市场化形成机制。从有利于节能的角度深化电价改革,理顺输配电价结构,全面放开竞争性环节电价。推进煤炭、油气等市场化改革,加快完善能源统一市场。
13.Deepening reforms of energy systems and mechanisms. We will advance market-oriented reforms in the electric power sector across the board, accelerating the development of independent market entities in the distribution and sales fields and improving the linking mechanisms for medium- and long-term markets, spot markets, and ancillary services markets, so as to achieve an expansion in the scale of market transactions. We will advance reform of the power grid system and clarify the market entity positions of incremental distribution network, microgrids, and distributed power sources that mostly operate on renewable energy. We must accelerate the formation of a development mechanism for new power installations based on power storage and peak-shaving capacities. We will improve market pricing mechanisms for electricity and other energy types. We will carry out electricity price reforms with a view to promoting energy conservation, overhauling pricing structures for transmission and distribution, and lifting all pricing controls in competitive areas. Market reforms will be advanced in areas like coal, oil, and gas, and faster steps will be taken to improve the national unified energy market.

六、加快推进低碳交通运输体系建设
VI. ACCELERATING THE CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW-CARBON TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

(十四)优化交通运输结构。加快建设综合立体交通网,大力发展多式联运,提高铁路、水路在综合运输中的承运比重,持续降低运输能耗和二氧化碳排放强度。优化客运组织,引导客运企业规模化、集约化经营。加快发展绿色物流,整合运输资源,提高利用效率。
14.Improving the transportation structure. In an accelerated effort to put in place an integrated multi-dimensional transportation system, we will vigorously develop multimodal transportation and raise the proportion of rail and water transportation to achieve a sustained reduction in energy consumption and the CO2 emissions intensity in the transportation sector. The organization of passenger transportation should be improved, and passenger transportation enterprises should be guided toward larger-scale and more intensive operations. Green logistics will be developed more rapidly, and transportation resources should be integrated to ensure higher efficiency.

(十五)推广节能低碳型交通工具。加快发展新能源和清洁能源车船,推广智能交通,推进铁路电气化改造,推动加氢站建设,促进船舶靠港使用岸电常态化。加快构建便利高效、适度超前的充换电网络体系。提高燃油车船能效标准,健全交通运输装备能效标识制度,加快淘汰高耗能高排放老旧车船。
15.Encouraging the use of energy-conserving and low-carbon transportation vehicles. We need to develop new-energy and clean-energy vehicles and vessels more rapidly, promote intelligent transportation, move forward with the electrification of railways, push forward construction of hydrogen refueling stations, and make the use of onshore power as a routine practice for vessels approaching ports. We need to have an appropriate degree of forward planning as we move faster to build a convenient, efficient network of battery charging and swapping facilities. We need to raise energy efficiency standards for fossil fuel vehicles and vessels, improve the energy efficiency labeling system for transportation vehicles and equipment, and move faster to eliminate old, energy-intensive, and high-emission vehicles and vessels.

(十六)积极引导低碳出行。加快城市轨道交通、公交专用道、快速公交系统等大容量公共交通基础设施建设,加强自行车专用道和行人步道等城市慢行系统建设。综合运用法律、经济、技术、行政等多种手段,加大城市交通拥堵治理力度。
16.Encouraging low-carbon means of transportation. We need to accelerate the development of urban rail transit, bus lanes, bus rapid transit, and other forms of large-capacity public transportation and strengthen the development of bike lanes, pedestrian walkways, and other facilities for slow urban transportation systems. Legal, economic, technical, administrative, and other means will be comprehensively utilized to tackle urban traffic congestion.

