双语:《新疆的职业技能教育培训工作》白皮书 PDF下载

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新疆的职业技能教育培训工作
Vocational Education and Training in Xinjiang

(2019年8月)

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
August 2019

 

目录
Contents

前言
Preface

一、开展教育培训工作势在必行
I. Urgent Needs for Education and Training

二、依法开展教育培训工作
II. Law-Based Education and Training

三、教育培训的内容
III. Content of Education and Training

四、学员的基本权利得到保障
IV. Protection of Trainees’ Basic Rights

五、教育培训工作取得显著成效
V. Remarkable Results in Education and Training

六、探索出去极端化的有益经验
VI. Experience in Countering Extremism

结束语
Conclusion

 

 

前言
Preface

恐怖主义、极端主义是人类社会的共同敌人,反恐、去极端化是国际社会的共同责任。消除恐怖主义、极端主义这一严重危害人民生命安全的社会毒瘤,维护人的尊严和价值,保障人民的生命权、健康权、发展权,使人民在安宁祥和的社会环境中幸福生活,是世界上任何一个负责任的政府执政的基本理念和根本任务。
Terrorism and extremism are the common enemies of humanity, and the fight against terrorism and extremism is the shared responsibility of the international community. It is a fundamental task of any responsible government, acting on basic principles, to remove the malignant tumor of terrorism and extremism that threatens people’s lives and security, to safeguard people’s dignity and value, to protect their rights to life, health and development, and to ensure they enjoy a peaceful and harmonious social environment.

多年来,国际社会为打击和预防恐怖主义、极端主义,保障人民生命安全和生活幸福,作出了不懈努力,付出了巨大牺牲。世界上许多国家和地区,从本国和本地区实际出发,积极探索打击和预防恐怖主义、极端主义的有效措施和办法,积累了宝贵经验。
Over the years, to ensure public safety and wellbeing, the international community has spared no effort and made tremendous sacrifices in preventing and combating terrorism and extremism. Many countries and regions, in light of their own conditions, have developed effective measures and drawn valuable lessons from these efforts.

新疆是中国反恐、去极端化斗争的主战场。一段时期,新疆深受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义之害,人民生命安全受到严重威胁。新疆坚持标本兼治,打击与预防相结合,通过依法设立职业技能教育培训中心(以下简称“教培中心”),开展职业技能教育培训工作(以下简称“教培工作”),着力消除恐怖主义、宗教极端主义滋生蔓延的土壤和条件,有效遏制了恐怖活动多发频发势头,最大限度保障了各族人民的生命权、健康权、发展权等基本权利,取得了反恐、去极端化斗争重要阶段性胜利。
Xinjiang is a key battlefield in the fight against terrorism and extremism in China. For some time Xinjiang has been plagued by terrorism and religious extremism, which pose a serious threat to the lives of the people in the region. Addressing both the symptoms and root causes and integrating preventative measures and a forceful response, Xinjiang has established vocational education and training centers in accordance with the law to prevent the breeding and spread of terrorism and religious extremism, effectively curbing the frequent terrorist incidents and protecting
the rights to life, health, and development of the people of all ethnic groups. Worthwhile results have been achieved.

 

一、开展教育培训工作势在必行
I. Urgent Needs for Education and Training

恐怖主义、极端主义在新疆由来已久。20世纪初至40年代末,民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力借助“泛突厥主义”“泛伊斯兰主义”思潮,试图在新疆建立“政教合一”的“东突厥斯坦”国。形形色色的“东突”势力为了达到分裂中国的目的,鼓吹宗教极端主义,实施了一系列暴力恐怖活动。在此后相当长的一段时间里,宗教极端主义对新疆的渗透从未停止,暴力恐怖活动时有发生。
Terrorism and extremism have a long history in Xinjiang. From the early 20th century to the late 1940s, separatist and religious extremist forces, spreading “Pan-Turkism” and “Pan-Islamism”, attempted to create a theocratic state they called “East Turkistan” in Xinjiang. In an attempt to split China, such forces advocated religious extremism and carried out a series of terrorist activities. For years religious extremism continued to make inroads into Xinjiang, resulting in incidents of terrorism.

20世纪90年代以来,恐怖主义、极端主义在全球蔓延加剧,给人类社会造成重大灾难。美国、英国、法国、德国、西班牙、比利时、俄罗斯、土耳其、埃及、印度、印度尼西亚、新西兰、斯里兰卡等世界上许多国家和地区都发生了受极端主义影响的暴力恐怖袭击案(事)件,造成大量人员伤亡和重大财产损失,严重威胁世界和平,给人类社会发展投下阴影。
Since the 1990s the global spread and aggravation of terrorism and extremism has wrought havoc. Influenced by extremism, terrorist attacks and related incidents have caused heavy casualties and property damage in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Russia, Turkey, Egypt, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, and other countries and regions. World peace is under serious threat, and the future of humanity is overshadowed.

据不完全统计,自1990年至2016年年底,民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力在中国新疆地区策划实施了数千起爆炸、暗杀、投毒、纵火、袭击、骚乱、暴乱等系列暴力恐怖案(事)件,造成大量无辜群众被害,数百名公安民警殉职,财产损失无法估算。
Between 1990 and the end of 2016 separatists, religious extremists and terrorists plotted and carried out several thousand acts of terrorism such as bombings, assassinations, poisoning, arson, assaults, and riots in Xinjiang. Many innocent people were killed and several hundred police officers died in the line of duty. The property losses incurred were enormous.

恐怖主义、极端主义的产生有着复杂的国际国内背景,受政治、经济、文化等各方面因素影响,与特定国家、特定地区、特定民族、特定宗教、特定社会制度无关。反恐、去极端化既是世界性课题,也是世界性难题。多年来,一些国家和地区为了有效反恐、去极端化,根据自身实际,积极探索打击和预防恐怖主义、极端主义的具体路径和办法,但由于各自的历史文化传统、经济社会发展水平、公民受教育程度及就业能力状况等存在差异,采取的办法和举措也不尽相同。
Terrorism and extremism germinate in a complex domestic and international environment. They are rooted in political, economic and cultural factors, and are not specific to particular countries, regions, ethnic groups, religions or social systems. The fight against terrorism and extremism is a global challenge. Over the years different countries and regions have adopted different measures of preventing and combating terrorism and extremism, based on their respective historical and cultural traditions, their level of social and economic development, and the level of education and employability of their citizens.

新疆特别是位于南疆的喀什地区、和田地区、克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州、阿克苏地区等四地州,由于宗教极端主义渗透时间长,影响范围广,毒害程度深,暴力恐怖案(事)件在一段时间多发频发,且涉案人员众多,影响群体庞大,导致反恐、去极端化形势严峻。
For some time Xinjiang, especially Kashgar Prefecture, Hotan Prefecture, Aksu Prefecture and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the south, where religious extremism has had a long and widespread presence, suffered badly from frequent acts of terrorism. Large numbers of people were involved and even more were affected. The scale of the problem posed a serious challenge to China’s efforts in fighting terrorism and extremism.

