双语:《中国性别平等与妇女发展》白皮书 PDF下载

双语全文(PDF见文末)

中国性别平等与妇女发展
Gender Equality and Women’s Development in China

(2015年9月)
September 2015, Beijing

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

目录
Contents

前言
Foreword

一、性别平等与妇女发展的机制保障
I. The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

二、妇女与经济
II. Women and the Economy

三、妇女与教育
III. Women and Education

四、妇女与健康
IV. Women and Health

五、妇女与决策管理
V. Women and Decision Making

六、妇女与环境
VI. Women and the Environment

七、性别平等与妇女发展的法治保障
VII. Legal Guarantees for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

八、性别平等与妇女发展的国际交流合作
VIII. International Exchanges and Cooperation in Gender Equality and Women’s Development

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Foreword

性别平等与妇女发展是人类追求公平、正义与平等的永恒主题,是社会文明进步的衡量尺度,是人类实现可持续发展的重要目标。
Gender equality and women’s development is a lasting theme of mankind’s pursuit of equality and justice, a scale for measuring social progress and an important goal in realizing sustainable development in our world.

中国始终坚持男女平等的宪法原则,将男女平等作为促进国家社会发展的一项基本国策,不断完善法律法规,制定公共政策,编制发展规划,持续推进性别平等与妇女发展。
China has always upheld the constitutional principle of equality between men and women, which is also a basic state policy for promoting progress in the country and in society. Over the years China has progressively improved its laws and regulations, developed public policies, worked out development plans and pressed forward steadily with gender equality and women’s development.

今年是联合国第四次世界妇女大会在北京召开20周年,中国政府特发表白皮书,全面介绍中国推动性别平等与妇女发展的政策措施和所做的不懈努力。
Twenty years ago, the UN’s Fourth World Conference on Women was held in Beijing. On its anniversary two decades later, the Chinese government is publishing this white paper to provide a comprehensive overview of China’s policies on gender equality and women’s development, as well as unremitting efforts made and measures implemented in this regard.

中国妇女占世界妇女人口的五分之一。中国性别平等与妇女发展既体现了中国的文明进步,也是对全球平等、发展与和平的历史贡献。
Chinese women make up one fifth of the world’s total female population. Gender equality and women’s development in China not only give expression to China’s own progress, but also constitute a historical contribution made to global equality, development and peace.

一、性别平等与妇女发展的机制保障
I. The Institutional Foundation for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

国家建立提高妇女地位的机制,是充分利用政府资源,有效调动社会资源,推进性别平等与妇女发展的重要保障。20年来,中国提高妇女地位的机制不断健全,作用日益凸显。
China’s national mechanism for promoting the status of women, fully utilizing government resources and effectively mobilizing social resources, lays an important foundation for promoting gender equality and women’s development. Over the past two decades, the mechanism has been constantly improved to allow it to play an increasingly prominent role.

不断完善提高妇女地位的政府工作机构。1990年,中国成立了国务院妇女儿童工作委员会,负责组织、协调、指导、督促有关部门,共同促进性别平等与妇女发展。国务院妇女儿童工作委员会由相关政府部门部级领导组成,主任由国务院领导担任。20年来,成员单位从成立初的19个增至目前的35个,包括国家发展改革委、教育部、民政部、财政部、人力资源社会保障部、农业部、国家卫生计生委等29个部门和6个群体组织。国务院妇女儿童工作委员会下设办公室负责日常工作,配有专职工作人员和专项工作经费。全国31个省(区、市)县级以上人民政府均成立了相应机构,基本形成了纵向贯通、横向联动、协同配合的促进性别平等与妇女发展组织体系。
The state has kept improving government organs for promoting the status of women. In 1990, the State Council established the National Working Committee on Children and Women (NWCCW), which has been commissioned the responsibilities to organize, coordinate, guide, supervise and urge departments concerned in promoting gender equality and women’s development. Composed of leading ministerial-level members from relevant government organs, the Committee is chaired by a member of the State Council leadership. Over the previous 20 years, the Committee has expanded its member units from 19 to 35, now including government organs such as the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Agriculture, and the National Health and Family Planning Commission, in addition to six mass organizations. The Committee has a general office doing day-to-day work by full-time staff with specially allocated funds. Relevant organizations have been set up under people’s governments above the county level in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, forming a multi-dimensional and well-coordinated network for promoting gender equality and women’s development.

制定实施促进妇女发展的国家规划纲要。第十、第十一和第十二个国民经济和社会发展五年规划都将妇女发展列入其中,内容不断丰富,目标更加明确,措施更加有效,推动妇女与经济社会同步协调发展。国务院先后颁布三个周期的中国妇女发展纲要,明确各阶段妇女发展的总体目标、重点领域及策略措施,全国31个省(区、市)县级以上人民政府分别制定本地区妇女发展规划,形成了全国自上而下促进妇女发展的规划体系。各级妇女儿童工作委员会分别建立目标管理责任制,将主要目标分解到相关职能部门,并纳入相关专项规划加以落实;建立纲要评估机制,对纲要落实情况进行年度监测评估、中期督导评估和终期总结评估,确保纲要规划目标如期实现。
The state has developed and implemented national plans and programs for promoting women’s development. Women’s development was included in China’s 10th, 11th and 12th five-year plans for economic and social development, each time with greater emphasis, clearer goals, and more effective measures for promoting coordinated development between Chinese women and China’s economy and society. The State Council has issued three programs covering different periods for the development of Chinese women, clearly defining the overall goals, key areas and policies and measures to be adopted for women’s development at different stages. People’s governments at and above the county level in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have worked out similar programs for women’s development for areas within their respective jurisdiction, thus forming a top-down framework for promoting women’s development at all levels. Adopting the target management responsibility system, the working committees on children and women at various levels resolve and allocate the main targets to the related functional departments of the governments and see to it that they are included in corresponding plans and implemented. They also established an appraisal system and carried out assessments of the implementation results of the programs at the end of every year, and in the middle and at the end of the implementation of the programs, ensuring that the targets set in these programs were met as scheduled.

建立健全政府主导、多部门合作、全社会参与的工作机制。国务院和地方各级政府定期召开妇女儿童工作会议,进行专题研究部署。国务院和地方妇女儿童工作委员会每年召开专题会议,听取成员单位的工作汇报,对妇女发展纲要规划的实施情况进行分析,针对突出问题,研究制定策略措施,推动纲要顺利实施。引导各地积极探索建立法规政策性别平等评估机制,为从源头促进性别平等与妇女发展提供坚实的机制保障。国家重视和支持妇联组织代表和维护妇女权益、促进性别平等。当前,具有中国特色的妇联组织体系更加完善,在性别平等的理论研究、宣传倡导、教育培训等方面作用日益突出。
The state has established a working mechanism featuring leadership by the government, multi-departmental cooperation and participation of the whole of society. The State Council and local governments at various levels hold working meetings on children and women on a regular basis to discuss and make plans. Every year, the State Council and local working committees on children and women hold special meetings to hear reports from all their member units, analyze progress made in the implementation of the current program for women’s development, and work out measures to address matters of pressing concern for the smooth implementation of the program. Guidance has been given to local governments in actively exploring the establishment of an assessment system of laws and policies related to gender equality, so as to provide at the source a solid institutional guarantee for promoting gender equality and women’s development. The state supports the women’s federation organizations in representing and safeguarding women’s rights and promoting gender equality. As the organizational system of women’s federations is better established, it has been playing an increasingly prominent role in conducting theoretical studies and carrying out publicity, education and training programs in relation to gender equality.

逐步完善性别统计制度。建立妇女发展综合统计制度,将其纳入国家和部门常规统计或统计调查,规范和完善妇女生存发展统计指标和分性别统计指标。逐步建立国家和省(区、市)妇女状况监测体系,制定统计监测指标体系,建立各地区各部门综合统计报表和定期报送审评制度。1990年、2000年、2010年开展三期中国妇女社会地位调查,全面客观反映中国妇女社会地位的状况和变化,为国家制定促进妇女发展、推动性别平等政策措施提供依据。1995年、1999年、2004年、2007年和2012年,分别出版《中国社会中的女人和男人——事实和数据》;2008年起,每年出版《中国妇女儿童状况统计资料》。
The state has gradually improved the gender statistics system. A comprehensive statistics system has been established on women’s development and it has been included in the routine statistics and statistical surveys undertaken by the state and relevant departments, and women’s health, well-being and development indicators and gender-disaggregated indicators have been standardized and improved. The state has gradually established a monitoring system for women’s conditions at the national and provincial (autonomous region, municipal) levels, worked out a statistical monitoring and indicator system, and established a system in which local governments and relevant departments produce comprehensive statistical reports and submit reports for review on a regular basis. In 1990, 2000 and 2010, China carried out three surveys, which fully and objectively reflected the conditions and changes in Chinese women’s social status, providing valuable reference for the government to formulate policies and measures to promote women’s development and gender equality. The state published Women and Men in Chinese Society – Facts and Statistics in 1995, and updated it with new data in 1999, 2004, 2007 and 2012; and has published annual releases of Statistics on the Status of Chinese Women and Children since 2008.