 

七、提升城乡建设绿色低碳发展质量
VII. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF GREEN AND LOW-CARBON DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

(十七)推进城乡建设和管理模式低碳转型。在城乡规划建设管理各环节全面落实绿色低碳要求。推动城市组团式发展,建设城市生态和通风廊道,提升城市绿化水平。合理规划城镇建筑面积发展目标,严格管控高能耗公共建筑建设。实施工程建设全过程绿色建造,健全建筑拆除管理制度,杜绝大拆大建。加快推进绿色社区建设。结合实施乡村建设行动,推进县城和农村绿色低碳发展。
17.Promoting low-carbon transformation in urban and rural development and management mode. Green and low-carbon requirements must be applied to every link of urban and rural planning, development, and management. We will promote the development of city clusters, develop urban ecological corridors and ventilation channels, and promote afforestation in urban areas. The gross floor area for buildings in urban will be set at a reasonable level, and strict limits will be enforced on public buildings with high energy consumption. We need to ensure green building practices are applied throughout the construction process, improve the management system for the demolition of buildings, and avoid demolition and construction on a large scale. The development of green communities will be accelerated. In comprehensively advancing rural development initiatives, we need to promote the green and low-carbon development of county towns and rural areas.

(十八)大力发展节能低碳建筑。持续提高新建建筑节能标准,加快推进超低能耗、近零能耗、低碳建筑规模化发展。大力推进城镇既有建筑和市政基础设施节能改造,提升建筑节能低碳水平。逐步开展建筑能耗限额管理,推行建筑能效测评标识,开展建筑领域低碳发展绩效评估。全面推广绿色低碳建材,推动建筑材料循环利用。发展绿色农房。
18.Vigorously promoting energy-conserving and low-carbon buildings. We must continuously raise energy conservation standards for new buildings and accelerate the large-scale development of ultra-low energy, near-zero energy, and low-carbon buildings. We need to advance energy conservation retrofits of urban buildings and municipal infrastructure and ensure buildings consume less energy and emit less carbon. We will gradually introduce energy consumption caps as well as energy efficiency assessment and labeling for buildings, and we need to conduct low-carbon development assessments in the construction industry. We will comprehensively promote green and low-carbon building materials and promote the recycling of building materials. We will also encourage the development of green housing in rural areas.

(十九)加快优化建筑用能结构。深化可再生能源建筑应用,加快推动建筑用能电气化和低碳化。开展建筑屋顶光伏行动,大幅提高建筑采暖、生活热水、炊事等电气化普及率。在北方城镇加快推进热电联产集中供暖,加快工业余热供暖规模化发展,积极稳妥推进核电余热供暖,因地制宜推进热泵、燃气、生物质能、地热能等清洁低碳供暖。
19.Moving faster to improve the energy consumption structure of buildings. The use of renewable energy in buildings will be promoted, and the conversion to electric and low-carbon energy in buildings should be accelerated. We will launch rooftop photovoltaic initiatives and greatly increase the electrification rate for heating in buildings, domestic water heating, and cooking. We will move more rapidly to advance combined heat and power (CHP) central heating in cities and towns in northern China and to promote the large-scale application of residual heat from industrial processes in heating systems, while taking active and prudent steps to promote heating produced through nuclear waste heat recovery. In addition, we need to advance clean and low-carbon forms of heating such as heat pumps, gas, biomass energy and geothermal energy in light of local conditions.

 

八、加强绿色低碳重大科技攻关和推广应用
VIII. STRENGTHENING RESEARCH ON GREEN AND LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES AND PROMOTING THEIR APPLICATION