宗教极端势力利用信教群众朴素的宗教感情,借助当地信教人口众多、对外交流不畅、农牧业就业承载有限、信息闭塞、现代科学知识匮乏等客观因素,散布宗教极端主义。宗教极端势力肆意歪曲宗教教义教规,将极端主义与宗教捆绑在一起,与广大信教群众捆绑在一起,与社会生活捆绑在一起,鼓动推翻世俗政权,妄图建立教法统治的国家。宗教极端势力否定一切世俗观念和现代文明成果,鼓吹所谓“圣战殉教进天堂”,残害所谓“异教徒”“叛教者”,致使当地正常宗教活动遭到严重破坏,中道正信的宗教人士受到排斥、迫害,甚至被杀害。因宗教极端主义影响,大量信教群众被套上了沉重的精神枷锁,正常生产生活受到严重干扰,社会经济发展受到严重制约。
Exploiting people’s religious beliefs, extremist forces spread religious extremism through Xinjiang’s large religious population, among people who have limited means of communication outside their own communities, limited employment opportunities in farming and animal husbandry, limited sources of information, and limited knowledge of modern science. Deliberately distorting religious doctrines and canons, religious extremists have bound extremism to religion, to religious believers, and to society as a whole, and incited people to overthrow secular governments and establish theocratic states. They deny the concepts and achievements of modern secular civilization, inciting followers to “engage in a holy war and die for their beliefs in order to enter heaven”, and injuring and killing those they describe as “pagans” and “renegades”. Normal religious activities in Xinjiang have been seriously disrupted, and upstanding religious individuals have been ostracized, persecuted, or killed. For many religious believers, the mental shackles imposed by religious extremism have become unbearable, disturbing their normal life and work. Social and economic development in the region has also suffered as a result.

为了强化对信教群众的精神控制,宗教极端势力持续煽动信教群众抵制学习国家通用语言文字,排斥现代科学知识;歪曲炮制所谓“教法、家法”,将其作为行为准则,对抗国家宪法法律;鼓吹“来世天定”,蛊惑信教群众拒绝学习掌握就业技能、改善经济条件、提升自我发展能力。大量群众不具备掌握国家通用语言文字能力,不具备基本法律知识。
To strengthen their psychological control over religious believers, extremist forces have incited people to boycott the standard spoken and written Chinese language and reject modern science. They act in accordance with fabricated “religious law” and “domestic discipline”, and defy the Constitution and state laws. They spread word about a “next life where one’s fate is predestined”, and deceive religious believers into rejecting the kind of vocational skills training by which they can improve their economic conditions and their capacity for self-development. A large part of the population could not read and write in the standard spoken and written Chinese language, and they had no basic knowledge of the law.

在宗教极端主义的渗透和控制下,许多人参与或者被教唆、胁迫、引诱参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,但尚属情节轻微,或未造成实际危害后果;一些人虽因恐怖活动犯罪、极端主义犯罪被定罪处刑,但并未完全脱离宗教极端主义束缚。由于上述人员受宗教极端主义毒害深,丧失了对正常生活和法律界限的理性辨识能力,如果不对他们采取积极干预措施,就不能解除宗教极端主义对他们的桎梏,就无法使他们融入正常的社会生活,就不可能使他们实现个人的更好发展。
Influenced and controlled by religious extremism, many people have engaged in – or have been instigated, coerced or enticed to engage in – terrorist and extremist activities, but they have not committed serious crimes or inflicted actual harm. It is hard for some people who have been convicted of terrorist or extremist crimes to abandon extremist views, as their minds have been poisoned to the extent of losing reason and the ability to think sensibly about their lives and the law. Without necessary intervention measures it will not be possible for them to cast off the shackles of religious extremism, get back to normal life, and improve their prospects for a better future.

面对严峻形势和复杂情况,新疆的反恐、去极端化坚持标本兼治方针,既依法严厉打击少数严重暴力恐怖犯罪,又最大限度地教育挽救感染宗教极端主义、有轻微违法犯罪的人员。依法设立教培中心,对学员进行系统的教育培训,是遏制暴力恐怖案(事)件多发频发、铲除宗教极端主义滋生蔓延土壤的迫切需要,也是有效提升学员文化知识水平、掌握劳动技能、促进就业和增加收入的迫切需要,更是实现新疆社会稳定和长治久安的迫切需要。
Faced with this severe and complex problem, Xinjiang has upheld the principle of addressing both the symptoms and root causes in its fight against terrorism and extremism, by striking hard at serious terrorist crimes, which are limited in number, and by educating and rehabilitating people influenced by religious extremism and involved in minor violations of the law. In accordance with the law it has established a group of vocational centers to offer systematic education and training in response to a set of urgent needs: to curb frequent terrorist incidents, to eradicate the breeding ground for religious extremism, to help trainees acquire a better education and vocational skills, find employment, and increase their incomes, and most of all, to safeguard social stability and long-term peace in Xinjiang.

二、依法开展教育培训工作
II. Law-Based Education and Training

新疆开展教培工作的做法既符合国家法治精神和要求,又体现了国际社会反恐、去极端化的原则和理念。
Education and training in Xinjiang is practiced in line with the spirit and requirements of the rule of law in China. It also reflects the ideas and principles of counter-terrorism and deradicalization as practiced by the international community.

新疆根据《中华人民共和国国家安全法》《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》和《宗教事务条例》等法律法规,依照法定程序,制定并修改完善了《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例》两部地方性法规。
In recent years, in line with the National Security Law of the People’s Republic of China, Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, and Regulations on Religious Affairs, Xinjiang has enacted and revised, in accordance with legal procedures, two local regulations – the Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Implementing the Counter-terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Deradicalization.

中国法律区分了违法行为和犯罪行为,并规定了不同的执法司法主体和处理程序。其中,视具体违法或犯罪情节不同,有的由包括公安机关在内的行政机关依法予以行政处罚;有的由公安机关侦查终结,移送检察机关审查后,由检察机关依法作出不起诉决定;有的在检察机关提起公诉后,由审判机关依法审理定罪处刑。
Chinese law distinguishes between unlawful and criminal acts, and prescribes different law enforcement and judicial bodies and different processes for handling the two kinds of acts. Depending on the specific circumstances, some offenders or criminals are subjected to punishment by administrative organs, including public security organs, in accordance with the law. Some, after their cases have been investigated by public security organs and transferred, are examined by procuratorial organs and there is a decision not to prosecute. Some are tried, convicted and sentenced by judicial organs in accordance with the law after procuratorial organs have initiated public prosecution.

具体在恐怖主义、极端主义违法犯罪案件中,依照法律规定,视具体情节及当事人表现,除由检察机关提起公诉,由审判机关定罪处刑的外,有的案件是由公安机关等行政机关依法作出处理,有的案件是由检察机关依法作出不起诉决定。这些不同的处理方式和程序,恰恰体现了国家宽严相济的刑事政策和教育挽救的方针。为了贯彻标本兼治的原则,中国法律和地方性法规对参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动的人员,还规定了帮教、安置教育等措施。
Chinese law distinguishes between unlawful and criminal acts, and prescribes different law enforcement and judicial bodies and different processes for handling the two kinds of acts. Depending on the specific circumstances, some offenders or criminals are subjected to punishment by administrative organs, including public security organs, in accordance with the law. Some, after their cases have been investigated by public security organs and transferred, are examined by procuratorial organs and there is a decision not to prosecute. Some are tried, convicted and sentenced by judicial organs in accordance with the law after procuratorial organs have initiated public prosecution.