二、妇女与经济
II. Women and the Economy

平等参与经济活动和公平享有经济资源是妇女生存发展的基本条件。中国在推进经济结构战略性调整和转变经济发展方式的改革创新中,充分保障妇女经济权益,促进妇女平等参与经济发展、平等享有改革发展成果。
Equal participation in economic activities and equitable access to economic resources are the basic conditions for the well-being and development of women. While pressing forward with a strategic adjustment of its economic structure and reform and innovation of its growth model, China fully protects the economic interests of women, promoting women’s equal participation in economic development and equal access to the fruits of reform and development.

妇女贫困状况显著改善。中国在实施全方位扶贫战略中,统筹考虑城镇化、老龄化、市场化及气候变化等因素对妇女贫困的影响,加大妇女扶贫脱贫力度。实施中国农村扶贫开发纲要,将妇女作为重点扶贫群体,同等条件下优先安排妇女扶贫项目,不断提升贫困妇女的发展能力和受益水平。贫困妇女数量大幅减少,妇女贫困程度不断降低。在592个国家扶贫开发工作重点县,女性人口的贫困发生率从2005年的20.3%下降到2010年的9.8%。建立完善新型社会救助体系,加大对贫困妇女的保障力度。2014年,妇女享受城乡居民最低生活保障的人数分别为792万人和1826万人,比2006年分别增加了200万人和1591万人。积极开展“贫困母亲两癌救助”“母亲安居工程”“母亲健康快车”等公益慈善项目,帮助患病贫困妇女、贫困单亲母亲改善生存与发展状况。
Significant progress has been made in alleviating poverty among women. During the implementation of comprehensive poverty reduction strategies, China has given overall consideration to the impact of urbanization, aging, climate change and other social and market factors on poverty among women, and strengthened efforts to address such poverty. China has implemented a program for poverty alleviation through development in rural areas, making women a key focus of attention and giving priority to poverty alleviation projects for women when all other conditions are equal, striving to improve the development capacity of women and bringing more benefits to them as a group. The number of impoverished women has dropped by an enormous margin, and the severity of poverty of women has been continuously alleviated. In the 592 poorest counties which are made the main targets of national poverty alleviation and development work, the poverty rate of the female population decreased from 20.3 percent in 2005 to 9.8 percent in 2010. The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need.

保障妇女的平等就业权利。就业是民生之本。国家制定和完善法律法规,促进公平就业,消除就业性别歧视。《中华人民共和国就业促进法》专设“公平就业”一章,强调男女平等就业权利。《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》对企业订立女职工权益保护专项集体合同作出明确规定,为保障女职工合法权益提供了法律依据。制定、修订和实施《女职工劳动保护特别规定》、机关事业单位处级干部和高级职称专业技术人员男女同龄退休、支持女性科技人才成长及促进女大学生平等就业等一系列法规、政策及措施,为妇女就业和职业发展创造有利条件。
The state ensures equal employment right for women. Employment has a vital bearing on people’s quality of life. The state has promulgated and improved laws and regulations to promote fair employment and eliminate gender discrimination in employment. The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China has a chapter specially dealing with fair employment, emphasizing gender equality in employment right. The Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China has clear provisions under which businesses are required to create collective contracts for protecting female workers’rights and interests, providing a legal basis for protecting the legitimate rights and interests of female workers. To create favorable conditions for women’s employment and career development, the state has also developed, amended and implemented the Special Regulations on Labor Protection of Female Employees, along with policies that enable women in positions as middle-ranking officials, senior professionals and technicians at state organs and public institutions to retire at the same age as their male counterparts, and policies to facilitate the growth of female scientists and promote equal employment opportunities for female college graduates.

促进妇女就业创业。国家针对不同妇女群体就业创业中面临的困难,出台支持性政策措施。实施鼓励妇女就业创业的小额担保贷款财政贴息政策,2009年以来向妇女发放小额贴息贷款2220.6亿元人民币,扶植和带动千万妇女创业就业。大力发展家政服务和手工编织等行业,为城乡妇女就地就近和转移就业提供服务。开展女大学生就业创业扶持行动,为女大学生提供就业培训、创业指导、见习岗位。实施“阳光工程”,提高农村女性劳动力素质和就业技能,为促进农村女性劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移创造条件。全国共建立20多万所“妇女学校”,近2亿人次妇女参加农业新技术、新品种培训,150万名妇女获得农业技术员职称和绿色证书,创办5.3万个妇女专业合作组织。自2011年启动“城镇百万残疾人就业工程”以来,每年新增残疾妇女就业约10万人。
The state helps women who are seeking employment and starting businesses. The state has introduced supportive policies and measures to address the difficulties of women in seeking employment and starting businesses. To engage women in employment and entrepreneurship, the state has introduced the small-sum guaranteed loan with financial discount. Since 2009, a total of 222.06 billion yuan has been issued in small discount loans to women, helping millions of women with their new businesses and careers. The state vigorously promotes the development of housekeeping services in urban areas and handicrafts, such as weaving and knitting, in rural areas, in order that women in cities and countryside can find employment locally and close to their homes, and also to promote employment transfer. It supports female college graduates in seeking employment and starting businesses, providing training in employment, guidance in starting businesses and internship opportunities, and it has implemented the Sunshine Project, improving the quality and skills of the rural female workforce and creating conditions to promote the transfer of rural female workforce to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas. There are now more than 200,000 training schools for women nationwide, providing training sessions to a total of nearly 200 million women in new agricultural technologies and new crop species. A total of 1.5 million women have obtained titles and qualifications as agricultural technicians, and 53,000 women’s professional cooperatives have been founded. Following the launch of an employment promotion project for the disabled in urban areas in 2011, about 100,000 disabled women have joined the workforce each year.

妇女就业结构不断改善。2013年,全国女性就业人数为34640万,占就业总数的45%。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,妇女从事第二、第三产业的比例比10年前提高了25个百分点,各类负责人、专业技术人员、办事人员及有关人员所占比例较10年前提高了13个百分点。2013年女性中高级专业技术人员达到661万人,占中高级专业技术人员的44.1%,比2000年提高了9个百分点。中国女企业家群体不断壮大,女企业家约占企业家总数的四分之一。实施“创业创新巾帼行动”,促进女性在新兴产业就业,互联网领域创业者中女性占55%。
The state improves the employment structure for women. In 2013, the total number of women employed nationwide was 346.4 million, accounting for 45 percent of the total employed population. The latest survey of the social status of Chinese women shows that women in secondary and tertiary industries grew by 25 percentage points in comparison with 10 years ago, and that female heads of various departments, professional and technical personnel, and clerical and related personnel increased by 13 percentage points. In 2013, the number of middle-ranking and senior female professional and technical personnel reached 6.61 million, or 44.1 percent of the total in this category, an increase of 9 percentage points from that of 2000. The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women.

保障农村妇女的土地权益。中国是一个农业大国,农村妇女约占农业劳动力的70%。在全面深化农村改革和推进基层依法自治的过程中,国家落实和完善保障农村妇女土地权益的法律政策,建立健全农村集体资金、资产、资源管理等各项制度,纠正与法律政策规定、性别平等原则相冲突的村规民约,确保农村妇女平等享有土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权和集体收益分配权。在土地承包经营权确权登记颁证工作中,明确登记簿和确权证上应体现妇女的土地权益,从源头上保障农村妇女的生存发展资源。
The state protects the rights and interests of rural women in relation to land. China is a large agricultural country, and women living in rural areas account for about 70 percent of the total agricultural labor force. While forging ahead with deeper all-round reform and promoting village-level self-government in rural areas, the state has implemented and improved laws and policies on protecting the land rights of women in rural areas, established various systems for managing rural collective funds, assets and resources, corrected any village regulations and folk conventions for villagers that are in conflict with statutory regulations and the principle of gender equality, so as to ensure that women in rural areas enjoy equal rights of land contract and management, use of homesteads and distribution of collective income. In the verification, registration and certification of land contract and management rights, it is clearly ruled that women’s rights and interests in relation to land must be given expression to in the registration book and land right certificate, so that women in rural areas are ensured access to the resources necessary for survival and development at source.

