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双语:《中国的北极政策》白皮书 PDF下载

双语全文(PDF见文末)

中国的北极政策

China’s Arctic Policy

(2018年1月26日)

January 26, 2018

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China

目录

Contents

前言

Foreword

一、北极的形势与变化

I.The Arctic Situation and Recent Changes

二、中国与北极的关系

II. China and the Arctic

三、中国的北极政策目标和基本原则

III. China’s Policy Goals and Basic Principles on the Arctic

四、中国参与北极事务的主要政策主张

IV. China’s Policies and Positions on Participating in Arctic Affairs

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Foreword

近年来,全球气候变暖,北极冰雪融化加速。在经济全球化、区域一体化不断深入发展的背景下,北极在战略、经济、科研、环保、航道、资源等方面的价值不断提升,受到国际社会的普遍关注。北极问题已超出北极国家间问题和区域问题的范畴,涉及北极域外国家的利益和国际社会的整体利益,攸关人类生存与发展的共同命运,具有全球意义和国际影响。

Global warming in recent years has accelerated the melting of ice and snow in the Arctic region. As economic globalization and regional integration further develops and deepens, the Arctic is gaining global significance for its rising strategic, economic values and those relating to scientific research, environmental protection, sea passages, and natural resources. The Arctic situation now goes beyond its original inter-Arctic States or regional nature, having a vital bearing on the interests of States outside the region and the interests of the international community as a whole, as well as on the survival, the development, and the shared future for mankind. It is an issue with global implications and international impacts.

中国倡导构建人类命运共同体,是北极事务的积极参与者、建设者和贡献者,努力为北极发展贡献中国智慧和中国力量。为了阐明中国在北极问题上的基本立场,阐释中国参与北极事务的政策目标、基本原则和主要政策主张,指导中国相关部门和机构开展北极活动和北极合作,推动有关各方更好参与北极治理,与国际社会一道共同维护和促进北极的和平、稳定和可持续发展,中国政府发表本白皮书。

A champion for the development of a community with a shared future for mankind, China is an active participant, builder and contributor in Arctic affairs who has spared no efforts to contribute its wisdom to the development of the Arctic region. The Chinese government hereby issues this white paper, to expound its basic positions on Arctic affairs, to elaborate on its policy goals, basic principles and major policies and positions regarding its engagement in Arctic affairs, to guide relevant Chinese government departments and institutions in Arctic-related activities and cooperation, to encourage relevant parties to get better involved in Arctic governance, and to work with the international community to safeguard and promote peace and stability in, and the sustainable development of, the Arctic.

一、北极的形势与变化

I.The Arctic Situation and Recent Changes

北极具有特殊的地理位置。地理上的北极通常指北极圈(约北纬66度34分)以北的陆海兼备的区域,总面积约2100万平方公里。在国际法语境下,北极包括欧洲、亚洲和北美洲的毗邻北冰洋的北方大陆和相关岛屿,以及北冰洋中的国家管辖范围内海域、公海和国际海底区域。北极事务没有统一适用的单一国际条约,它由《联合国宪章》《联合国海洋法公约》《斯匹次卑尔根群岛条约》等国际条约和一般国际法予以规范。

The Arctic is situated at a special geographical location. It commonly refers to the area of land and sea north of the Arctic Circle (approximately 66 degrees 34 minutes N), totaling about 21 million square kilometers. In the context of international law, the Arctic includes the northernmost landmasses of Europe, Asia and North America adjacent to the Arctic Ocean and the relevant islands, and a combination of sea areas within national jurisdiction, high seas, and the Area in the Arctic Ocean. There is no single comprehensive treaty for all Arctic affairs. The Charter of the United Nations, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Spitsbergen Treaty and other treaties and general international law govern Arctic affairs at present.

北极的大陆和岛屿面积约800万平方公里,有关大陆和岛屿的领土主权分别属于加拿大、丹麦、芬兰、冰岛、挪威、俄罗斯、瑞典、美国八个北极国家。北冰洋海域的面积超过1200万平方公里,相关海洋权益根据国际法由沿岸国和各国分享。北冰洋沿岸国拥有内水、领海、毗连区、专属经济区和大陆架等管辖海域,北冰洋中还有公海和国际海底区域。

The continental and insular land territories in the Arctic cover an area of about 8 million square kilometers, with sovereignty over them belonging to Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States, respectively. The Arctic Ocean covers an area of more than 12 million square kilometers, in which coastal States and other States share maritime rights and interests in accordance with international law. These coastal States have within their jurisdiction internal waters, territorial seas, contiguous zones, exclusive economic zones, and continental shelves in the Arctic Ocean. Certain areas of the Arctic Ocean form part of the high seas and the Area.