新疆依据《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例》等法律法规,设立了教培中心,开展帮教等工作。目前进入教培中心的学员有三类:一是被教唆、胁迫、引诱参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,或者参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动情节轻微,尚不构成犯罪的人员。二是被教唆、胁迫、引诱参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,或者参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,有现实危险性,尚未造成实际危害后果,主观恶性不深,能够认罪悔罪,依法不需要判处刑罚或者免除刑罚,自愿接受培训的人员。三是因恐怖活动犯罪、极端主义犯罪被定罪处刑,刑满释放前经评估仍有社会危险性,人民法院依法决定在刑满释放后进行安置教育的人员。对第一、第三类人员,根据《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》第二十九条、第三十条的规定,依法进行帮教或安置教育。对第二类人员,则本着宽严相济的刑事政策,打击少数、挽救多数,对认罪悔罪、自愿接受培训的人员,在依法作出不起诉决定后对其进行帮教。
In accordance with the Counter-terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Implementing the Counter-terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Deradicalization, and other laws and regulations, vocational education and training centers have been established in Xinjiang. At present, the trainees at the centers fall into three categories:
1. People who were incited, coerced or induced into participating in terrorist or extremist activities, or people who participated in terrorist or extremist activities in circumstances that were not serious enough to constitute a crime;
2. People who were incited, coerced or induced into participating in terrorist or extremist activities, or people who participated in terrorist or extremist activities that posed a real danger but did not cause actual harm, whose subjective culpability was not deep, who acknowledged their offences and were contrite about their past actions and thus do not need to be sentenced to or can be exempted from punishment, and who have demonstrated the willingness to receive training;
3. People who were convicted and received prison sentence for terrorist or extremist crimes and after serving their sentences, have been assessed as still posing a potential threat to society, and who have been ordered by people’s courts in accordance with the law to receive education at the centers. In accordance with Articles 29 and 30 of the Counter-terrorism Law, people in the first and third categories will be given assistance and education or receive job-related education at the centers. With regard to people in the second category, a small number of them should be punished severely, while the majority should be rehabilitated in accordance with the policy of balancing compassion and severity. Confession, repentance, and willingness to receive training are preconditions for leniency, and these people will receive education to help reform their ways after they have been exempted from prosecution in accordance with the law.

 

新疆开展教培工作的具体法律程序是,由有关机关依照《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》等相关法律法规规定,对相关行为性质和情节进行认定,对相关人员作出处理。其中,对第一类人员,由公安机关依法作出处理,由教培中心进行帮教;对第二类人员,由公安机关依法侦查,检察机关经审查作出不起诉决定后,由教培中心进行帮教;第三类人员在刑满释放前经评估具有社会危险性的,依据人民法院决定在刑满释放后进行安置教育。
The specific procedures for carrying out education and training in Xinjiang require that relevant authorities determine the nature and circumstances of the acts and deal with the above three categories in accordance with the laws and regulations, such as the Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure Law, and Counter-terrorism Law. The first category should first be handled by public security organs, and then given assistance and education by vocational education and training centers. The second category should first be investigated by public security organs, and if the procuratorial organs, after reviewing the cases, have made the decision not to institute legal proceedings, they should then be given assistance and education by education and training centers. The third category, after being assessed before their release from prison and found to pose an ongoing risk to society, shall be placed at such centers to receive education to help them reintegrate into society in accordance with the decision of people’s courts.

对上述人员,通过“集中培训、寄宿学习、实践培养”等多种形式开展免费职业技能教育培训,并在学员考核达标后颁发结业证书。学员结业后,可以自主择业,也可以由有关部门协助安排就业。
The vocational education and training centers shall provide the people mentioned above with residential vocational training free of charge, and issue certificates of completion when the trainees reach the expected criteria. After graduation, the trainees can choose their own jobs, or employment can be arranged for them with the assistance of relevant authorities.

新疆教培工作也符合国际社会有关公约、倡议中明确的基本原则。作为国际社会负责任的一员,中国积极支持联合国在国际反恐合作中发挥主导和协调作用,坚持遵循《联合国宪章》和其他国际法原则准则,支持联合国安理会通过的一系列反恐决议,大力推动《联合国全球反恐战略》(60/288)全面实施。目前,中国已加入《制止恐怖主义爆炸的国际公约》《制止向恐怖主义提供资助的国际公约》《制止核恐怖主义行为国际公约》《反对劫持人质国际公约》等国际反恐公约。此外,在上海合作组织框架下,中国与有关国家缔结了《打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义上海公约》《上海合作组织成员国合作打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义构想》《上海合作组织反恐怖主义公约》《上海合作组织反极端主义公约》《上海合作组织成员国合作打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义2019-2021年合作纲要》《上海合作组织成员国和阿富汗伊斯兰共和国关于打击恐怖主义、毒品走私和有组织犯罪行动计划》等文件。
The education and training efforts in Xinjiang are also in line with the basic principles clearly defined in the relevant international conventions and initiatives. As a responsible member of the international community, China supports the United Nations in playing a leading and coordinating role in international cooperation against terrorism. China upholds the UN Charter and other principles and norms of international law. It has supported a series of resolutions on combating terrorism adopted by the UN Security Council, and contributed to the full implementation of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. China has joined a number of international counter-terrorism conventions, including the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages. Under the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), China and the other countries involved have signed the following documents: the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, Cooperation Between SCO Member States on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, SCO Convention on Combating Terrorism, SCO Convention on Combating Extremism, SCO Cooperation Programme on Fighting Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism for 2019-2021, and SCO Plan of Action for Cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on Fighting Terrorism, Drug Trafficking and Organized Crimes.

联合国《防止暴力极端主义行动计划》(70/674)报告指出,贫困、失业、缺乏就业机会和教育程度低,以及暴力极端主义团体随意歪曲和利用宗教信仰、族裔差异和政治思想体系等方面是形成暴力极端主义的背景和成因。行动计划建议,防止暴力极端主义必须扩大应对措施,更早介入,消除促成暴力极端主义的因素,用预防措施配合打击暴力极端主义。行动计划提出,将国家发展政策与可持续发展目标保持一致,消除一切形式的贫困,确保优质教育,让全民享有终身学习机会;为暴力极端主义团体的人提供教育机会和经济机遇,鼓励其脱离暴力极端主义团体;向青年提供继续学习机会、职业培训资源、创业才能培养。新疆开展教培工作正是中国落实国际社会反恐、去极端化倡议及其理念的具体表现。
The United Nations Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism notes that poverty, unemployment, the absence of alternative employment opportunities, and low levels of education, are the background causes of violent extremism, along with the distortion and exploitation by violent extremist groups of religious beliefs, ethnic differences and political ideologies. The Plan of Action says that to counter violent extremism, we have to broaden our responses, engage earlier, and address the drivers of violent extremism. We need to complement actions to counter violent extremism with preventive measures. The Plan of Action proposes to align national development policies with the Sustainable Development Goals, end poverty in all its forms, ensure quality education, and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all; to encourage individuals to leave violent extremist groups by developing programs that place an emphasis on providing them with educational and economic opportunities; and to support young people in gaining access to continued learning and vocational resources, and in incubating their entrepreneurial talent. The education and training efforts of Xinjiang manifest China’s implementation of international counter-terrorism and deradicalization initiatives and measures.

三、教育培训的内容
III. Content of Education and Training

为有效遏制宗教极端主义蔓延扩散、暴力恐怖案(事)件多发频发势头,新疆依法开展教育培训工作,在一些区、县设立教培中心。
In order to effectively contain and systematically remedy the dissemination of religious extremism and frequent terrorist incidents, Xinjiang has set up vocational education and training centers in some prefectures and counties.

教培中心属于学校性质。针对新疆反恐、去极端化的实际需要,设置了以学习国家通用语言文字、法律知识、职业技能以及去极端化为主要内容的教学课程。
These centers are education and training institutions in nature. To meet the needs of fighting terrorism and extremism, these centers deliver a curriculum that includes standard spoken and written Chinese, understanding of the law, vocational skills, and deradicalization.