提高妇女社会保障水平。《中华人民共和国社会保险法》把生育保险作为独立章节,明确规定妇女平等享有社会保障的权利。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》增设“妇女与社会保障”领域,提出妇女平等享有社会保险、社会救济、社会福利和社会救助的主要目标和策略措施。妇女参加养老保险、医疗保险、失业保险、工伤保险和生育保险人数不断增加。2013年,妇女参加城镇职工养老保险、城镇职工医疗保险的人数分别达到14612万和12657万,比2005年分别增加了6743万和7282万;妇女参加生育保险人数达到7117万,比2005年增加了4844万。2012年4月《女职工劳动保护特别规定》颁布实施,法定产假时间由原来的90天延长到98天,妇女享有生育保障的待遇不断提高。
The state improves the level of social security for women. The Social Insurance Law of the People’s Republic of China has a separate chapter for maternity insurance, clearly stipulating that women equally enjoy social security rights. In the Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020), a section titled “Women and Social Security” was added, defining the main goals, policies, and measures to enable women to enjoy equal access to social insurance, relief, welfare and assistance. The number of women participating in old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, industrial injury insurance, and maternity insurance keeps rising. In 2013, the numbers of women covered by old-age insurance and medical insurance for urban workers reached 146.12 million and 126.57 million, growing by 67.43 million and 72.82 million as compared to the figures in 2005, and the number of women participating in maternity insurance reached 71.17 million, an increase of 48.44 million as compared with 2005. In April 2012, the Special Regulations on Labor Protection for Female Employees was promulgated and put into effect, extending statutory maternity leave from 90 days to 98 days and increasing the level of maternity protection for women.

三、妇女与教育
III. Women and Education

中国积极促进教育公平,调整教育结构,坚持贯彻性别平等原则,努力保障男女平等接受教育的权利和机会。
China actively promotes equality in education, adjusting the structure of education, adhering to the principle of gender equality, and working hard to guarantee equal rights and opportunities for both men and women to access education.

男女受教育差距明显缩小。贯彻落实《中华人民共和国义务教育法》等相关法律法规和政策,采取切实措施,提高妇女受教育水平。实施女童专项扶助政策,保障适龄女童平等接受义务教育。2014年男女童小学净入学率均为99.8%,提前实现联合国千年发展目标。女性接受初中及以上,特别是高等教育的机会显著增加。2014年,初中和高中在校生中的女生比例分别为46.7%和50.0%;普通高等学校本专科和硕士研究生在校生中的女生比例分别为52.1%和51.6%,博士研究生在校生中的女生比例增至36.9%。设立扫盲教育专项资金,降低妇女文盲人数,2013年女性15岁及以上文盲率为6.7%,比1995年降低了17.4个百分点,女性文盲人口比1995年减少了7000多万。女性平均受教育年限提高,性别差距缩小。第六次全国人口普查显示,2010年6岁以上人口中女性平均受教育年限达到8.4年,比10年前提高了1.3年,与男性的差距比10年前缩小0.2年。
The gender gap in education has been markedly narrowed. The state implements the Compulsory Education Law of the People’s Republic of China and other relevant laws, regulations and policies, and takes practical measures to improve women’s education. It has implemented a special policy to ensure school-age girls enjoy equal access to compulsory education. In 2014, the net primary school enrolment rates of boys and girls were both 99.8 percent, meaning that China has achieved the United Nations Millennium Development Goals ahead of time. Women now enjoy greater opportunities in junior high school education and above, particularly further education. In 2014, the proportion of female students in junior high schools was 46.7 percent and that in high schools was 50 percent; in institutions of higher learning women accounted for 52.1 percent of undergraduate students, 51.6 percent of postgraduate students, and 36.9 percent of students studying for Ph.D. degrees. The state has set up special funds to reduce the number of illiterate women. In 2013, the illiteracy rate for females at and over the age of 15 was 6.7 percent, 17.4 percentage points lower than in 1995; and the population of illiterate women fell by more than 70 million as compared with 1995. Women’s average years of schooling have increased, and the gender gap has narrowed. The Sixth National Census showed that the average years of schooling for women over the age of six were 8.4 years in 2010, 1.3 years more than in 2000, and the gender gap had narrowed by 0.2 year as compared with 2000.

妇女接受职业教育和技能培训的比例不断提高。国家制定和完善职业教育的法律政策,加大职业教育经费投入,完善助学政策体系,扩大妇女接受职业教育规模。2014年,接受中等职业教育的女性规模达到805万,普通中专在校女生达到397万,分别占总数的44.7%和53.0%;全国接受各种非学历高等和中等教育的女性规模分别达到346万和2000多万。开展“新型农民科技培训工程”“国家高技能人才振兴计划”和针对农民工职业技能提升的“春潮行动”“阳光工程”等多样化培训,满足不同妇女群体的职业发展需求。2013年,女性参加政府培训机构举办的职工技能培训人数占培训总数的43.0%。
More and more women have been receiving vocational education and skill training. The state has enacted and improved laws and policies on vocational education, allocating more funds in this regard, improving student aid policies and increasing the number of women receiving vocational education. In 2014, the number of women receiving secondary vocational education was 8.05 million, accounting for 44.7 percent of the total, and the number of females studying in technical secondary schools was 3.97 million, making up 53 percent of the total student body in similar schools. Around the country, 3.46 million women had received non-degree higher education and more than 20 million had received non-degree secondary education. The state launched a project to train farmers in new technology, a plan for cultivating highly skilled personnel, in addition to a number of training programs for improving the vocational skills of migrant workers, such as the Spring Tide Action and Sunshine Project, to meet the needs of different groups of women for their vocational development. In 2013, women who participated in skill training programs organized by government training institutions accounted for 43 percent of the total number of trainees.

保障少数民族妇女和偏远贫困地区女童等公平享有教育资源。制定积极政策,开设少数民族专门学校,采取倾斜性定向招生措施,大幅增加少数民族女性接受各级各类教育的资源。制定贫困女童和女生专项教育计划,确保偏远、贫困地区女生平等享有教育机会。加快农村寄宿制学校建设,改善农村女童的学习生活条件。出台专项政策,为流动儿童在流入地接受教育创造条件。重视特殊教育,增加残疾妇女接受各级各类教育的资源,残疾妇女受教育水平不断提高。性别平等原则和理念逐步融入教学和科研。越来越多的学校开始在教育内容和教学方式中引入性别平等理念,一些地方尝试在中小学开设性别平等教育课程,引导学生树立男女平等的性别观念。在一些师资培训计划和师范类院校课程中增加性别平等内容,增强教育工作者的性别平等意识。提高各级各类学校和教育行政部门决策和管理层的女性比例,女性在高等教育教学及管理等领域的参与状况明显改善,2014年,高校女教师比例为48.1%,比1995年增长了18.1个百分点。高等学校女性学学科建设不断加强。目前,百余所高校开设了440余门女性学和性别平等课程,女性学硕士、博士学位点不断增多。将性别平等议题纳入国家哲学社会科学规划,支持开展性别平等与妇女发展研究。
Women of ethnic minority groups, girls in remote poverty-stricken areas and other female groups now enjoy equal access to educational resources. The state has adopted proactive policies to set up vocational schools specially catered to ethnic minority students, and introduced preferential measures for targeted enrolment, substantially expanding ethnic minority women’s access to educational resources of various types and at all levels. The state has developed special education programs for poor girls and schoolgirls, ensuring girls in remote and poor areas equal access to education. It has been accelerating the construction of boarding schools in rural areas, thereby improving the study and living conditions of rural girls. Specific policies have been introduced to provide education for migrant children where they move. China also attaches importance to special education, increasing disabled women’s access to educational resources of various types and at all levels; as a result, disabled women have improved access to education. Principles and concepts of gender equality are gradually extending into teaching and scientific research. More and more schools have begun to introduce the idea of gender equality in educational content and teaching methods, and some primary and high schools are now offering courses in gender equality, directing younger students to relate to the idea of gender equality. Gender equality has also been introduced to some teacher training programs and normal school courses, in order to enhance teachers’awareness of gender equality. More women now occupy positions of decision-making and management in schools and educational administrative departments of all types and at all levels, greatly improving women’s participation in teaching, management and some other areas of higher education. In 2014, the proportion of female teachers in institutions of higher learning was 48.1 percent, an increase of 18.1 percentage points over 1995. Women’s studies continues to strengthen as a discipline in institutions of higher learning. Currently, more than 100 colleges and universities offer in excess of 440 courses on women’s studies and gender equality, and the number of master’s and doctoral programs on women’s studies continues to grow. The state has also included gender equality in the national plans of philosophy and social sciences to support research in gender equality and women’s issues.