北极域外国家在北极不享有领土主权,但依据《联合国海洋法公约》等国际条约和一般国际法在北冰洋公海等海域享有科研、航行、飞越、捕鱼、铺设海底电缆和管道等权利,在国际海底区域享有资源勘探和开发等权利。此外,《斯匹次卑尔根群岛条约》缔约国有权自由进出北极特定区域,并依法在该特定区域内平等享有开展科研以及从事生产和商业活动的权利,包括狩猎、捕鱼、采矿等。

States from outside the Arctic region do not have territorial sovereignty in the Arctic, but they do have rights in respect of scientific research, navigation, overflight, fishing, laying of submarine cables and pipelines in the high seas and other relevant sea areas in the Arctic Ocean, and rights to resource exploration and exploitation in the Area, pursuant to treaties such as UNCLOS and general international law. In addition, Contracting Parties to the Spitsbergen Treaty enjoy the liberty of access and entry to certain areas of the Arctic, the right under conditions of equality and, in accordance with law, to the exercise and practice of scientific research, production and commercial activities such as hunting, fishing, and mining in these areas.

北极具有独特的自然环境和丰富的资源,大部分海域常年被冰层覆盖。当前,北极自然环境正经历快速变化。过去30多年间,北极地区温度上升,使北极夏季海冰持续减少。据科学家预测,北极海域可能在本世纪中叶甚至更早出现季节性无冰现象。一方面,北极冰雪融化不仅导致北极自然环境变化,而且可能引发气候变暖加速、海平面上升、极端天气现象增多、生物多样性受损等全球性问题。另一方面,北极冰雪融化可能逐步改变北极开发利用的条件,为各国商业利用北极航道和开发北极资源提供机遇。北极的商业开发利用不仅将对全球航运、国际贸易和世界能源供应格局产生重要影响,对北极的经济社会发展带来巨大变化,对北极居民和土著人的生产和生活方式产生重要影响,还可能对北极生态环境造成潜在威胁。在处理涉北极全球性问题方面,国际社会命运与共。

The Arctic boasts a unique natural environment and rich resources, with most of its sea area covered under thick ice for most of the year. The Arctic natural environment is now undergoing rapid changes. Over the past three decades, temperature has been rising continuously in the Arctic, resulting in diminishing sea ice in summer. Scientists predict that by the middle of this century or even earlier, there may be no ice in the Arctic Ocean for part of the year. On the one hand, melting ice in the Arctic has led to changes in the natural environment, or possibly can result in accelerated global warming, rising sea levels, increased extreme weather events, damaged biodiversity, and other global problems. On the other, with the ice melted, conditions for the development of the Arctic may be gradually changed, offering opportunities for the commercial use of sea routes and development of resources in the region. Commercial activities in the region will have considerable impact on global shipping, international trade and energy supply, bring about major social and economic changes, and exert important influence on the way of work and life of Arctic residents including the indigenous peoples. They may also pose a potential threat to the ecological environment of the Arctic. The international community faces the same threat and shares the same future in addressing global issues concerning the Arctic.

二、中国与北极的关系

II. China and the Arctic

中国是北极事务的重要利益攸关方。中国在地缘上是“近北极国家”,是陆上最接近北极圈的国家之一。北极的自然状况及其变化对中国的气候系统和生态环境有着直接的影响,进而关系到中国在农业、林业、渔业、海洋等领域的经济利益。

China is an important stakeholder in Arctic affairs. Geographically, China is a “Near-Arctic State”, one of the continental States that are closest to the Arctic Circle. The natural conditions of the Arctic and their changes have a direct impact on China’s climate system and ecological environment, and, in turn, on its economic interests in agriculture, forestry, fishery, marine industry and other sectors.

同时,中国与北极的跨区域和全球性问题息息相关,特别是北极的气候变化、环境、科研、航道利用、资源勘探与开发、安全、国际治理等问题,关系到世界各国和人类的共同生存与发展,与包括中国在内的北极域外国家的利益密不可分。中国在北冰洋公海、国际海底区域等海域和特定区域享有《联合国海洋法公约》《斯匹次卑尔根群岛条约》等国际条约和一般国际法所规定的科研、航行、飞越、捕鱼、铺设海底电缆和管道、资源勘探与开发等自由或权利。中国是联合国安理会常任理事国,肩负着共同维护北极和平与安全的重要使命。中国是世界贸易大国和能源消费大国,北极的航道和资源开发利用可能对中国的能源战略和经济发展产生巨大影响。中国的资金、技术、市场、知识和经验在拓展北极航道网络和促进航道沿岸国经济社会发展方面可望发挥重要作用。中国在北极与北极国家利益相融合,与世界各国休戚与共。