针对学员使用国家通用语言文字普遍水平低的问题,开展国家通用语言文字培训。教培中心开展国家通用语言文字培训有充分的宪法和法律依据。《中华人民共和国宪法》以及《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》《中华人民共和国国家通用语言文字法》均保障各民族有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由。同时,《中华人民共和国宪法》和《中华人民共和国国家通用语言文字法》也规定,国家推广全国通用的普通话,公民有学习和使用国家通用语言文字的权利,国家为公民学习和使用国家通用语言文字提供条件。教培中心充分保障宪法赋予公民的学习和使用国家通用语言文字的权利,为学员提供学习条件。安排有教师资格的国家通用语言专业教师,使用专门为学员编写的教材,按照普通学校授课方式,快速提升学员使用国家通用语言文字的能力。国家通用语言文字的培训,是在尊重少数民族使用本民族语言文字权利前提下进行的,目的在于增强掌握和使用国家通用语言文字的能力,使学员获得学习科学文化知识、职业技能、外出经商务工、与其他民族群众交流、适应现代生活的语言工具,而不是要剥夺或者限制使用、发展本民族语言文字的权利。
To remedy their lack of proficiency in spoken and written Chinese, tailored language programs are provided to trainees. The education and training centers have solid constitutional and legal authority to conduct such programs. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language protect the freedom of all ethnic groups to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. At the same time, the Constitution and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language specify that the state promotes the nationwide use of Putonghua, that all citizens have the right to learn and use the standard spoken and written Chinese language, and that the state provides citizens with the conditions to enable them to do so.
The education and training centers fully guarantee citizens’ right to learn and use standard spoken and written Chinese conferred by the Constitution, and provide trainees with the facilities required for their studies. They employ qualified teachers, using textbooks compiled especially for the trainees, teaching in the same way as in regular schools in order to rapidly improve their ability in the use of standard spoken and written Chinese. Improving the trainees’ command of standard spoken and written Chinese helps them to learn about science and technology, acquire vocational skills, seek work in other locations, communicate with other ethnic groups, and adapt better to life in modern society, subject to the condition that their right to use their own ethnic spoken and written languages is respected. There is no intention to deprive or limit the trainees’ right to use and develop their own ethnic languages.

 

针对学员普遍缺乏法治意识,开设法律知识课程。教培中心将学习法律知识作为培养学员增强国家意识、公民意识、法治意识的关键环节。聘请法官、检察官、律师等讲授《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国民法总则》《中华人民共和国婚姻法》《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》《中华人民共和国劳动法》《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》《中华人民共和国教育法》《中华人民共和国职业教育法》《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》和《新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例》《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教事务条例》等法律法规。通过学习,使学员增强对公民权利义务的认识,建立平等享有权利、履行公民义务的观念,自觉遵守国家宪法法律,按照宪法法律赋予的权利和义务行事。
To remedy a lack of understanding of the law, the education and training centers present legal courses, which is taken as the key link to strengthen national, civic and legal awareness. Judges, procurators and lawyers are invited to give lectures on laws and regulations, including the Constitution, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests, Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Minors, Labor Law of the People’s Republic of China, Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, Education Law of the People’s Republic of China, Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China, Counter-terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, Public Security Administration Punishments Law of the People’s Republic of China, Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Deradicalization, Measures of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Implementing the Counter-terrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, and Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Religious Affairs. Through their studies, the trainees have developed a better understanding of their civil rights and obligations, a realization that they have the same entitlement to these rights and obligations as others, and an acceptance that they must abide by the Constitution and laws and act in accordance with the rights and obligations they confer.

针对学员缺乏职业技能、就业困难的问题,开展职业技能培训。教培中心将学习职业技能作为提升学员就业能力的重要途径,根据当地需求和就业条件,设置服装鞋帽加工、食品加工、电子产品组装、排版印刷、美容美发、电子商务、汽车维修、建筑装饰、畜牧养殖、果树栽培、保健推拿、家政服务、手工艺品制作、插花、地毯编织、绘画、乐器演奏、舞蹈演艺等培训课程,对其中有愿望有条件的学员进行多技能培训,确保学员结业后能够较为熟练地掌握1-2门职业技能。教培中心注重将课程学习与实训操作相结合,提高学员实际操作能力。实训操作是实践教学,不是在工厂务工,不是在企业就业,更不是强制劳动。
To remedy lack of occupational skills and employment difficulties, vocational skills training programs are provided. The education and training centers regard vocational skills as an important channel to improve the trainees’ employability. Based on local demand and employment opportunities, the courses they present include garment making, food processing, assembly of electronic products, typesetting and printing, hairdressing and beauty services, e-commerce, auto maintenance and repair, interior design and decoration, livestock breeding, pomiculture, therapeutic massage, household services, handicrafts, flower arrangement, rug weaving, painting, and the performing arts such as music and dance. Eligible trainees who are willing to learn are offered training in more than one skill to ensure they are employable in the jobs market upon completing their study at the centers. The education and training centers combine course learning with practical training to improve the trainees’ operational skills. Practical training is conducted in classes rather than through employment in factories or enterprises, or obligatory labor.

针对学员不同程度地受宗教极端主义影响和控制的问题,教培中心将去极端化贯穿全过程。通过分阶段学习法律法规、民族宗教政策和宗教知识,揭露恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的危害,使学员全面准确了解国家宗教信仰自由政策,深刻认识到什么是合法宗教活动、什么是非法宗教活动、什么是宗教极端主义,真正明白宗教极端主义完全违背了宗教教义,努力使学员认清恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的罪恶本质和严重危害,摆脱其影响和控制。教育培训从不干预学员信仰自由,从未进行改变学员宗教信仰的教学活动。
As trainees have fallen under the influence and control of religious extremism to a greater or lesser extent, the centers integrate deradicalization into the whole process of education and training. Through step-by-step teaching of laws and regulations, policies on ethnic and religious affairs, and religious knowledge, and by exposing the damage caused by terrorism and religious extremism, the centers give trainees a full and accurate understanding of the national policy of freedom of religious belief. In order to rehabilitate the trainees, these courses teach the trainees to distinguish between lawful and unlawful religious activities, understand how religious extremism runs counter to religious doctrine, and realize the evil nature and serious harm of terrorism and religious extremism so that they can eventually break free from the influence and control of terrorism and religious extremism. Education and training at the centers never interferes in the trainees’ freedom of religious belief and the centers have never made any attempts to have the trainees change their religious beliefs.

四、学员的基本权利得到保障
IV. Protection of Trainees’ Basic Rights

尊重和保障人权,是中国宪法规定的基本原则,并在中国的各项法律制度和中国政府开展的各项工作中得到充分体现。新疆开展教培工作,是政府依法采取的一项社会治理措施,旨在保障人民生命安全,保障公民基本权利不受侵犯。在开展教培工作过程中,教培中心严格贯彻落实宪法和法律规定,保障参与培训学员的基本权利不受侵犯。
It is a basic principle, enshrined in the Constitution of China, prescribed by its laws, and demonstrated by the efforts of the Chinese government, to respect and protect human rights. The education and training in Xinjiang is a social governance measure taken by the government, in accordance with the law, to protect the lives and basic civil rights of citizens. In organizing the training programs, the education and training centers strictly follow the provisions of the Constitution and the law to prevent any violation of the basic rights of trainees.

教培工作根本不是什么限制、剥夺人身自由的措施,而是依法采取的帮助学员摆脱恐怖主义、宗教极端主义束缚的重要措施,是实现人的思想解放、素质提升和更好发展之举。
Education and training is not a measure to limit or circumscribe the freedom of the person. Rather it is an important measure to help trainees to break free from ideas of terrorism and religious extremism. It is an attempt to help the trainees to emancipate their minds, improve themselves and their future prospects.

