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双语:《中国性别平等与妇女发展》白皮书 PDF下载

双语全文(PDF见文末)

中国性别平等与妇女发展
Gender Equality and Women’s Development in China

(2015年9月)
September 2015, Beijing

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

目录
Contents

前言
Foreword

一、性别平等与妇女发展的机制保障
I. The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

二、妇女与经济
II. Women and the Economy

三、妇女与教育
III. Women and Education

四、妇女与健康
IV. Women and Health

五、妇女与决策管理
V. Women and Decision Making

六、妇女与环境
VI. Women and the Environment

七、性别平等与妇女发展的法治保障
VII. Legal Guarantees for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

八、性别平等与妇女发展的国际交流合作
VIII. International Exchanges and Cooperation in Gender Equality and Women’s Development

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Foreword

性别平等与妇女发展是人类追求公平、正义与平等的永恒主题,是社会文明进步的衡量尺度,是人类实现可持续发展的重要目标。
Gender equality and women’s development is a lasting theme of mankind’s pursuit of equality and justice, a scale for measuring social progress and an important goal in realizing sustainable development in our world.

中国始终坚持男女平等的宪法原则,将男女平等作为促进国家社会发展的一项基本国策,不断完善法律法规,制定公共政策,编制发展规划,持续推进性别平等与妇女发展。
China has always upheld the constitutional principle of equality between men and women, which is also a basic state policy for promoting progress in the country and in society. Over the years China has progressively improved its laws and regulations, developed public policies, worked out development plans and pressed forward steadily with gender equality and women’s development.

今年是联合国第四次世界妇女大会在北京召开20周年,中国政府特发表白皮书,全面介绍中国推动性别平等与妇女发展的政策措施和所做的不懈努力。
Twenty years ago, the UN’s Fourth World Conference on Women was held in Beijing. On its anniversary two decades later, the Chinese government is publishing this white paper to provide a comprehensive overview of China’s policies on gender equality and women’s development, as well as unremitting efforts made and measures implemented in this regard.

中国妇女占世界妇女人口的五分之一。中国性别平等与妇女发展既体现了中国的文明进步,也是对全球平等、发展与和平的历史贡献。
Chinese women make up one fifth of the world’s total female population. Gender equality and women’s development in China not only give expression to China’s own progress, but also constitute a historical contribution made to global equality, development and peace.

一、性别平等与妇女发展的机制保障
I. The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

国家建立提高妇女地位的机制,是充分利用政府资源,有效调动社会资源,推进性别平等与妇女发展的重要保障。20年来,中国提高妇女地位的机制不断健全,作用日益凸显。
China’s national mechanism for promoting the status of women, fully utilizing government resources and effectively mobilizing social resources, lays an important foundation for promoting gender equality and women’s development. Over the past two decades, the mechanism has been constantly improved to allow it to play an increasingly prominent role.

不断完善提高妇女地位的政府工作机构。1990年,中国成立了国务院妇女儿童工作委员会,负责组织、协调、指导、督促有关部门,共同促进性别平等与妇女发展。国务院妇女儿童工作委员会由相关政府部门部级领导组成,主任由国务院领导担任。20年来,成员单位从成立初的19个增至目前的35个,包括国家发展改革委、教育部、民政部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部、农业部、国家卫生计生委等29个部门和6个群体组织。国务院妇女儿童工作委员会下设办公室负责日常工作,配有专职工作人员和专项工作经费。全国31个省(区、市)县级以上人民政府均成立了相应机构,基本形成了纵向贯通、横向联动、协同配合的促进性别平等与妇女发展组织体系。
The state has kept improving government organs for promoting the status of women. In 1990, the State Council established the National Working Committee on Children and Women (NWCCW), which has been commissioned the responsibilities to organize, coordinate, guide, supervise and urge departments concerned in promoting gender equality and women’s development. Composed of leading ministerial-level members from relevant government organs, the Committee is chaired by a member of the State Council leadership. Over the previous 20 years, the Committee has expanded its member units from 19 to 35, now including government organs such as the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Agriculture, and the National Health and Family Planning Commission, in addition to six mass organizations. The Committee has a general office doing day-to-day work by full-time staff with specially allocated funds. Relevant organizations have been set up under people’s governments above the county level in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, forming a multi-dimensional and well-coordinated network for promoting gender equality and women’s development.