(二十)强化基础研究和前沿技术布局。制定科技支撑碳达峰、碳中和行动方案,编制碳中和技术发展路线图。采用“揭榜挂帅”机制,开展低碳零碳负碳和储能新材料、新技术、新装备攻关。加强气候变化成因及影响、生态系统碳汇等基础理论和方法研究。推进高效率太阳能电池、可再生能源制氢、可控核聚变、零碳工业流程再造等低碳前沿技术攻关。培育一批节能降碳和新能源技术产品研发国家重点实验室、国家技术创新中心、重大科技创新平台。建设碳达峰、碳中和人才体系,鼓励高等学校增设碳达峰、碳中和相关学科专业。
20.Strengthening basic research and research on cutting-edge technologies. We will formulate an action plan to ensure science and technology better support our endeavor to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality and develop a technological roadmap to carbon neutrality. We will continue with the open competition mechanism to select the best candidates to lead research on low-carbon, zero-carbon and carbon-negative technologies and on new materials, technologies, and equipment for energy storage. We need to strengthen research on basic theories and methods concerning the cause and impact of climate change as well as on carbon sinks in ecosystems. We must work toward breakthroughs in cutting-edge low-carbon technologies such as high-efficiency solar batteries, hydrogen production from renewable energy sources, controlled nuclear fusion, and zero-carbon industrial process reengineering. We need to develop key national laboratories, national technological innovation centers, and major scientific and technological innovation platforms for the research and development of energy-saving, carbon-reducing, and new-energy technologies and products. We need to develop a talent pool for the task of peaking carbon dioxide emissions and achieving carbon neutrality and encourage universities and colleges to establish disciplines and majors relevant to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality.

(二十一)加快先进适用技术研发和推广。深入研究支撑风电、太阳能发电大规模友好并网的智能电网技术。加强电化学、压缩空气等新型储能技术攻关、示范和产业化应用。加强氢能生产、储存、应用关键技术研发、示范和规模化应用。推广园区能源梯级利用等节能低碳技术。推动气凝胶等新型材料研发应用。推进规模化碳捕集利用与封存技术研发、示范和产业化应用。建立完善绿色低碳技术评估、交易体系和科技创新服务平台。
21.Speeding up the research, development and dissemination of advanced and applicable technologies. We need to develop smart grid technologies that can support the smooth, large-scale integration of wind and solar power into the grid. We must strengthen research and industrial application of advanced energy storage technologies such as electrochemistry and compressed air energy storage. We also need to advance the research and large-scale application of key technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and application. We will promote energy-conserving and low-carbon technologies such as energy cascading utilization in industrial parks. The research and application of aerogel and other new materials will be strengthened. We will advance research, demonstration and industrial application of technologies of carbon capture, utilization and storage on a large scale. Steps should be taken to establish sound systems for the assessment and trading of green and low-carbon technologies as well as service platforms for scientific and technological innovation.

九、持续巩固提升碳汇能力
IX. CONTINUING TO CONSOLIDATE AND IMPROVING CARBON SINK CAPACITY

(二十二)巩固生态系统碳汇能力。强化国土空间规划和用途管控,严守生态保护红线,严控生态空间占用,稳定现有森林、草原、湿地、海洋、土壤、冻土、岩溶等固碳作用。严格控制新增建设用地规模,推动城乡存量建设用地盘活利用。严格执行土地使用标准,加强节约集约用地评价,推广节地技术和节地模式。
22.Consolidating the carbon sink capacity of ecosystems. We must strengthen the planning and use regulation of territorial space, and we must strictly enforce ecological conservation red lines and control the appropriation of ecological space. We need to stabilize the carbon sequestration function of existing forests, grasslands, wetlands, seas, soils, permafrost, and karst areas. We will strictly control the scale of incremental construction land and put into use urban and rural land held in reserve for construction. We must ensure full enforcement of land-use rules, enhance evaluations of economical and intensive land use, and promote the application of land-saving techniques and modes of development.

(二十三)提升生态系统碳汇增量。实施生态保护修复重大工程,开展山水林田湖草沙一体化保护和修复。深入推进大规模国土绿化行动,巩固退耕还林还草成果,实施森林质量精准提升工程,持续增加森林面积和蓄积量。加强草原生态保护修复。强化湿地保护。整体推进海洋生态系统保护和修复,提升红树林、海草床、盐沼等固碳能力。开展耕地质量提升行动,实施国家黑土地保护工程,提升生态农业碳汇。积极推动岩溶碳汇开发利用。
23.Increasing the carbon sink capacity of ecosystems. We will implement major projects for protecting and restoring ecosystems and coordinate the protection and restoration of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, grasslands and sandy lands. We need to promote further large-scale afforestation and consolidate the achievements made in returning marginal farmlands to forests and grasslands. We will implement projects to make targeted improvements to forest quality and continue to increase forest area and stock volume. We will strengthen grassland ecological protection and restoration as well as wetland protection. We need to promote protection and restoration of marine ecosystems in a holistic way and improve the carbon sequestration capacity of mangroves, seagrass beds, and salt marshes. We will launch initiatives to improve the quality of cultivated land, carry out a conservation project for China’s chernozem soils, and increase the carbon sink capacity of ecological agriculture. We will promote the development and utilization of karst areas as carbon sinks.