中国法律明文禁止任何基于地域、民族、宗教等理由的歧视性做法,这一规定在新疆得到了切实执行。教培中心确定教育挽救对象的唯一标准是是否有过恐怖主义、宗教极端主义违法或犯罪行为,与其所在的地区、所属的民族和所信仰的宗教毫无关系。
The law of China prohibits any discrimination based on region, ethnicity, religion and other grounds. This is implemented strictly in Xinjiang. The only criterion for education at the centers is whether the trainee has been convicted of unlawful or criminal acts involving terrorism and religious extremism. It has nothing to do with their region, ethnicity or religion.

学员在教培中心学习过程中的人身自由得到依法保障。教培中心充分保障学员的人格尊严不受侵犯,严禁以任何方式对学员进行人格侮辱和虐待。教培中心实行寄宿制管理,学员可定期回家,有事请假,学员有通信自由。
The personal freedom of trainees at the education and training centers is protected in accordance with the law. The centers guarantee that trainees’ personal dignity is inviolable, and prevent any insult or abuse in any manner. They employ a residential education model which allows trainees to go back home on a regular basis and ask for leave to attend personal affairs. The trainees also enjoy the freedom of correspondence.

在教培中心,各民族的风俗习惯和使用本民族语言文字的权利都得到充分保障。教培中心各项规章制度、课程表、食谱等均使用国家通用语言文字和当地少数民族语言文字。教培中心充分尊重和保障不同民族学员的风俗习惯,免费提供种类繁多、营养丰富的清真饮食。
The customs of all ethnic groups and the right to use their spoken and written languages are fully protected at the centers. The regulations, curriculum, and menus at the centers all use local ethnic languages as well as standard Chinese. The customs of all ethnic groups are fully respected and protected, and a variety of nutritious Muslim food is provided free of charge.

教培中心尊重学员的宗教信仰自由。《宗教事务条例》规定,禁止在宗教院校以外的学校及其他教育机构传教、举行宗教活动、成立宗教组织、设立宗教活动场所。教培中心在管理上实行教育与宗教相分离,学员不得在校内组织、参加宗教活动,但信教学员回家时可以自主决定是否参与合法宗教活动。
The education and training centers respect the trainees’ freedom of religious belief. The Regulations on Religious Affairs prohibit preaching religion, holding religious activities, establishing religious organizations, and setting up religious activity sites in schools and educational institutions other than religious institutions. The centers practice separation of education and religion in management, which means trainees should not organize or take part in religious activities there, but they can decide on their own whether to do so on a legal basis when they get home.

教培中心配备双语教师、辅导员、医生和后勤服务管理人员等,保障学员正常学习生活。教培中心生活设施齐全,室内冬天有暖气、夏天有空调或风扇,宿舍有电视,浴室免费对学员开放。设置医疗室,每天24小时免费向学员提供医疗服务,小病可在医务室就诊治疗,重症急症可快速送医院救治。
The education and training centers employ bilingual teachers, instructors, doctors and logistics and managerial staff to ensure that the trainees can study and lead a normal life. They have well-equipped facilities – central heating in winter, air conditioners and electric fans in summer, TVs in the dormitory, and bathrooms. They also have free 24-hour medical facilities available to trainees, capable of treating minor ailments. In the case of major and acute illnesses, trainees will be sent to hospital.

教培中心充分尊重学员各方面精神文化生活需求,有室内外体育文化活动场所,经常举办丰富多彩的文体娱乐活动。设置图书阅览室,方便学员读书学习。设置法律咨询室,帮助学员及时解决法律层面的困难和疑问。设置心理咨询室,提供心理咨询服务,关心学员心理健康。所有学员均享受养老、医疗等社会保险,免费参加全民健康体检。
The education and training centers fully respect the spiritual and cultural needs of trainees. A wealth of regular recreational activities are held at their indoor and outdoor sports and cultural venues. They have reading rooms for trainees to read and study, legal counseling rooms to address their problems and difficulties concerning legal affairs, and mental counseling rooms to provide relevant services and care for their mental health. All trainees are included in public pension and medical insurance schemes, and are entitled to free health examination.

为解除教培学员的后顾之忧,新疆各级政府对教培学员家庭平等落实社会保障、教育医疗、脱贫攻坚等各项优惠政策,帮助学员亲属解决生产、生活、就业、就学、就医等方面的实际困难,增强了学员参加学习培训的动力。
In order to relieve them of family worries, the authorities at all levels of Xinjiang treat trainees’ families on an equal footing in terms of preferential policies in social security, education, medical service, and poverty elimination, and help their families and relatives to address problems in work, daily life, employment, education and medical services, thus allowing them to focus more attention on their education and training.

五、教育培训工作取得显著成效
V. Remarkable Results in Education and Training

 

新疆开展教培工作,最大限度挽救了有恐怖主义、极端主义违法或犯罪行为的人员,最大限度消除了滋生恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的土壤和条件,最大限度保障了公民的基本权利免受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的侵害,取得了良好效果。参加教育培训的人数是动态的,有进有出。随着教培工作的有效展开和推进,大多数学员已达到培训要求顺利结业。
Education and training in Xinjiang has succeeded to an enormous extent in eliminating the soil and conditions in which terrorism and religious extremism breed, rehabilitating those who have committed unlawful or criminal acts, and protected basic civil rights. The number of people participating in education and training at the centers is not fixed; some are coming in while others are going out. However, as education and training has played its role, most trainees have reached the required standards and graduated.

——学员的综合素质得到提升。学员法治意识得到提高,普遍认识到作为国家公民必须遵守国家宪法和法律。学员使用国家通用语言文字的能力得到提高。许多学员以前不具备使用国家通用语言文字的能力,结业时初步实现能听懂、能交流、能阅读、能书写。学员通过学习职业技能知识,大多数掌握了一定的实用技能,就业能力得到提高。已有多批次学员达到标准从教培中心结业,有的在工厂或其他企业就业,有的自主创业,还有一些为了不断提升自我,到中职、高职等院校继续深造学习。
– The comprehensive quality of trainees has improved. Their understanding of the rule of law has risen, and there is a general recognition that citizens must abide by the Constitution and other laws of the country. The ability of trainees to speak and write in standard Chinese has improved. Many trainees begin the course unable to use the national common language, but by the time they have completed their studies at the centers they are able to understand, communicate, read and write in Chinese. Through vocational skills training and study, most of them have mastered practical skills and their employability has increased. Many of the trainees who have completed their studies in education and training centers have gone on to find employment in factories or enterprises. Some have started their own businesses, and some have continued their studies in secondary and higher vocational schools in order to improve their prospects further.

——宗教极端主义有效祛除。通过学习,绝大多数学员都能够认清恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的本质和危害,摆脱了恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的精神控制。学员的国家意识、公民意识、法治意识明显增强,辨别是非能力明显提高。大多数学员能够认清宗教极端主义不是宗教,抵御宗教极端主义渗透的能力明显增强。
– Religious extremism has been effectively eliminated. Through education, the vast majority of trainees can recognize the nature and harm of terrorism and religious extremism, and free themselves from the control these phenomena exert over their minds. The trainees have a much better awareness of the interests of the nation, their civic duties, and the rule of law, and their ability to distinguish between right and wrong has significantly improved. Most of the trainees are able to recognize that religious extremism is a perversion of their religion, and their ability to resist its penetration has notably increased.