四、妇女与健康
IV. Women and Health

中国建立覆盖城乡的医疗卫生服务体系,增强疾病防治能力,扩大医疗保障覆盖人口,不断完善和健全妇幼健康法律政策和服务体系,大力实施妇幼卫生保健项目,提高妇幼卫生服务的公平性和可及性,妇女健康状况得到显著改善。
China has set up a medical and health service system covering urban and rural areas, and has been working hard to enhance disease prevention and control capabilities, expand the overall coverage of medical insurance, improve laws and policies on maternal and child health as well as the service system in this regard, implement maternal and child healthcare programs, and endeavor to make maternal and child health services more equitable and accessible. As a result, women’s health has significantly improved.

建立较为完善的妇幼健康法律政策体系。制定、修订并实施《中华人民共和国母婴保健法》《中华人民共和国人口与计划生育法》等法律法规,出台一系列配套规章和规范性文件,使妇幼健康逐步实现了有法可依、依法管理、规范服务。把妇女健康指标纳入国家国民经济社会发展总体规划和专项规划,把妇幼保健作为国家基本公共服务的重点内容,把乳腺癌、宫颈癌医治纳入重大疾病医疗保障和医疗救助体系,提高妇女医疗保障水平。
A relatively sound system of laws and policies on maternal and child health has been established. The state has enacted, revised and implemented the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Maternal and Infant Health Care, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Population and Family Planning in addition to a number of other laws and regulations, and introduced a series of supporting regulations and normative documents, to provide a legal framework for maternal and child health work. The state has included women’s health indicators in the overall plans and special plans of the national economy and social development, made maternal and child healthcare a key element of the provision of national basic public services, and incorporated medical treatment of breast and cervical cancers into the medical security and assistance system for major diseases, thus improving women’s healthcare.

构建具有中国特色的妇幼健康服务网络。中国已基本形成以妇幼保健机构为核心,以基层医疗卫生机构为基础,以大中型医疗机构和相关科研教学机构为技术支撑,覆盖城乡的妇幼保健服务网络。截至2014年底,全国共有妇幼保健机构3131个。完善基层妇幼卫生服务体系,为妇女提供全生命周期的保健服务。建立健全妇幼卫生年报系统和妇幼卫生监测网络。优化卫生资源配置,增加农村和边远地区妇幼卫生经费投入。加快妇幼卫生人才培养,加强妇幼保健机构人员配备。
A network of maternal and child health services has been put in place. A network of maternal and child health services covering both urban and rural areas has taken shape in China, with maternity and child care institutions as the core, community-level health care institutions as the foundation, and large or medium-sized medical institutions and relevant research and teaching institutions as the support. By the end of 2014, there had been 3,131 maternity and child care institutions throughout the country. The state has worked hard to improve community-level maternal and child health services and managed to provide full life-cycle health services for women. The state has also established and improved a system of annual reporting on maternal and child health, and a monitoring network. It has optimized the allocation of health resources, and increased funding for maternal and child health in rural and remote areas. It has accelerated personnel training in this regard and strengthened staffing for those institutions.

妇幼卫生服务的公平性和可及性进一步提高。实施基本公共卫生服务项目和妇幼重大公共卫生服务项目,提高孕产妇系统管理率,规范服务行为,改善服务质量,促进妇幼健康服务均等化。到2014年,90%的孕产妇享有基本公共卫生服务。实施农村孕产妇住院分娩补助重大项目,5712万名农村孕产妇受益。全国孕产妇住院分娩率由2000年的72.9%提高到2014年的99.6%,农村孕产妇住院分娩率由2000年的65.2%提高到2014年的99.4%。2009年启动实施农村妇女“两癌”免费检查项目,累计为4287万和613万农村妇女分别进行了宫颈癌和乳腺癌免费检查,救助贫困患病妇女31077人。实施预防艾滋病、梅毒和乙肝母婴阻断重大项目,为6053万名孕产妇进行检查和治疗。开展“中国妇女健康行动”等不同类型的妇女健康项目,并支持社会组织开展形式多样的妇女健康促进活动。
Maternal and child health services have become more equitable and accessible. The state has implemented basic public health service projects and major public health service projects on maternal and child health, doing all it can to improve the systematic management of pregnant and lying-in women, regulate service behavior, improve service quality, and make access to maternal and child health services more equal. By 2014, 90 percent of pregnant and lying-in women had access to basic public health services. The state has implemented major projects to subsidize hospital childbirths for rural pregnant and lying-in women, benefiting 57.12 million. The national hospital birth rate increased from 72.9 percent in 2000 to 99.6 percent in 2014, and the same rate in the countryside grew from 65.2 percent in 2000 to 99.4 percent in 2014. In 2009, the state launched a program of free cervical and breast cancer check-ups for rural women, providing free cervical cancer check-up for 42.87 million and free breast cancer check-up for 6.13 million, in addition to extending medical treatment to 31,077 women having financial difficulties. The state has carried out major projects on AIDS, syphilis and hepatitis B, preventing mother-to-child transmission; 60.53 million pregnant women have benefited from the examination or treatment. It has also held women’s health programs such as the Chinese Women’s Health Initiative, while extending support to social organizations in organizing various forms of activities promoting women’s health.

妇女生殖保健服务进一步加强。保障妇女在整个生命周期享有良好的生殖保健服务,开展妇女病普查普治,提供青春期保健和老年期保健服务。落实计划生育免费技术服务政策,推进避孕方法知情选择,减少非意愿妊娠。持续打击和查处非医学需要的胎儿性别鉴定和选择性别的人工终止妊娠行为。为流动妇女提供健康教育、预防接种、孕产妇保健等基本公共卫生服务,积极推进流动人口计划生育基本公共服务均等化试点。
Reproductive health services for women have been further strengthened. The state guarantees that women enjoy good reproductive health services throughout the life cycle, such as conducting general surveillance and treatment of gynecological diseases, and providing adolescent and old-age healthcare. It has implemented the policy of free technical services for family planning, promoted informed choice of contraceptive methods and reduced unintentional pregnancies. It has kept investigating and preventing fetal sex identification for non-medical needs and sex-selective pregnancy termination. It has provided health education, vaccination, maternal health care and other basic public health services for women in the floating population, and has launched pilot programs to ensure equal access to family planning and other basic public services by women in the floating population.

妇女健康水平进一步提高。妇女平均预期寿命延长,2010年达到77.4岁,比2000年提高4.1岁。孕产妇死亡率大幅降低,由1990年的88.8/10万下降到2014年的21.7/10万,提前实现联合国千年发展目标。城乡和地区间孕产妇死亡率差距进一步缩小,孕产妇死亡率城乡差距由2000年的2.4倍缩小为2014年的1.08倍;2000年西部地区孕产妇死亡率是东部地区的5.4倍,2014年缩小到2.6倍。中国被世界卫生组织列为妇幼健康高绩效的10个国家之一。
Women’s health has further improved. Women’s average life expectancy grew to 77.4 years in 2010, an increase of 4.1 years over 2000. The maternal mortality rate has fallen significantly, from 88.8 per 100,000 in 1990 to 21.7 per 100,000 in 2014, meaning that China has achieved the United Nations Millennium Development Goals ahead of time. The gap in maternal mortality rate between urban and rural areas and between different regions has been further narrowed: The rural-urban gap decreased from a factor of 2.4 in 2000 to 1.08 in 2014. In 2000, the maternal mortality rate of western China was 5.4 times that of eastern China; the figure dropped to 2.6 times in 2014. The World Health Organization lists China as one of the 10 countries with high performance in maternal and child health.