制定实施促进妇女发展的国家规划纲要。第十、第十一和第十二个国民经济和社会发展五年规划都将妇女发展列入其中,内容不断丰富,目标更加明确,措施更加有效,推动妇女与经济社会同步协调发展。国务院先后颁布三个周期的中国妇女发展纲要,明确各阶段妇女发展的总体目标、重点领域及策略措施,全国31个省(区、市)县级以上人民政府分别制定本地区妇女发展规划,形成了全国自上而下促进妇女发展的规划体系。各级妇女儿童工作委员会分别建立目标管理责任制,将主要目标分解到相关职能部门,并纳入相关专项规划加以落实;建立纲要评估机制,对纲要落实情况进行年度监测评估、中期督导评估和终期总结评估,确保纲要规划目标如期实现。
The state has developed and implemented national plans and programs for promoting women’s development. Women’s development was included in China’s 10th, 11th and 12th five-year plans for economic and social development, each time with greater emphasis, clearer goals, and more effective measures for promoting coordinated development between Chinese women and China’s economy and society. The State Council has issued three programs covering different periods for the development of Chinese women, clearly defining the overall goals, key areas and policies and measures to be adopted for women’s development at different stages. People’s governments at and above the county level in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have worked out similar programs for women’s development for areas within their respective jurisdiction, thus forming a top-down framework for promoting women’s development at all levels. Adopting the target management responsibility system, the working committees on children and women at various levels resolve and allocate the main targets to the related functional departments of the governments and see to it that they are included in corresponding plans and implemented. They also established an appraisal system and carried out assessments of the implementation results of the programs at the end of every year, and in the middle and at the end of the implementation of the programs, ensuring that the targets set in these programs were met as scheduled.

建立健全政府主导、多部门合作、全社会参与的工作机制。国务院和地方各级政府定期召开妇女儿童工作会议,进行专题研究部署。国务院和地方妇女儿童工作委员会每年召开专题会议,听取成员单位的工作汇报,对妇女发展纲要规划的实施情况进行分析,针对突出问题,研究制定策略措施,推动纲要顺利实施。引导各地积极探索建立法规政策性别平等评估机制,为从源头促进性别平等与妇女发展提供坚实的机制保障。国家重视和支持妇联组织代表和维护妇女权益、促进性别平等。当前,具有中国特色的妇联组织体系更加完善,在性别平等的理论研究、宣传倡导、教育培训等方面作用日益突出。
The state has established a working mechanism featuring leadership by the government, multi-departmental cooperation and participation of the whole of society. The State Council and local governments at various levels hold working meetings on children and women on a regular basis to discuss and make plans. Every year, the State Council and local working committees on children and women hold special meetings to hear reports from all their member units, analyze progress made in the implementation of the current program for women’s development, and work out measures to address matters of pressing concern for the smooth implementation of the program. Guidance has been given to local governments in actively exploring the establishment of an assessment system of laws and policies related to gender equality, so as to provide at the source a solid institutional guarantee for promoting gender equality and women’s development. The state supports the women’s federation organizations in representing and safeguarding women’s rights and promoting gender equality. As the organizational system of women’s federations is better established, it has been playing an increasingly prominent role in conducting theoretical studies and carrying out publicity, education and training programs in relation to gender equality.