 

十、提高对外开放绿色低碳发展水平
X. PROMOTING A GREEN AND LOW-CARBON MODE OF OPENING UP

(二十四)加快建立绿色贸易体系。持续优化贸易结构,大力发展高质量、高技术、高附加值绿色产品贸易。完善出口政策,严格管理高耗能高排放产品出口。积极扩大绿色低碳产品、节能环保服务、环境服务等进口。
24.Accelerating the development of a green trade system. As we continue to improve the composition of trade, we need to make great efforts to promote the trading of green products that are high-quality, high value-added, and technologically advanced. Our export policies will be improved to exercise strict regulation over exports of energy-intensive and high-emission products. We will expand imports of green and low-carbon products, environmental services, and services for energy conservation and environmental protection.

(二十五)推进绿色“一带一路”建设。加快“一带一路”投资合作绿色转型。支持共建“一带一路”国家开展清洁能源开发利用。大力推动南南合作,帮助发展中国家提高应对气候变化能力。深化与各国在绿色技术、绿色装备、绿色服务、绿色基础设施建设等方面的交流与合作,积极推动我国新能源等绿色低碳技术和产品走出去,让绿色成为共建“一带一路”的底色。
25.Promoting the development of green Belt and Road. We will accelerate a green transformation in Belt and Road investment and cooperation practices and support the development and use of clean energy in participant countries. We will strive to promote South-South cooperation to help other developing countries better address climate change. We will deepen exchanges and cooperation with other countries on environment-friendly technology, equipment, services and infrastructure construction, actively encourage China’s new-energy and other green and low-carbon technologies and products to go global, and make green development a defining feature in the joint pursuit of the Belt and Road Initiative.

(二十六)加强国际交流与合作。积极参与应对气候变化国际谈判,坚持我国发展中国家定位,坚持共同但有区别的责任原则、公平原则和各自能力原则,维护我国发展权益。履行《联合国气候变化框架公约》及其《巴黎协定》,发布我国长期温室气体低排放发展战略,积极参与国际规则和标准制定,推动建立公平合理、合作共赢的全球气候治理体系。加强应对气候变化国际交流合作,统筹国内外工作,主动参与全球气候和环境治理。
26.Strengthening international exchanges and cooperation. China will take an active part in international talks on climate change. As a developing country, China adheres to the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities, respective capabilities, and fairness and safeguards its development rights and interests. We will follow the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement and issue China’s Mid-Century Long-Term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy. We will actively participate in formulating international rules and standards and promote the establishment of a fair and rational system for global climate governance based on mutually beneficial cooperation. We will strengthen international exchanges and cooperation on climate change and coordinate our domestic and international efforts to play an active role in global climate and environmental governance.

 

十一、健全法律法规标准和统计监测体系
XI. IMPROVING LAWS, REGULATIONS, STANDARDS AND STATISTICAL AND MONITORING SYSTEMS

(二十七)健全法律法规。全面清理现行法律法规中与碳达峰、碳中和工作不相适应的内容,加强法律法规间的衔接协调。研究制定碳中和专项法律,抓紧修订节约能源法、电力法、煤炭法、可再生能源法、循环经济促进法等,增强相关法律法规的针对性和有效性。
27.Improving laws and regulations. We will remove the contents in existing laws and regulations that are incompatible with the task of carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality and strengthen integration and coordination between laws and regulations. In addition to conducting research on formulating a specific law on carbon neutrality, we also need to expedite the revision of the Energy Conservation Law, the Electric Power Law, the Coal Industry Law, the Renewable Energy Law, the Law on Promoting the Circular Economy, and other laws to make relevant laws and regulations more targeted and effective.