五、妇女与决策管理
V. Women and Decision Making

中国制定和实施相关法律法规和政策规划,保障妇女享有与男性平等的政治权利,妇女参政比例进一步提高,在国家和社会事务决策和管理中的作用增强。
China has formulated and implemented laws, regulations and policy outlines to ensure that women enjoy equal political rights with men, which has resulted in a higher level of female participation in politics and a greater role played by women in decision making and management of state and social affairs.

完善促进妇女参与决策和管理的法律政策。制定和实施促进妇女参与决策和管理的积极措施,妇女参与决策和管理的人数和比例不断提高。各地制定的妇女权益保障法实施办法和选举法实施细则,普遍对地方各级人大代表候选人中的女性比例作出明确规定。国家制定专项规划,明确培养选拔女干部的目标指标和工作要求,并采取具体措施,提高各级女干部的人数和比例。《中华人民共和国村委会组织法》规定,“妇女村民代表应当占村民代表会议组成人员的三分之一以上”。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》提出,到2020年“村委会成员中女性比例达到30%以上。村委会主任中女性比例达到10%以上”“居委会成员中女性比例保持在50%左右”。2013年出台的《村民委员会选举规程》具体规定,“候选人中应当有适当的妇女名额,没有产生妇女候选人的,以得票最多的妇女为候选人”,并采取一系列措施提高村民委员会中的女性比例。
Improving laws and policies that boost women’s participation in decision making and management. China has formulated and implemented proactive measures to boost women’s participation in decision making and management, which, in turn, has helped increase the number and proportion of women in decision-making and managerial positions. The detailed implementation rules of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women and the Electoral Law adopted by various places across China all include explicit provisions on the proportion of women candidates to local people’s congresses. The state has formulated a special plan that defines the goals of and requirements for training and selection of women officials, and has taken concrete measures to increase the number and proportion of women officials at various levels. The Organic Law of the Village Committees of the People’s Republic of China rules that “female villager representatives should make up more than one third of the village committee.” The Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020) states that “by 2020 the percentage of women in village committees will exceed 30 percent, and that female village committee heads should exceed 10 percent”; and that “the ratio in neighborhood committees should be around 50 percent.” The Election Procedure of Village Committees issued in 2013 specifies that “village committee candidate lists should include a certain number of women; if not, those women who get the most votes should be candidates.” This show that a number of measures has been adopted to improve the representation of women in village committees.

妇女参与决策和管理的比例提高。重视发挥妇女在人民代表大会中的作用,提高妇女在各级人民代表大会代表中的比例。2013年十二届全国人民代表大会第一次会议女代表比例为23.4%,比20年前提高了2.4个百分点;少数民族妇女代表占少数民族代表的41.3%。注重提高妇女在社会主义协商民主中的参与度,重视发挥政协妇联界和女委员作用。2013年全国政协十二届一次会议女委员比例为17.8%,比20年前提高了4.1个百分点。中国共产党女党员的比例显著提高,2013年为24.3%,比1995年增加了8.7个百分点。各民主党派女性成员比例均高于20年前。妇女参与国家公共事务管理的人数不断增加。2013年中央机关及直属机构录用的公务员中女性比例为47.8%。近年来,地方新录用公务员中女性比例不断提高。
Women’s participation in decision making and management has markedly improved. China values the role of women in people’s congresses by improving their representation in the ranks of deputies to people’s congresses at various levels. The ratio of women deputies to the first session of the 12th National People’s Congress in 2013 was 23.4 percent, 2.4 percentage points higher than 20 years ago; ethnic minority women deputies made up 41.3 percent of the total number of ethnic minority deputies. China sets store on improving women’s participation in socialist consultative democracy and the role of representatives of women’s federations and women delegates to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). The proportion of women members at the first session of the 12th CPPCC national committee in 2013 was 17.8 percent, 4.1 percentage points higher than 20 years ago. The ratio of female CPC members also markedly increased, reaching 24.3 percent, an increase of 8.7 percentage points from 1995. The ratio of women members in all other political parties (other than the CPC) is higher than 20 years ago. The number of women participating in the management of state public affairs keeps increasing. In 2013, the female employment ratio in central government agencies and their subsidiaries reached 47.8 percent. In recent years, the number of newly employed women civil servants has also increased steadily at local levels.

妇女广泛参与基层民主建设。2013年,村委会成员中的女性比例为22.7%,比2000年提高了7个百分点;村委会主任和村民代表中的女性比例也明显提高,妇女成为农村基层治理的重要力量。2013年,居委会成员中的女性比例为48.4%,主任中的女性比例为41.5%。女职工积极参与企业民主管理和监督。2014年,工会会员中女性占38.1%,企业职代会职工代表中女代表比例为29.3%,在企业董事会、监事会中,女职工董事、监事占职工董事和监事的比例分别为40.1%和41.5%。
Women’s extensive participation in the development of grassroots democracy. In 2013, female representation in village committees was 22.7 percent, an increase of 7 percentage points from 2000; the ratio of women as village committee heads and representatives also increased significantly, making women an important force in primary-level rural governance. In 2013, women made up 48.4 percent of neighborhood committees and female heads of neighborhood committees represented 41.5 percent. Female employees also play an active part in democratic management and supervision in enterprises. In 2014, female workers represented 38.1percent of the trade union members, female employee representatives accounted for 29.3 percent of workers’congresses, and female representatives made up 40.1 percent and 41.5 percent of boards of directors and regulatory committees, respectively.

妇女和妇女组织在国家民主政治建设中的影响力日益增强。支持鼓励妇女有序参与国家和社会事务管理,不断拓宽参与的范围和途径。人大女代表、政协女委员积极参政议政,密切关注性别平等议题,积极提出议案、建议和提案,推动解决性别平等和妇女发展问题。注重将性别平等纳入决策,各级女领导干部在决策管理中发挥重要作用。妇联组织代表妇女参与立法协商和协商民主,推动将性别平等纳入法律、法规和政策的制定与执行,在妇女权益保障法、反家庭暴力法等法律制定和修订中,积极推动立法体现性别平等原则。妇女组织是基层社会治理的重要力量。近年来,妇联组织依托村级组织和社区活动场所建立70余万个“妇女之家”,在密切联系和服务妇女群众、参与基层社会治理中发挥了重要作用。其他妇女组织也积极参与民主管理和民主监督。
The influence of women and women’s organizations in the development of the country’s democratic politics keeps growing. China supports and encourages women to take part in the management of state and social affairs in an orderly manner by expanding the scope and channels for such participation. Women deputies to people’s congresses and the CPPCC women members have taken an active part in the administration and discussion of state affairs by actively introducing bills, suggestions and motions to help improve gender equality and women’s development. The state sets store by gender equality in decision making, enabling leading women officials to play an important role in decision making and management. Women’s federations participate in legislation and consultative democracy. They have pressed for incorporating gender equality in the formulation and implementation of policies, laws and regulations, and urged to give expression to the principle of gender equality in the formulation and amendment of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women and the Anti-domestic Violence Law of the People’s Republic of China. Women’s organizations are a force of growing importance in primary level social governance. In recent years, using the venues of rural village committees and urban communities, women’s federations have established more than 700,000 service centers (known as “Women’s Home”) to connect and serve women effectively, and to help with primary level social governance. Other women’s organizations also take an active part in democratic governance and supervision.

六、妇女与环境
VI. Women and the Environment

中国重视营造促进性别平等的社会文化环境,创造健康安全的自然环境,倡导平等和谐的文明家风,为妇女的生存发展创造良好条件。妇女在社会文化培育、生态环境保护和家庭建设中的独特作用日益凸显。
China attaches great importance to creating a social and cultural environment conducive to boosting gender equality; through building a healthy and safe natural environment and fostering equal and harmonious family traditions, sound conditions have been created for women’s development. Women are playing an increasingly prominent unique role in the fostering of social culture, protection of the ecological environment and family management.