China is also closely involved in the trans-regional and global issues in the Arctic, especially in such areas as climate change, environment, scientific research, utilization of shipping routes, resource exploration and exploitation, security, and global governance. These issues are vital to the existence and development of all countries and humanity, and directly affect the interests of non-Arctic States including China. China enjoys the freedom or rights of scientific research, navigation, overflight, fishing, laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and resource exploration and exploitation in the high seas, the Area and other relevant sea areas, and certain special areas in the Arctic Ocean, as stipulated in treaties such as the UNCLOS and the Spitsbergen Treaty, and general international law. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China shoulders the important mission of jointly promoting peace and security in the Arctic. The utilization of sea routes and exploration and development of the resources in the Arctic may have a huge impact on the energy strategy and economic development of China, which is a major trading nation and energy consumer in the world. China’s capital, technology, market, knowledge and experience is expected to play a major role in expanding the network of shipping routes in the Arctic and facilitating the economic and social progress of the coastal States along the routes. China has shared interests with Arctic States and a shared future with the rest of the world in the Arctic.

中国参与北极事务由来已久。1925年,中国加入《斯匹次卑尔根群岛条约》,正式开启参与北极事务的进程。此后,中国关于北极的探索不断深入,实践不断增加,活动不断扩展,合作不断深化。1996年,中国成为国际北极科学委员会成员国,中国的北极科研活动日趋活跃。从1999年起,中国以“雪龙”号科考船为平台,成功进行了多次北极科学考察。2004年,中国在斯匹次卑尔根群岛的新奥尔松地区建成“中国北极黄河站”。截至2017年年底,中国在北极地区已成功开展了八次北冰洋科学考察和14个年度的黄河站站基科学考察。借助船站平台,中国在北极地区逐步建立起海洋、冰雪、大气、生物、地质等多学科观测体系。2005年,中国成功承办了涉北极事务高级别会议的北极科学高峰周活动,开亚洲国家承办之先河。2013年,中国成为北极理事会正式观察员。近年来,中国企业开始积极探索北极航道的商业利用。中国的北极活动已由单纯的科学研究拓展至北极事务的诸多方面,涉及全球治理、区域合作、多边和双边机制等多个层面,涵盖科学研究、生态环境、气候变化、经济开发和人文交流等多个领域。作为国际社会的重要成员,中国对北极国际规则的制定和北极治理机制的构建发挥了积极作用。中国发起共建“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”(“一带一路”)重要合作倡议,与各方共建“冰上丝绸之路”,为促进北极地区互联互通和经济社会可持续发展带来合作机遇。

China has long been involved in Arctic affairs. In 1925, China joined the Spitsbergen Treaty and started to participate in addressing the Arctic affairs. Since then, China has exerted more efforts in the exploration of the Arctic, expanding the scope of activities, gaining more experience and deepening cooperation with other participants. China’s membership in the International Arctic Science Committee in 1996 marked its more active participation in scientific research in the Arctic. Since 1999, China has organized a number of scientific expeditions in the Arctic, with its research vessel Xue Long (Snow Dragon) as the platform. In 2004, China built the Arctic Yellow River Station in Ny Alesund in the Spitsbergen Archipelago. By the end of 2017, China has carried out eight scientific expeditions in the Arctic Ocean, and conducted research for 14 years with the Yellow River Station as the base. Using its research vessel and stations as platforms, China has gradually established a multi-discipline observation system covering the sea, ice and snow, atmosphere, biological, and geological system of the Arctic. The year 2005 saw China as the first Asian country to host the Arctic Science Summit Week, a high-level conference on Arctic affairs. In 2013, China became an accredited observer to the Arctic Council. In recent years, Chinese companies have begun to explore the commercial opportunities associated with Arctic shipping routes. China’s activities in the Arctic have gone beyond mere scientific research, and expanded into diverse areas of Arctic affairs including the platforms of global governance, regional cooperation, and bilateral and multilateral affairs, and such disciplines as scientific research, ecological environment, climate change, economic development, and cultural exchanges. As an important member of the international community, China has played a constructive role in the formulation of Arctic-related international rules and the development of its governance system. The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road (Belt and Road Initiative), an important cooperation initiative of China, will bring opportunities for parties concerned to jointly build a “Polar Silk Road”, and facilitate connectivity and sustainable economic and social development of the Arctic.

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