(二十八)完善标准计量体系。建立健全碳达峰、碳中和标准计量体系。加快节能标准更新升级,抓紧修订一批能耗限额、产品设备能效强制性国家标准和工程建设标准,提升重点产品能耗限额要求,扩大能耗限额标准覆盖范围,完善能源核算、检测认证、评估、审计等配套标准。加快完善地区、行业、企业、产品等碳排放核查核算报告标准,建立统一规范的碳核算体系。制定重点行业和产品温室气体排放标准,完善低碳产品标准标识制度。积极参与相关国际标准制定,加强标准国际衔接。
28.Refining standard and measurement systems. We will improve standard and measurement systems for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality. We will accelerate the upgrading of energy conservation standards and promptly revise a number of mandatory national standards for energy consumption caps, compulsory national standards for the energy efficiency of equipment and products, and project construction standards. We need to raise the bar for energy consumption caps for key products, broaden the scope of standards for energy consumption caps, and improve energy accounting, testing certification, evaluation, auditing, and other complementary standards. We will speed up efforts to improve carbon emissions verification, accounting and reporting standards for regions, industries, businesses, and products and establish a unified, well-regulated carbon accounting system. We need to formulate standards for GHG emissions for key industries and products and improve the standard and labeling system for low-carbon products. We will take an active part in formulating relevant international standards and ensure domestic standards are consistent with international ones.

(二十九)提升统计监测能力。健全电力、钢铁、建筑等行业领域能耗统计监测和计量体系,加强重点用能单位能耗在线监测系统建设。加强二氧化碳排放统计核算能力建设,提升信息化实测水平。依托和拓展自然资源调查监测体系,建立生态系统碳汇监测核算体系,开展森林、草原、湿地、海洋、土壤、冻土、岩溶等碳汇本底调查和碳储量评估,实施生态保护修复碳汇成效监测评估。
29.Enhancing statistical and monitoring capacity. We need to establish statistical, monitoring, and measurement systems for energy consumption in power generation, steel, construction, and other industries and sectors and further develop the online system for monitoring energy consumption by major consumers. We need to build our statistical and accounting capacity for CO2 emissions and enhance the quality of measurement through the use of information technology. Building on the natural resource survey and monitoring system, we will develop a system for ecosystem carbon sink monitoring and accounting, conduct background surveys on carbon sinks and assessments of carbon storage in forests, grasslands, wetlands, seas, soils, permafrost, and karst areas, and monitor and evaluate carbon sink capacities of protected and restored ecosystems.

十二、完善政策机制
XII. IMPROVING POLICY MECHANISMS

(三十)完善投资政策。充分发挥政府投资引导作用,构建与碳达峰、碳中和相适应的投融资体系,严控煤电、钢铁、电解铝、水泥、石化等高碳项目投资,加大对节能环保、新能源、低碳交通运输装备和组织方式、碳捕集利用与封存等项目的支持力度。完善支持社会资本参与政策,激发市场主体绿色低碳投资活力。国有企业要加大绿色低碳投资,积极开展低碳零碳负碳技术研发应用。
30.Improving investment policies. To give full play to the guiding role of government investment, we need to build investment and financing systems tailored to the goals of carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality. We will strictly control investment in high-carbon projects in areas such as coal-fired power, steel, electrolytic aluminum, cement, and petroleum chemicals production. We will increase support for projects concerning energy conservation and environment protection, new energy, low-carbon transportation modes and equipment, and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. We need to improve policies for encouraging the participation of nongovernmental capital and motivate market entities to invest in green and low-carbon solutions. State-owned enterprises will scale up green and low-carbon investment and work actively to research, develop, and practically apply low-carbon, zero-carbon, and carbon-negative technologies.