营造尊重妇女和两性平等发展的社会环境。各级党政部门、妇联组织及其他社会组织通过宣传倡导、教育培训、座谈研讨等多种形式,全方位、多渠道宣传男女平等基本国策,提升全社会性别平等意识。各级党政领导带头宣讲国策,发表署名文章,作专题报告,表明促进性别平等的意愿和行动。制定促进两性和谐发展的文化和传媒政策,禁止性别歧视。加强对传媒的正面引导和管理,培训媒体从业者,增强性别平等意识。完善传媒监管机制,监督新闻媒体和广告经营者严格自律,禁止在媒体中出现贬抑、否定妇女独立人格的歧视现象。大力宣传妇女在经济社会发展中的积极贡献。妇女在媒体领域发挥了重要作用,截至2014年底,持有新闻记者证的女性采编人员比例为44.1%。
Creating a social environment in which women are respected and gender equality is upheld. The Party and government departments, women’s federations and other social organizations at various levels promote the basic national policy of gender equality through various means, such as publicity campaigns, training courses and seminars. Leading Party and government officials at various levels have taken the lead in writing and publishing articles and making speeches to promote gender equality. China has developed cultural and media policies aimed to boost harmonious development between men and women and prohibit gender discrimination. The state has enhanced guidance and management of the media and has trained media workers to enhance their awareness of gender equality. China has improved supervision to ensure news media and advertising agents exercise strict self-discipline and avoid any discrimination against women in the media by depreciating or denying their independent personality. China has vigorously publicized the positive contribution made by women to economic and social development. Women are playing an important role in the media. By the end of 2014, female journalists and editors had made up 44.1 percent of qualified staff in this area.

妇女的精神文化生活日益丰富。公共文化服务体系建设注重面向妇女群体,满足妇女的精神文化需求。全国范围内免费开放博物馆、美术馆、公共图书馆、文化馆和文化站等文化场所,不断发展数字图书馆,妇女的文化生活资源更加丰富。大力推动信息通信技术发展,为妇女文化交流与创新提供了新平台,截至2014年12月,中国女性网民共有2.83亿,占网民总数的43.6%。妇女休闲方式和内容更加多元。开展“亿万妇女健身活动”,妇女健身活动规模不断扩大。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,有55.2%的女性主动参加体育锻炼。
Women’s cultural life is being enriched. Public cultural services target women with the intention of satisfying their cultural demands. Museums, galleries, libraries and cultural centers nationwide are open to the public for free, and digital libraries are being developed, thus increasing women’s access to culture. Major efforts have been made to boost the development of information technology, providing women with new platforms for cultural communication and innovation. By December 2014, Chinese women netizens numbered 283 million, accounting for 43.6 percent of the total netizens. Women have ever-increasing leisure opportunities. Fitness campaigns have been directed at hundreds of millions of women, and such activities are still gaining momentum. According to a recent survey of Chinese women’s social status, 55.2 percent of women are taking an active part in physical exercises.

妇女生活环境得到明显改善。《中国妇女发展纲要(2011-2020年)》提出改水改厕等与妇女生产生活密切相关的主要目标。目前,全国农村卫生厕所普及率由2000年的40.3%提高到2013年的74.1%,农村改水受益人数累计达9亿,改水累计受益率达95.6%,农村自来水普及率由2000年的55.2%提高到2013年的76.4%,改善了妇女生产生活环境,减轻了生产生活负担。重视发挥妇女在生态文明建设中的作用。更多妇女进入环保领域,为保护生态环境、应对气候变化、维护能源资源安全作出了积极贡献。全国人大环境与资源保护委员会的女委员、各级政府分管环境的女市长和女环保局长人数不断增加。截至2014年底,环境保护部机关女干部比例为31.2%。倡导妇女参与节能减排,践行低碳生活。妇女积极参与环境保护,以女性为主导的环保组织日益增多。
The everyday environment for women is being markedly improved. The Program for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020) set goals for improving water supply services and toilets that have a positive impact on women’s daily and working life. Access to sanitary toilets in rural areas increased from 40.3 percent in 2000 to 74.1 percent in 2013. Improved water supply in rural areas has benefitted a total of 900 million people, with accumulative benefit rate of 95.6 percent. Access to tap water in rural areas increased from 55.2 percent in 2000 to 76.4 percent in 2013. All these changes have helped improve the living environment of women and reduced their daily burden. China sets store by highlighting the role of women in building a conservation culture. More and more women are involved in environmental protection, making their contribution to protecting the ecological environment, addressing climate change and maintaining energy and resource security. The number of female members in the NPC Environment Protection and Resources Conservation Committee, female mayors in charge of environmental protection and female heads of environmental protection bureaus has kept increasing. By the end of 2014, female officials working at the Ministry of Environmental Protection accounted for 31.2 percent of the total. Women are encouraged to participate in energy conservation and emission reduction efforts, and to adopt low-carbon lifestyle. Women take part in environmental protection with enthusiasm, and environmental protection organizations with women playing a dominant role are on the rise.

营造和谐、平等的家庭环境。国家人口发展“十二五”规划将促进性别平等、家庭和谐、倡导婚姻自由平等作为主要任务,促进家庭成员的平等发展。一些地方法规对女职工产假、男职工护理假及津贴作出明确规定,支持男女平衡工作与家庭、夫妻共担家庭责任。探索开展妇女与婚姻家庭社会工作,完善妇女社会支持系统。实施“关爱女孩行动”,改变传统男孩偏好的文化习俗。建立健全社会养老服务体系,老年妇女的生活条件得到改善,生活质量不断提高,贫困、丧偶和独居老年妇女得到特殊关照。积极开展“五好文明家庭”和“寻找最美家庭”等家庭文化建设活动,宣传倡导文明家风。20年来,婚姻家庭中的性别平等状况明显改善。最新一期中国妇女社会地位调查显示,夫妻共同决策家庭事务成为趋势,70%以上的妇女参与家庭重大事务决策。越来越多的妇女能够平等分享家庭资源,男女共同分担家务的观念得到更多认同,两性家务劳动时间差距由10年前的150分钟缩短到74分钟。
Building a harmonious and equal family environment. The 12th five-year plan for population development takes gender equality, family harmony and freedom and equality in marriage as its major goals. Some local regulations contain explicit provisions on maternity leave for female employees and nursing leave and subsidies for male employees, to support husbands and wives in balancing work and family and jointly sharing family responsibilities. China has conducted social studies of the relationship between women, marriage and family to improve the social support system for women. It has initiated “Care for Girls Action” to challenge the tradition of favoring boys. China has set up and improved systems of services for the elderly to ensure that elderly women’s living conditions and quality of life are improved, and that impoverished, widowed and elderly women living alone are given special care. China actively launches campaigns to find “Model Family” and “The Most Harmonious Family” to foster the best family traditions. Over the past 20 years, a marked improvement has been seen in gender equality in marriages and families. The recent survey of Chinese women’s social status shows that it has become the norm for husbands and wives to make family decisions jointly, and that more than 70 percent of women have taken part in making major family decisions. More and more women can share family resources on an equal basis with men, and the concept of men and women sharing housework is now accepted, with the housework time gap between men and women shortened from 150 minutes 10 years ago to 74 minutes now.

七、性别平等与妇女发展的法治保障
VII. Legal Guarantees for Gender Equality and Women’s Development

中国加快建设社会主义法治国家,全面推进依法治国,探索创新中国特色社会主义妇女权益保障机制,形成了以《中华人民共和国宪法》为基础,《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》为主体,包括国家各种单行法律法规、地方性法规和政府规章在内的保障妇女权益和促进性别平等的法律体系。
By accelerating the building of a socialist country under the rule of law, comprehensively promoting the rule of law and exploring socialist mechanisms safeguarding women’s rights and interests, China has put in place a legal system for protecting women’s rights and interests and promoting gender equality that is based on the Constitution, takes the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women as the core and encompasses various specific state laws and regulations, local regulations and government rules and regulations.

保障妇女权益的法律法规不断完善。20年间,先后制定和修改婚姻法、人口与计划生育法、就业促进法、村民委员会组织法、社会保险法、妇女权益保障法、女职工劳动保护特别规定等20多部法律法规。31个省(区、市)修订妇女权益保障法实施办法。反对针对妇女暴力的立法取得重大进展。29个省(区、市)制定了预防和制止家庭暴力的地方性法规或政策。2015年8月,十二届全国人大常委会第十六次会议对《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法(草案)》进行第一次审议。2005年修订的妇女权益保障法增加了禁止对妇女实施性骚扰的规定,2012年颁布实施的《女职工劳动保护特别规定》明确要求用人单位应当预防和制止对女职工的性骚扰。2015年8月通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(九)》加强对女性特别是幼女的保护,更加有力地惩处强奸幼女、拐卖妇女儿童的犯罪行为。
Laws and regulations protecting women’s rights and interests have been constantly improved. Over the past two decades, more than 20 laws and regulations have been enacted and revised, including the Marriage Law, Population and Family Planning Law, Employment Promotion Law, Organic Law of the Villagers Committees, Social Insurance Law, Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, and Special Regulations on the Labor Protection of Female Employees. The 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government on China’s mainland have revised their measures for implementing the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women. Major progress has been made in legislation addressing violence against women. Twenty-nine provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) have formulated local regulations or policies to prevent and prohibit domestic violence. In August 2015, the 16th session of China’s 12th NPC Standing Committee conducted the first review of the Anti-domestic Violence Law (Draft). An article addressing sexual harassment against women was added to the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women revised in 2005, and the Special Regulations on the Labor Protection of Female Employees formulated and implemented in 2012 clearly stipulate that employers should prevent and prohibit sexual harassment against female employees. The Amendment IX to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China approved in August 2015 strengthened protection of women, especially of girls under the age of 14, and specified harsher punishments for the crimes of raping girls under the age of 14 and abducting and trafficking in women and children.