逐步完善性别统计制度。建立妇女发展综合统计制度,将其纳入国家和部门常规统计或统计调查,规范和完善妇女生存发展统计指标和分性别统计指标。逐步建立国家和省(区、市)妇女状况监测体系,制定统计监测指标体系,建立各地区各部门综合统计报表和定期报送审评制度。1990年、2000年、2010年开展三期中国妇女社会地位调查,全面客观反映中国妇女社会地位的状况和变化,为国家制定促进妇女发展、推动性别平等政策措施提供依据。1995年、1999年、2004年、2007年和2012年,分别出版《中国社会中的女人和男人——事实和数据》;2008年起,每年出版《中国妇女儿童状况统计资料》。
The state has gradually improved the gender statistics system. A comprehensive statistics system has been established on women’s development and it has been included in the routine statistics and statistical surveys undertaken by the state and relevant departments, and women’s health, well-being and development indicators and gender-disaggregated indicators have been standardized and improved. The state has gradually established a monitoring system for women’s conditions at the national and provincial (autonomous region, municipal) levels, worked out a statistical monitoring and indicator system, and established a system in which local governments and relevant departments produce comprehensive statistical reports and submit reports for review on a regular basis. In 1990, 2000 and 2010, China carried out three surveys, which fully and objectively reflected the conditions and changes in Chinese women’s social status, providing valuable reference for the government to formulate policies and measures to promote women’s development and gender equality. The state published Women and Men in Chinese Society – Facts and Statistics in 1995, and updated it with new data in 1999, 2004, 2007 and 2012; and has published annual releases of Statistics on the Status of Chinese Women and Children since 2008.

二、妇女与经济
II. Women and the Economy

平等参与经济活动和公平享有经济资源是妇女生存发展的基本条件。中国在推进经济结构战略性调整和转变经济发展方式的改革创新中,充分保障妇女经济权益,促进妇女平等参与经济发展、平等享有改革发展成果。
Equal participation in economic activities and equitable access to economic resources are the basic conditions for the well-being and development of women. While pressing forward with a strategic adjustment of its economic structure and reform and innovation of its growth model, China fully protects the economic interests of women, promoting women’s equal participation in economic development and equal access to the fruits of reform and development.

妇女贫困状况显著改善。中国在实施全方位扶贫战略中,统筹考虑城镇化、老龄化、市场化及气候变化等因素对妇女贫困的影响,加大妇女扶贫脱贫力度。实施中国农村扶贫开发纲要,将妇女作为重点扶贫群体,同等条件下优先安排妇女扶贫项目,不断提升贫困妇女的发展能力和受益水平。贫困妇女数量大幅减少,妇女贫困程度不断降低。在592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,女性人口的贫困发生率从2005年的20.3%下降到2010年的9.8%。建立完善新型社会救助体系,加大对贫困妇女的保障力度。2014年,妇女享受城乡居民最低生活保障的人数分别为792万人和1826万人,比2006年分别增加了200万人和1591万人。积极开展“贫困母亲两癌救助”“母亲安居工程”“母亲健康快车”等公益慈善项目,帮助患病贫困妇女、贫困单亲母亲改善生存与发展状况。
Significant progress has been made in alleviating poverty among women. During the implementation of comprehensive poverty reduction strategies, China has given overall consideration to the impact of urbanization, aging, climate change and other social and market factors on poverty among women, and strengthened efforts to address such poverty. China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group. The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010. The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need.

保障妇女的平等就业权利。就业是民生之本。国家制定和完善法律法规,促进公平就业,消除就业性别歧视。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》专设“公平就业”一章,强调男女平等就业权利。《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》对企业订立女职工权益保护专项集体合同作出明确规定,为保障女职工合法权益提供了法律依据。制定、修订和实施《女职工劳动保护特别规定》、机关事业单位处级干部和高级职称专业技术人员男女同龄退休、支持女性科技人才成长及促进女大学生平等就业等一系列法规、政策及措施,为妇女就业和职业发展创造有利条件。
The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people’s quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers’rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women’s employment and career development, the state has also developed, amended and implemented the Special Regulations on Labor Protection of Female Employees, along with policies that enable women in positions as middle-ranking officials, senior professionals and technicians at state organs and public institutions to retire at the same age as their male counterparts, and policies to facilitate the growth of female scientists and promote equal employment opportunities for female college graduates.

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