——社会风气明显好转。在学员的学习生活过程中,教培中心注重引导学员转变观念,提倡各民族相互尊重风俗习惯,在衣食住行、婚丧嫁娶、礼仪风俗等方面顺应现代社会发展要求,并大力传播现代文明理念,使学员摆脱陈规陋习束缚。在教培工作的积极影响下,新疆社会风气明显好转,正气上升,邪气下降,宗教极端主义的传播受到自觉抵制,追求现代科学技术知识、文明生活风尚的社会氛围日渐浓厚。
– The social atmosphere has taken a marked turn for the better. In the course of the trainees’ studies and daily life, the education and training centers carefully guide them to change their mentalities, and promote mutual respect for folkways among all ethnic groups while encouraging adaptation to the requirements of modern society in terms of food, clothing, housing, transport, weddings, funerals, etiquette and customs. The centers also vigorously spread the concept of modern civilization, so that trainees can divest themselves of outdated conventions and customs. Thanks to these efforts, Xinjiang has witnessed a marked change in the social environment in recent years. A healthy atmosphere is spreading, while evil influences are declining. Citizens now consciously resist religious extremism, and the trend in society is now to pursue knowledge of modern science and technology and a cultured way of life.

——社会大局持续稳定。开展教培工作以来,新疆已连续近3年未发生暴力恐怖案(事)件,宗教极端主义渗透得到有效遏制,社会治安状况明显好转,民族平等团结,宗教和睦和顺,人民生活安定祥和。据统计,2018年,新疆旅游业大幅增长,共接待境内外游客超过1.5亿人次,同比增长40%;其中境外游客262.6万人次,同比增长11.83%。2019年1月至6月,新疆接待境内外游客7589.35万人次,同比增长46%。
– The overall situation in society continues to be stable. No terrorist incidents have occurred in Xinjiang for nearly three years since the education and training started. As the infiltration of religious extremism has been curbed, public order and security have returned to society, where equality, solidarity and harmony among ethnic groups and religions have prevailed, and people are enjoying peace and stability. In 2018, tourism in Xinjiang grew rapidly: Tourists from inside and outside China totaled over 150 million, a year-on-year increase of 40 percent; foreign tourists numbered 2.6 million, a year-on-year increase of nearly 12 percent. From January to June 2019, nearly 76 million tourists visited Xinjiang, an increase of 46 percent over the same period in 2018.

——各族人民普遍支持。通过教育培训,学员们认清了恐怖主义、宗教极端主义的本质和危害,感谢教育培训使他们“在走向恐怖犯罪的路上回了头”“解除了宗教极端主义的精神枷锁”。教培工作有力维护了新疆社会安定和谐,最大限度地保障了各族人民的基本人权,得到了各族人民的拥护。许多人切身感受到,新疆今天的大好局面来之不易,没有教培工作就没有今天的安稳日子。
– Education and training has won general support. The trainees gain a thorough understanding of the true nature and perils of terrorism and religious extremism. They thank education and training for turning them back from the way to terrorist crimes and helping them break free from the spiritual shackles of religious extremism. Education and training has effectively safeguarded social stability and harmony in Xinjiang, protected the basic human rights of citizens to the maximum extent, and won the support of all ethnic groups. The personal feeling of many people is that the positive developments in Xinjiang have been hard won, and without education and training there would have been little peace and tranquility today.

——国际社会积极评价。新疆的教培工作引起了国际社会的普遍关注。2018年12月底以来,一些国家驻华使节、联合国官员、有关国家常驻日内瓦主要外交官,以及一些国家政党、社会组织、媒体记者和宗教团体等40多批(团、组)、近千人到新疆参观访问。百闻不如一见。通过实地参观访问,许多人认清了真相,理解了新疆开展教培工作的紧迫性、必要性、合法性、合理性。他们纷纷表示,受宗教极端主义影响,新疆的暴恐活动惨无人道、令人愤慨,教培工作挽救了那些受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义控制的学员,新疆的教培工作为国际社会反恐、去极端化斗争作出了重要贡献,积累了宝贵经验,很有借鉴价值。伊斯兰合作组织外长理事会第46次会议通过决议,赞赏中国为关怀本国穆斯林所作的努力。
– The international community has made positive comments on Xinjiang’s efforts. Education and training has aroused the general interest of the international community. Since the end of December 2018, nearly 1,000 people have visited Xinjiang. They include foreign diplomatic envoys to China, UN officials, Geneva-based senior diplomats of various countries, as well as more than 40 groups (or delegations) of people from political parties, civil society organizations, news media, and religious organizations of various countries. Through field trips, many have realized the truth and understood the urgency, necessity, legitimacy and rationality of carrying out education and training. They have all recognized that violent and inhumane terrorist activities in the autonomous region, provoked by religious extremism, were causing outrage. Through rehabilitating trainees poisoned by terrorist and religious extremist ideas, education and training has made an important contribution to international efforts to fight terrorism and extremism, and generated valuable experience that is of great reference value. At its 46th session, the Council of Foreign Ministers of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation adopted a resolution commending China’s efforts in providing care to its Muslim citizens.

一些实地采访过新疆教培中心的外国媒体记者,纷纷发表报道文章,客观介绍教培中心的真实情况,对新疆开展教培工作表示理解、肯定和支持。
A number of foreign journalists who have conducted interviews in the education and training centers have published stories that reflect the true role of the centers and express their understanding, approval and support for the education and training programs in Xinjiang.

2019年5月15日,沙特《利雅得报》记者在题为《新疆——中国“一带一路”的门户》的报道中说:“中国尊重少数民族以及他们的宗教信仰。”“为尊重和照顾少数民族的饮食、衣着、节日、婚嫁和葬礼等习俗,中国各级政府和有关部门制定了一系列政策和法规。”“在新疆,各民族都有保持或改变自己生活习俗的权利,这是中国的一贯政策。”
“China respects ethnic minorities and their religious beliefs,” says a report in Saudi Arabia’s newspaper Al Riyadh entitled “Xinjiang: Gateway to China on the Belt and Road” published on May 15, 2019. “The Chinese government at all levels and its departments have formulated a series of policies and regulations to respect and accommodate the dietary habits, clothing, festivals, weddings and funerals of ethnic minorities.” “In Xinjiang, all ethnic groups have the right to maintain or change their own lifestyles or customs, which is China’s consistent policy.”

2019年5月15日,埃及《金字塔晚报》记者在题为《中国利用培训和再教育方式应对极端主义》的报道中说:“世界各国根据实际情况,采取了多种预防性措施应对恐怖主义和极端思想,其中中国政府在新疆维吾尔自治区采取的应对极端思想的措施可以提供有益经验。”“新疆设立教培中心是为培训那些受恐怖组织极端思想影响的年轻人,为他们提供机会重新融入社会并走上正轨,远离恐怖主义的魔爪。”土耳其DHA表示,教培中心为学员提供人性化管理和服务,中心没有虐待行为和限制人身自由,学员学习、生活都很愉快。访问期间的所见所感同美西方宣传的负面内容大相径庭,深感其双重标准之野蛮无理。
On May 15, 2019, Egypt’s Al-Ahram Al-Masa’ynewspaper published an article entitled “China Uses Training and Re-education to Deal with Extremism”. It states: “Countries around the world adopt a variety of preventive measures against terrorism and extremism in accordance with their actual conditions. The measures taken against extremist ideas by the Chinese government in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region can provide useful experience… Xinjiang has set up education and training centers to train young people influenced by the extremist ideas of terrorist organizations, to provide them with the opportunity to reintegrate into society, get back on track, and steer clear of the claws of terrorism.” anagement and services for the trainees. There is no maltreatment or restrictions on personal freedom. The trainees are happy to study and live there. What I saw and felt during the visit was very different from the negative propaganda of the US and other Western countries, and I felt their double standards simply rude and unreasonable.”