保障妇女权益的执法力度不断加大。全国人大常委会重视开展妇女权益保障法等相关法律的执法检查和专题调研,督促各级政府部门严格执法。加大对用人单位和人力资源服务机构的检查力度,依法查处侵害女职工合法权益的劳动保障违法行为,促进妇女平等就业。2013年,国务院发布《中国反对拐卖人口行动计划(2013-2020年)》,进一步完善部门联动协作机制。公安机关坚决打击暴力侵害妇女的违法犯罪行为。2013年,共破获强奸案件25852起,破获拐卖妇女案件4537起。加强国际司法协作,开展国际合作项目,严厉打击跨国跨区域的拐卖妇女儿童犯罪。
Law enforcement has been intensified to protect women’s rights and interests. The NPC Standing Committee has attached great importance to law enforcement inspection and thematic research on the enforcement of the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women and related issues, and urged government departments at all levels to strictly enforce the law. China has strengthened inspection of employers and human resources service organizations, investigated and dealt with crimes violating the labor protection law and infringing upon the legitimate rights and interests of female employees, and promoted gender equality in employment. The State Council issued China’s Action Plan Against Human Trafficking (2013-2020) in 2013, further improving the mechanism of inter-departmental coordination. The public security organs have resolutely combated crimes of violence against women. In 2013, they uncovered 25,852 rape cases and 4,537 cases of abducting and trafficking in women. China has also strengthened international judicial cooperation, carried out international cooperation programs, and severely dealt with transnational and trans-regional gangs engaged in abducting and trafficking in women and children.

妇女权益的司法保护不断加强。法院系统设立专门的妇女维权合议庭、家事审判庭,妥善审理婚姻家庭纠纷案件,保障妇女在情感补偿、财产分割等方面的合法权益。加大对猥亵、侮辱妇女,拐卖妇女,收买被拐卖妇女等侵害妇女人身权益违法犯罪行为的惩治力度,维护妇女人身权益和尊严。鼓励开展反家庭暴力的基层司法实践,探索家庭暴力人身安全保护裁定制度,试点法院从2008年的5个省扩展到目前的14个省。一些地方公安机关建立家庭暴力告诫制度,加大家庭暴力事先防范和及时制止力度。2014年,最高人民法院公布家庭暴力指导案例,规范以暴制暴案件的司法自由裁量权,增强了法律适用统一性。注重发挥妇女在公正司法中的重要作用。2013年,人民陪审员中女性占34.2%;女法官、女检察官比例分别为28.8%、29.3%,比1995年分别增长了12.1%、12.3%。女法官协会、女检察官协会、女律师协会等专业性妇女组织发挥积极作用,维护妇女权益。
Judicial protection of women’s rights and interests has been strengthened. The courts have established special collegial panels for safeguarding women’s rights, along with family courts to properly try cases of marriage and family disputes and protect women’s legitimate rights and interests in emotional distress compensation and property division. Punishment has been reinforced against crimes violating women’s personal rights and interests, such as crimes of acting indecently against or insulting a woman by force, of abducting and trafficking women and of buying abducted women, all in an effort to safeguard women’s personal rights, interests and dignity. China has also encouraged judicial action against domestic violence at the grassroots level. It has explored the adjudication system of personal security protection against domestic violence, and courts which conduct this pilot program are found in 14 provinces as compared to five in 2008. Some local public security organs have established a domestic violence warning system so as to prevent and respond promptly to domestic violence in a more effective manner. In 2014, the Supreme People’s Court issued the guiding cases on domestic violence, regulated judicial discretion in cases of answering violence with violence, and improved the unified application of the law. China has given priority to the important role played by women in judicial justice. In 2013, the proportion of female people’s jurors was 34.2 percent, and the proportions of female judges and procurators were 28.8 percent and 29.3 percent, up 12.1 percent and 12.3 percent over 1995, respectively. Professional women’s organizations, such as women judges associations, women procurators associations and women lawyers associations, have played a positive role in safeguarding women’s rights and interests.

加强普法宣传教育,提高性别平等的法律意识。连续实施六个“五年普法规划”,将保障妇女权益的法律法规纳入其中,作为各级各类学校法治教育课程和国家广播、电视、报刊、网络等新闻媒体宣传的重要内容。运用法治宣传教育网络,深入开展促进性别平等的法律进机关、进乡村、进社区、进学校、进企业、进单位的主题活动,努力营造尊重和保障妇女权益的社会氛围。妇联及其他妇女组织针对侵害妇女权益重大事件加强舆情监测和科学研判,及时发声,倡导全社会树立男女平等的价值观念。开展“建设法治中国·巾帼在行动”等活动,引导广大妇女尊法、学法、守法和用法,提高妇女依法维护自身合法权益的意识和能力。
Intensified publicity and education campaigns on law have been carried out to raise public awareness of legal aspects of gender equality. China has implemented in succession six five-year plans to spread legal knowledge among the public, making laws and regulations safeguarding women’s rights and interests an important part of law-related education in schools at different levels, and ensuring they are well publicized in the media through radio, television programs, newspapers and periodicals, and the Internet. Taking advantage of the publicity and education network, China has held law-themed activities to promote the understanding and application of laws on gender equality in state organs, villages, communities, schools, enterprises and work units, trying to nurture an atmosphere of respecting and protecting women’s rights and interests in society. Women’s federations at all levels and other women’s organizations have intensified public opinion monitoring and scientific analysis of major cases violating women’s rights and interests, giving voice to the female view in a timely manner, and advocating the value of gender equality throughout society. Activities such as “Building a China under the Rule of Law: Women in Action” have been held to guide female citizens to respect, study, abide by and make use of law, and to improve their awareness and capability of safeguarding their own legitimate rights and interests through the law.

完善多机构合作的妇女维权机制,为妇女提供法律服务。2013年、2014年分别出台《关于进一步推进法律援助工作的意见》和《关于建立完善国家司法救助制度的意见(试行)》,为更多妇女获得法律援助和司法救助提供制度保障。2014年全国共设立法律援助机构3737个,获得法律援助的妇女达35.2万人,与2000年相比,法律援助机构增长97.7%,获得法律援助的妇女人数增加31万人。支持妇联及其他妇女组织开设妇女维权服务热线、成立维权服务机构等,积极为妇女提供法律帮助与服务。目前,31个省(区、市)的2800多个区(县)开通“12338”妇女维权服务热线,建立妇女维权站、维权岗、家庭暴力投诉站等各类维权服务机构25万个,畅通了妇女维权渠道。
The mechanism of women’s rights protection based on multi-institutional cooperation has been improved to provide legal services to women. The Opinions on Further Strengthening Legal Aid and the Opinions on Establishing and Improving the System of State Judicial Relief (for Trial Implementation) were issued in 2013 and 2014 respectively, providing an institutional guarantee for the provision of legal aid and judicial relief to women. In 2014, China established 3,737 legal aid institutions, providing help to 352,000 women. Compared with 2000, the number of legal aid institutions increased by 97.7 percent, and the number of women receiving legal aid increased by 310,000. Support has been given to the efforts of women’s federations and other women’s organizations in setting up hotlines and institutions providing rights protection services and legal aid for women. At present, the hotline 12338 has been in operation in more than 2,800 districts (counties) of China’s 31 provincial-level administrative divisions, and 250,000 institutions such as women’s rights protection stations and complaint centers against domestic violence have been established, which have widened the channels for Chinese women to protect their rights and interests.