(三十一)积极发展绿色金融。有序推进绿色低碳金融产品和服务开发,设立碳减排货币政策工具,将绿色信贷纳入宏观审慎评估框架,引导银行等金融机构为绿色低碳项目提供长期限、低成本资金。鼓励开发性政策性金融机构按照市场化法治化原则为实现碳达峰、碳中和提供长期稳定融资支持。支持符合条件的企业上市融资和再融资用于绿色低碳项目建设运营,扩大绿色债券规模。研究设立国家低碳转型基金。鼓励社会资本设立绿色低碳产业投资基金。建立健全绿色金融标准体系。
31.Actively developing green finance. We need to promote the development of green and low-carbon financial products and services in an orderly manner. We will develop monetary policy tools to support carbon emission reduction. The green credit initiative should be included in the macro-prudential evaluation framework, and guidance will be given to banks and other financial institutions on providing long-term, low-cost capital to green and low-carbon projects. We need to encourage development and policy-backed financial institutions to provide continued long-term funding support for the goals of carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality through market-oriented and law-based means. We will support qualified enterprises in going public and refinancing for the purpose of developing and running green and low-carbon projects, and we will increase green bonds. We need to carry out exploratory work on establishing a national fund for low-carbon transformation. Nongovernmental capital will be encouraged to set up green and low-carbon industrial investment funds. We will establish a sound system of standards for green finance.

(三十二)完善财税价格政策。各级财政要加大对绿色低碳产业发展、技术研发等的支持力度。完善政府绿色采购标准,加大绿色低碳产品采购力度。落实环境保护、节能节水、新能源和清洁能源车船税收优惠。研究碳减排相关税收政策。建立健全促进可再生能源规模化发展的价格机制。完善差别化电价、分时电价和居民阶梯电价政策。严禁对高耗能、高排放、资源型行业实施电价优惠。加快推进供热计量改革和按供热量收费。加快形成具有合理约束力的碳价机制。
32.Improving fiscal, tax and pricing policies. All levels of government must step up support for the development of green and low-carbon industries and their technological R&D efforts. We will refine the standards for green government procurement and step up procurement of green and low-carbon products. We will implement preferential tax policies for environment protection, energy and water conservation, new energy, and clean-energy vehicles and vessels. We will conduct research on formulating tax policies to support carbon emission reduction. We need to improve sound pricing mechanisms for promoting the large-scale development of renewable energy. We need to improve policies on differentiated electricity charges, time-of-use electricity pricing, and tiered pricing for household electricity consumption. Preferential electricity pricing must not be offered to energy-intensive, emission-intensive, or resource-consuming industries. We need to accelerate reforms on heat metering to promote metered charging based on usage. We need to speed up efforts to set up a rational binding mechanism for carbon pricing.

(三十三)推进市场化机制建设。依托公共资源交易平台,加快建设完善全国碳排放权交易市场,逐步扩大市场覆盖范围,丰富交易品种和交易方式,完善配额分配管理。将碳汇交易纳入全国碳排放权交易市场,建立健全能够体现碳汇价值的生态保护补偿机制。健全企业、金融机构等碳排放报告和信息披露制度。完善用能权有偿使用和交易制度,加快建设全国用能权交易市场。加强电力交易、用能权交易和碳排放权交易的统筹衔接。发展市场化节能方式,推行合同能源管理,推广节能综合服务。
33.Developing market-based mechanisms. Relying on trading platforms for public resources, we need to accelerate the development of the national market for trading carbon emission permits by gradually expanding its coverage, diversifying trading types and means, and improving the allocation and management of allowances. Carbon sink trading will be incorporated into the national carbon market, and an ecological compensation mechanism that reflects the value of carbon sinks will be established. The carbon emission reporting and information disclosure systems for enterprises and financial institutions need to be improved. We need to improve the systems for the paid use and trade of energy consumption permits and speed up the development of a national market for such permits. We need to better coordinate and align the trading of electricity, energy consumption permits, and carbon emission permits. We need to develop market-based means for energy conservation, carry out contracted energy management, and promote comprehensive energy conservation services.