美国《国际聚焦》杂志2019年5月号刊发《中国新疆维吾尔自治区之旅》一文,指出,喀什职业技能教育培训中心秩序井然,许多年轻人以前是极端思想的受害者,如今在学习职业技能,有人在教他们更好的谋生手段。他们吃得好,生活条件也好。记者同其中几个人交流,他们受到良好对待,看上去很快乐。有人或许认为这些年轻人受到胁迫,但快乐是装不出来的。
US magazine International Focus published Val Thompson’s “A Journey to the Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China” in its May 2019 issue: “A visit to Kashgar Vocation Skills Educational and Training Center, which I found well organized with young people, was mostly of the UYGHUR ethnicity. The young people, men and women, were, or could be, victims of extremist teaching, now were learning a vocational skill and being taught a better way of life… They were well fed, and they had good sleeping conditions… I interviewed several of them; they seemed very happy; and they were treated well by their supervisors. For those who want to believe these young people may have been coerced, I say you can’t fake happiness; and happiness is exactly what I saw.”

2019年7月5日,新加坡《海峡时报》刊登《新疆职业技能教育培训中心里的故事》一文,生动介绍了新疆教培中心的真实情况以及多位学员培训前后的转变。文章写道,毋庸置疑,从去极端化和国家治理的角度,新疆教培中心的做法是富有成效的。记者在与学员的接触中了解到,许多学员都有过被从智能手机下载的极端视频和宣传书籍激进化的经历。培训中心的气氛就像是一所寄宿学校。记者看到政府为贫困民众建造房屋,当地集市繁荣,民众可以获得各种医疗服务,尽享民族歌舞表演。中国政府不仅没有压制当地文化,而且还在独生子女政策等方面给予新疆维吾尔族和其他少数民族许多特殊政策。
On July 5, 2019, The Straits Times of Singapore published an article entitled “Inside Those Uighur Re-education Camps” written by Ravi Velloor, associate editor of the newspaper. The article gives a vivid account of the true situation in Xinjiang’s education and training centers and explains how a number of trainees have changed. “From an administrative point of view, the measures have been effective without question,” says the article. Velloor learned from his contact with the trainees that many of them “had undergone a measure of self-radicalisation after downloading extremist videos from the Internet on their smartphones”. Velloor felt that the training centers “had the air of a boarding school”. “In the housing blocks being built for the poorer sections, in the hospitals where people can access medical services, including moxibustion, in the thriving bazaars where the locals ply their trade, and in the cities of Xinjiang where people enjoy ethnic song and dance performances”, he was impressed that the Chinese government was not suppressing local culture and that the Uygurs and many other minorities were never subject to the one-child policy.

六、探索出去极端化的有益经验
VI. Experience in Countering Extremism

多年来,为应对恐怖主义、极端主义的威胁,消除恐怖主义、极端主义滋生蔓延的土壤和条件,维护人民生命安全和社会稳定,世界上一些国家坚持从本国实际出发,积极探索反恐、去极端化有效办法,并积累了有益经验。
Over the years, in response to the threats posed by terrorism and extremism, and in order to prevent them from breeding and expanding, and to guarantee individual safety and social stability, many countries have explored measures based on their own conditions, and gained experience in effectively combating terrorism and extremism.

有的国家设立“去极端化中心”,对受过极端主义感染的群体进行一段时间的教育转化,通过个体或集体体育活动、心理辅导,穿插对宗教现实和世俗主义的讨论等,使学员获得心理恢复,并通过技能和职业培训使学员重新融入社会。有的国家设立“教育转化中心”,把极端分子分为自首者、潜在者、犯罪者三类,依托家庭、社区,并配合精神干预治疗、经济帮扶等措施,进行去极端化改造。有的国家在监狱和社区两个层面对恐怖分子及高危群体进行教育转化,通过甄别、康复、再教育、回归社会、评估等办法,对涉恐罪犯进行去极端化改造。有的国家谴责极端分子对伊斯兰教义的错误解释,鼓励宗教包容,提出回归“温和伊斯兰”,并设立教化中心,通过集中管控和回归社会两个阶段对受极端主义影响的人员进行教育转化。有的国家通过启动“转化和脱离”项目,强制要求曾涉恐人员和返国恐怖嫌犯必须参加培训,并在全国设立隔离中心,用于拘押极端分子,以防止其在监狱感染其他在押人员。有的国家在社区采取相关措施,对受极端主义影响的人员进行早期干预,并采取社会动员的方式及早发现并制止年轻人加入极端组织的企图,防止发生恐怖主义和极端主义行为。
extremist teachings and reverse their thinking. These centers rehabilitate the trainees through individual or collective sports activities and psychological counseling, and discussions on religion and secularity, and enable them to re-assimilate into society through skills and vocational training.
•Some countries have set up education and transformation centers. They divide extremists into three categories: those who recognize their error, latent criminals, and active criminals, and try to remove them from extremist influences with the assistance of their families and communities, together with measures like psychological intervention and economic aid.
•Some countries educate and transform terrorists and potential terrorists in both prisons and communities, and deradicalize those involved in terrorist-related offences through the process of identification, assessment, rehabilitation, reeducation, return to society and follow-up.
•Some countries denounce the erroneous interpretation of Islamic doctrine by extremists, encourage religious inclusiveness, advocate “moderate Islam”, and set up education centers to transform those influenced by extremist thinking in two phases – centralized control and return to society.
•Some countries have launched transformation and disengagement programs, compelling individuals with terrorist connections and suspected terrorist returnees to participate in training, and setting up isolation centers for extremists to prevent them from spreading extreme views to other detainees.
•Some countries have taken measures in communities to intervene in the spread of extremism at its earliest stages, and mobilized society to prevent terrorist and extremist activities by taking timely action against any inclination on the part of young people to join extremist organizations.

 

新疆通过设立教培中心,开展教培工作,对受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响的人进行教育挽救,与世界上一些国家和地区的做法是相通的,目的都是为了防微杜渐、治病救人,最大限度保障公民的基本人权免受恐怖主义、极端主义侵害。
Xinjiang’s practice of educating and rehabilitating the victims of terrorist and religious extremist teachings through vocational education and training centers is similar to efforts by other countries and regions, with the same goals of dealing with the problem at source and protecting people’s basic human rights.

新疆开展教培工作,取得了显著成效,为国际社会开展反恐、去极端化探索出了有益经验。
Xinjiang’s vocational education and training programs have achieved notable results, and contributed experience to international actions against terrorism and extremism.

——坚持因地制宜去极端化。新疆开展教培工作,既积极借鉴国际社会反恐、去极端化经验,又坚持从区情和面临的具体反恐、去极端化形势出发,有针对性地开展工作,力求取得实际效果。新疆紧密结合反恐、去极端化斗争实际,充分借鉴国际社会反恐和去极端化经验,对受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响的人有针对性地开展国家通用语言文字、法律知识、职业技能教育培训,祛除极端化思想,取得了社会公认的实际效果,有力维护了新疆的社会稳定,也有效维护了宗教健康发展的环境。
– Fighting extremism in accordance with local conditions. In its vocational education and training, Xinjiang has learned from experience of other countries, and striven to achieve real results in line with the actual conditions of the autonomous region. In countering terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang draws on the experience of other countries, and provides people influenced by terrorist and religious extremist teachings with education in standard spoken and written Chinese, an understanding of the law, and training in vocational skills. These efforts have eradicated extremist thoughts, delivered widely recognized results, helped to safeguard social stability in the region, and protected the environment for the healthy development of religions.