八、性别平等与妇女发展的国际交流合作
VIII. International Exchanges and Cooperation in Gender Equality and Women’s Development

中国积极履行性别平等与妇女发展的国际公约和文书,广泛开展妇女领域多边、双边的交流合作,加强与各国妇女组织的友好交往,注重对发展中国家妇女提供技术培训和物资援助,在推动全球性别平等与妇女发展中发挥了重要作用。
China actively implements international conventions and documents concerning gender equality and women’s development, takes part in international bilateral and multilateral women’s exchanges and cooperation, strengthens friendly exchanges with women organizations all over the world, and focuses on providing technical training and material assistance to women in developing countries, thus playing an important role in promoting gender equality and women’s development around the globe.

认真履行妇女领域国际公约和国际义务。积极签署和批准相关国际公约和国际文书,认真履行公约所载义务,在法律、政策和规划制定中体现《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》的精神和原则,持续消除对妇女各种形式的歧视,依法保障妇女人权,积极推动性别平等。2003年和2012年分别提交执行《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》履约报告,2006年和2014年接受联合国消除对妇女歧视委员会的审议。2013年接待联合国人权理事会法律和实践中对妇女的歧视问题工作组访华。积极落实《北京宣言》和《行动纲领》及千年发展目标,将其纳入国民经济和社会发展规划及中国妇女发展纲要,努力实现各项目标。截至2014年底,提前完成减少极端贫困与饥饿、消除教育中的两性差距、降低孕产妇死亡率等目标。
China is fully committed to implementing international conventions and fulfilling international obligations in the field of women. It has signed and approved relevant international conventions and documents, and met the obligations they impose. China embodies the spirit and principle of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in the making of its laws, policies and plans, makes unremitting efforts to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women, safeguard women’s rights and interests according to law, and promotes gender equality. In 2003 and 2012, China submitted reports on the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in China. China was examined by the Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in 2006 and 2014. In 2013, China hosted the Working Group on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in Law and Practice of the UN Human Rights Council. China has energetically implemented the Beijing Declaration, the Platform for Action, and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, and included them in its overall plans for economic and social development as well as outlines for the development of Chinese women. By the end of 2014, China had achieved, ahead of schedule, the goals of reducing extreme poverty and hunger, eliminating gender disparities in education, and lowering the mortality rate of women in pregnancy and childbirth.

积极参与和推动全球及区域性别平等事业。高度重视与联合国机构的联系合作,支持联合国在性别平等和妇女发展领域的积极举措。推动联合国人权理事会通过中国倡议提出的“纪念第四次世界妇女大会暨《北京宣言》和《行动纲领》通过20周年”主席声明。参与联合国妇女署规章制度和行动规划的制定,加大合作力度。积极承办和举办第四次世界妇女大会后续行动的相关会议、妇女与减灾、妇女与可持续发展等国际会议。积极促进区域性别平等,与联合国亚太经社会在亚太地区开展“提高解决性别问题能力、实现联合国千年发展目标”项目。结合担任2014年亚太经合组织东道主,主办妇女与经济论坛。在东盟与中日韩(10+3)框架下,主办东亚性别平等部长级会议。
China actively participates in the regional and global promotion of gender equality. It attaches great importance to cooperation with UN agencies, and supports positive steps taken by the UN to promote gender equality and women’s development. China has galvanized the UN Human Rights Council to adopt the presidential statement, which was advocated by China to mark the 20th anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women and the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action. China participates in the making of regulations and action plans for UN Women, and increases cooperation with it. China has hosted and held meetings on actions to follow up the Fourth World Conference on Women, and international meetings on women and disaster reduction, and women and sustainable development. In its efforts to promote regional gender equality, China has joined hands with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in launching a project to improve the capacity to address gender issues and achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in the Asia-Pacific region. As the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in 2014, China organized the Forum on Women and the Economy. Within the framework of the ASEAN plus China, Japan and South Korea cooperation mechanism (“10+3”), China hosted the East Asia Gender Equality Ministerial Meeting.

广泛开展妇女领域的双边交流与合作。将性别平等作为国家交流机制的重要议题,在中美、中法、中俄等国家交流机制中,举办不同主题的妇女论坛、研讨会和中外妇女文化周等活动,进一步增强相互间的友谊与互信。20年间,中国妇女领域的国际合作项目涉及妇女与健康、妇女与经济、妇女与教育、妇女与决策管理、妇女与环境、妇女与婚姻家庭、反对家庭暴力、减贫减灾等诸多领域。近10年,仅全国妇联就争取了百余个国际合作项目。在南南合作中注重对亚非拉发展中国家妇女的技术培训和物资援助,创办中外妇女交流与培训中心或派专家前往指导。近年来,中国向亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲国家妇女提供多批小额物资援助,帮助她们改善工作和生活条件。
China conducts extensive bilateral exchanges and cooperation regarding women. It treats gender equality as a major issue in the mechanism of state exchanges. During Sino-US, Sino-French and Sino-Russian exchanges, women’s forums, symposiums and cultural weeks of different themes have been held to further enhance mutual friendship and trust. Over the past two decades, China has carried out international cooperative projects concerning women in the fields of women and health, women and the economy, women and education, women and decision making and management, women and the environment, women, marriage and the family, combating domestic violence, and poverty and disaster reduction. Over the past decade, the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) alone has organized more than 100 international cooperative projects. Within the framework of South-South cooperation, China has focused on providing technical training and material assistance to women in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, established woman-to-woman exchanges and training centers, and sent Chinese experts to give guidance. In recent years, China has provided generous small-sum material assistance to women in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and helped them improve their working and living conditions.

妇女和妇女组织参与国际事务更加活跃。2015年,中国有女外交官1695人,占外交官总数的30.7%,其中,女大使12人、女总领事19人、女参赞132人,分别占同级外交官的7.9%、24.4%和30.4%。中国妇女组织积极参与联合国有关性别平等与妇女发展重要公约的审议活动,担任联合国《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》委员会委员,在《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《北京宣言》和《行动纲领》等国际公约和文书执行情况的审议中,撰写和递交非政府组织影子报告,并就性别平等与妇女发展的相关议题开展形式多样的交流对话活动。
Chinese women and women organizations take a more active part in international affairs. In 2015, China has 1,695 women diplomats, accounting for 30.7 percent of its total diplomatic strength. Of these, 12 are ambassadors, 19 are consuls general, and 132 are counselors, comprising 7.9 percent, 24.4 percent and 30.4 percent of the respective staff at corresponding levels. Chinese women organizations actively participate in reviewing important UN conventions concerning gender equality and women’s development. Chinese experts have served as representatives on UN’s Committee on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, written and submitted NGO shadow reports, when review is in process on the implementation of international conventions and documents, including the CEDAW, the Beijing Declaration, and the Platform for Action, and taken part in various forms of exchanges and dialogue concerning gender equality and women’s development.

结束语
Conclusion

过去20年,伴随着经济社会的快速发展,中国性别平等与妇女发展取得了举世瞩目的成就。
It is obvious to all that, in tandem with rapid economic and social development, great progress has been achieved in the promotion of gender equality and women’s development in China over the past two decades.

同时,中国也清醒认识到,作为世界上人口最多的发展中大国,受经济社会发展水平和历史文化等因素影响,中国的妇女发展还面临诸多新情况新问题,推进性别平等的任务仍然繁重而艰巨。
At the same time, China is highly aware that, as a developing country with the world’s largest population, and restricted by its limited level of economic and social development, it will continue to be confronted with new situations and problems in its efforts to promote women’s development. There is still a long way to go to achieve gender equality in China, and arduous tasks remain to be tackled.

在协调推进“四个全面”战略布局的历史进程中,中国将继续贯彻男女平等基本国策,不断健全经济、法律、行政和舆论等政策措施,依法有效保障妇女合法权益,推动性别平等与妇女发展事业取得更大成就。中国愿与其他国家一道,大力支持社会各界在促进性别平等与妇女发展中发挥积极作用,深化和拓展国际交流与合作,为全球平等、发展与和平作出新的贡献。
In its efforts to advance the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy, China will continue implementing the basic national policy of equality between men and women, constantly improve policies and measures in the fields of economy, law, administration and public opinion, safeguard women’s rights and interests in accordance with the law, and work to achieve greater success in the cause of gender equality and women’s development. China is willing to work with other countries to encourage all social sectors to contribute to the promotion of gender equality and women’s development, to strengthen and expand international exchanges and cooperation, and to contribute further to promoting worldwide equality, development and peace.

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