 

十三、切实加强组织实施
XIII. STRENGTHENING ORGANIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

 

(三十四)加强组织领导。加强党中央对碳达峰、碳中和工作的集中统一领导,碳达峰碳中和工作领导小组指导和统筹做好碳达峰、碳中和工作。支持有条件的地方和重点行业、重点企业率先实现碳达峰,组织开展碳达峰、碳中和先行示范,探索有效模式和有益经验。将碳达峰、碳中和作为干部教育培训体系重要内容,增强各级领导干部推动绿色低碳发展的本领。
34.Strengthening organization and leadership. The CPC Central Committee will strengthen its centralized, unified leadership over the efforts to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality, and the Leading Group on Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality will guide and coordinate these efforts. We will support localities with the favorable conditions, key industries and key enterprises in taking the lead in carbon dioxide peaking, and we will organize and carry out demonstrations on carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality as a way to develop effective methods and useful practices. Carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality will be an important part of the officials education and training system to strengthen the ability of officials at all levels to effectively promote green and low-carbon development.

(三十五)强化统筹协调。国家发展改革委要加强统筹,组织落实2030年前碳达峰行动方案,加强碳中和工作谋划,定期调度各地区各有关部门落实碳达峰、碳中和目标任务进展情况,加强跟踪评估和督促检查,协调解决实施中遇到的重大问题。各有关部门要加强协调配合,形成工作合力,确保政策取向一致、步骤力度衔接。
35.Strengthening overall coordination. To strengthen overall coordination, the National Development and Reform Commission will work with local authorities and relevant government departments to organize the implementation of the Action Plan for Carbon Dioxide Peaking before 2030. It will ensure alignment between the work progress of all localities and relevant departments on a regular basis, strengthening tracking, evaluations, supervision, and inspections and coordinating efforts to resolve major issues during implementation. Relevant departments must increase coordination and cooperation, foster strong synergies, and ensure policies are consistent in direction and their implementation is well-aligned.

(三十六)压实地方责任。落实领导干部生态文明建设责任制,地方各级党委和政府要坚决扛起碳达峰、碳中和责任,明确目标任务,制定落实举措,自觉为实现碳达峰、碳中和作出贡献。
36.Reinforcing local responsibility. As per the leading official responsibility system for promoting ecological civilization, local CPC committees and governments at all levels must resolutely shoulder their responsibilities concerning carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality. They must set clear goals and tasks, formulate implementation measures, and consciously contribute to the endeavor to peak carbon dioxide emissions and achieve carbon neutrality.

(三十七)严格监督考核。各地区要将碳达峰、碳中和相关指标纳入经济社会发展综合评价体系,增加考核权重,加强指标约束。强化碳达峰、碳中和目标任务落实情况考核,对工作突出的地区、单位和个人按规定给予表彰奖励,对未完成目标任务的地区、部门依规依法实行通报批评和约谈问责,有关落实情况纳入中央生态环境保护督察。各地区各有关部门贯彻落实情况每年向党中央、国务院报告。
37.Tightening oversight and assessment. All local authorities must build targets for carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality and incorporate them into their comprehensive assessment systems for economic and social development, assign them greater weight in assessments, and make them more binding. Performance assessments for goals and tasks related to carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality must be strengthened, with outstanding regions, organizations, and individuals to be duly rewarded and commended and regions and departments that fail to accomplish their goals and tasks to be criticized by means of circular, called in for talks and held accountable in accordance with laws and regulations. The implementation shall be subject to the Central Inspections on Environmental Protection. All local authorities and relevant departments must annually submit implementation reports to the CPC Central Committee and the State Council.

PDF下载

链接: https://pan.baidu.com/s/1Cj0sYRoWuZ8vAGwqXAY7jg 提取码: 94c8

获取更多英语学习资源可以加入精品外刊QQ群: https://enclub.com/papers/ 精品视听QQ群: https://enclub.com/video/

发表评论

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注

微信公众号
QQ群