——坚持打防结合、预防为主。坚持标本兼治方针,一手抓打击,对恐怖主义、极端主义保持高压态势;一手抓预防,以教育挽救为主。通过开展教培工作,对多数受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响但罪行较轻的人,进行教育挽救保护,用拉的方式而不是推的方式,用挽救的方式而不是严惩的方式,用关爱的方式而不是嫌弃的方式,进行帮教,使其摆脱宗教极端主义的束缚,能够知法守法,能够掌握国家通用语言文字,并具备一定的知识文化和劳动技能,成为对社会有用的人,实现人生价值。
– Putting prevention first while taking firm action on terrorism and extremism. In its fight against terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang has consistently adopted the policy of addressing both the symptoms and root causes. On the one hand, Xinjiang strikes hard at terrorist and extremist forces, and on the other hand, it gives prevention a high priority, sparing no effort to educate and rehabilitate the large number of people who have committed only minor offences under the influence of terrorism and religious extremism. Xinjiang adopts an approach of rehabilitation rather than punishment and compassion rather than rejection to free them of religious extremist thinking. It teaches them laws and standard spoken and written Chinese, so that they can become educated individuals with vocational skills – useful individuals and individuals of value to society.

——坚持弘扬法治精神。依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家,是建设中国特色社会主义的本质要求。新疆开展教培工作,消除恐怖主义、宗教极端主义滋生土壤和环境,始终高举法治旗帜,坚决维护宪法和法律权威,坚持运用法治思维和法治方式处理问题,使各项工作始终在法治轨道上进行。教培中心的去极端化工作,始终坚持以事实为根据,以法律为准绳,坚持不与特定地域、民族、宗教挂钩。
– Promoting the rule of law. It is an essential requirement of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics to build a socialist country governed by the rule of law. In the process of promoting vocational education and training and eliminating the environment for breeding terrorism and religious extremism, Xinjiang promotes the rule of law, upholds the authority of the Constitution and laws, adopts appropriate legal thinking and measures to deal with problems, and confines all its efforts within the legal framework. The deradicalization work of the vocational education and training centers is always based on facts and laws, without targeting any specific region, ethnic group or religion.

——坚持尊重和保障人权。开展教培工作,既保障了各族人民的基本人权免受侵害,又最大限度地挽救了受宗教极端主义影响的有违法犯罪行为人员。教培中心坚持以人为本,依法实行规范化、学校化管理,提供人性化服务,严禁以任何方式对学员进行人格侮辱和虐待,保障学员的人身自由。教培中心为学员提供优质的教学资源和多样化的技能培训,最大限度保障学员享有受教育权利。
– Respecting and protecting human rights. The vocational education and training efforts in Xinjiang protect people’s basic human rights, and at the same time rehabilitate as far as possible those who have committed unlawful or criminal offences under the influence of religious extremist teachings. The centers place the trainees first, manage them in line with regulations like schools, provide people-centered services, strictly prohibit any form of humiliation or mistreatment, and guarantee their personal freedom. In the centers, the trainees receive high-quality education and training in diverse skills, and their right to education is fully safeguarded.

——坚持政府担当有为。保障人民生命权、健康权、财产权,使人民各项基本权利免受侵犯,在安定祥和的社会环境中生活,是一个负责任的政府义不容辞的责任。新疆各级政府,本着对人民高度负责的态度,对受恐怖主义、宗教极端主义影响的人,进行教育挽救,做了大量耐心细致的工作,付出了难以想象的艰辛。教培工作的成功开展,伸张了社会正义,维护了人的尊严,树立了政府良好形象。
– The government must take on the responsibility and achieve tangible results. It is the bounden duty of a responsible government to protect its people’s lives, health, property, and other basic rights, and provide a safe, stable and harmonious living environment. Governments at all levels in Xinjiang, bearing their responsibility to the people in mind, are engaged in a host of patient, careful and extremely hard efforts to educate and rehabilitate victims of terrorist and religious extremist teachings. Success in vocational education and training promotes justice, safeguards people’s dignity and presents a positive image of government.

结束语
Conclusion

实践证明,新疆开展教培工作,有效消除了恐怖主义、宗教极端主义滋生蔓延的土壤和条件,切实保障了新疆各族人民的生命权、健康权和发展权,不仅使新疆实现了社会稳定,也有力维护了地区安全和稳定。这一做法完全符合国际社会反恐、去极端化的基本精神和基本原则,完全符合世界各国人民的根本利益和要求。
Practice has proved that vocational education and training in Xinjiang can effectively eradicate the conditions that enable terrorism and religious extremism to breed and spread; it can protect the rights to life, health and development of the various ethnic groups of the region. It ensures social stability in Xinjiang and regional security and stability. The practice conforms to the basic principles of international efforts in countering terrorism and extremism, and accords with the fundamental interests and needs of the peoples all around the world.

新疆开展教培工作,目的在于从源头上消灭恐怖主义、宗教极端主义,完全是尊重和保障人权之举。国际上一些别有用心的人,出于意识形态的偏见和不可告人的目的,以各种方式对新疆教培中心进行污名化,企图否定新疆为反恐、去极端化付出的巨大努力,这是新疆各族人民绝不能答应的。国际上有的国家、组织或个人在反恐、去极端化问题上搞“双重标准”,说到底是对恐怖主义、极端主义的袒护、纵容,严重违背了国际道义和人类良知,为一切善良和正义的人们所不齿。
The goal of Xinjiang’s efforts in vocational education and training is to eliminate the sources of terrorism and religious extremism. This is an action that aims to respect and protect human rights. Some people, for reasons of ideological prejudice or other ulterior motives, are doing all they can to blacken the reputation of Xinjiang’s vocational education and training centers. Their censure of Xinjiang’s huge effort in countering terrorism and extremism will be firmly rejected by the Xinjiang people. A number of countries, organizations and individuals apply double standards in their approach to terrorism and extremism, which will in effect shield and incite terrorism and extremism. Such acts go against international morality and human conscience, and are scorned by all just people of goodwill.

面对恐怖主义、极端主义对人类的严重戕害,面对反恐、去极端化这一世界性难题,新疆各级政府以高度负责任的态度,积极借鉴国际经验和做法,通过开展教培等工作,取得了反恐、去极端化斗争的重要阶段性胜利,新疆的做法理应得到国际社会的理解和尊重。
Terrorism and extremism have caused widespread human suffering, posing an intractable challenge to the whole world. Assuming the responsibility of responding to this great challenge, governments at all levels in Xinjiang have learned from the experience and practices of other countries and initiated their own efforts. Through measures such as vocational education and training it has achieved important victories in countering terrorism and extremism. This deserves the understanding and respect of the international community.

新疆的反恐、去极端化斗争,仍有可以不断完善的地方,仍有许多工作要做。新疆将坚持从本地实际出发,继续遵循《联合国全球反恐战略》(60/288)和《防止暴力极端主义行动计划》(70/674)等文件精神,坚持打防结合、预防为主的原则,不断完善教培工作,为保障新疆各族人民的各项基本权利,实现新疆社会稳定和长治久安,作出不懈努力。
Xinjiang still has much to do in the fight against terrorism and extremism, and improvements can be made in this regard. In the context of local conditions, and complying with the spirit of documents such as the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the UN Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism, Xinjiang will put prevention first while taking resolute action against terrorism and extremism. We will make unremitting efforts to improve vocational education and training, protect the people’s basic rights, and ensure long-term social stability and security in Xinjiang.

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