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中国的核应急
China’s Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

(2016年1月)

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of

the People’s Republic of China

January 2016

目录

前言

一、核能发展与核应急基本形势

二、核应急方针政策

三、核应急“一案三制”建设

四、核应急能力建设与保持

五、核事故应对处置主要措施

六、核应急演习演练、培训与公众沟通

七、核应急科技创新

八、核应急国际合作与交流

结束语

Contents

Preface

I. Current Situation of Nuclear Energy Development and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

II. Guidelines and Policies for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

III. All-round Promotion of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

IV. Building and Maintenance of Nuclear Emergency Capabilities

V. Main Measures to Cope with Nuclear Accidents

VI. Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises, Drills, Training and Public Communication

VII. Scientific and Technological Innovations in Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

VIII. International Cooperation and Exchanges in the Field of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

Conclusion

 

前言
Preface

原子的发现和核能的开发利用给人类社会发展带来新的动力,极大增强人类认识世界和改造世界的能力。核能发展伴随着核安全风险和挑战。人类要更好利用核能、实现更大发展,必须创新核技术、确保核安全、做好核应急。核安全是核能事业持续健康发展的生命线,核应急是核能事业持续健康发展的重要保障。
The discovery of the atom and the subsequent development and utilization of nuclear energy gave a new impetus to the progress of humanity and greatly enhanced mankind’s ability to understand and shape the world. Yet, the development of nuclear energy has associated risks and challenges. For mankind to better utilize nuclear energy and achieve even greater progress, it is necessary to make innovations in nuclear technologies, ensure nuclear safety and do well in nuclear emergency preparedness. While nuclear safety constitutes a lifeline for the sustained and healthy development of nuclear energy, nuclear emergency preparedness serves as an important safeguard for its sustained and healthy development.

核应急是为了控制核事故、缓解核事故、减轻核事故后果而采取的不同于正常秩序和正常工作程序的紧急行为,是政府主导、企业配合、各方协同、统一开展的应急行动。核应急事关重大、涉及全局,对于保护公众、保护环境、保障社会稳定、维护国家安全具有重要意义。
Nuclear emergency preparedness denotes the emergency actions taken to control, contain and mitigate a nuclear accident, and to minimize the consequences of such accidents, which are different from the normal order and working procedure. They are emergency response actions guided by the government, assisted by the relevant enterprises, coordinated among all the involved parties and implemented in a unified manner. Nuclear emergency preparedness is of paramount importance and bears on the overall situation, and is therefore of critical significance to the protection of the general public, the environment and social stability as well as safeguarding national security.

中国始终把核安全放在和平利用核能事业首要位置,坚持总体国家安全观,倡导理性、协调、并进的核安全观,秉持为发展求安全、以安全促发展的理念,始终追求发展和安全两个目标有机融合。半个多世纪以来,中国人民奋发图强、历尽艰辛,创建发展核能事业并取得辉煌成就。同时,不断改进核安全技术,实施严格的核安全监管,加强核应急管理,核能事业始终保持良好安全记录。
China has consistently given top priority to nuclear safety in its peaceful use of nuclear energy, and has persisted in an overall national security concept by advocating a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety outlook. China has followed the approach of enhancing safety for the sake of development and promoting development by upholding safety in an unrelenting effort to bring the dual goals of development and safety in alignment with each other. In the past six decades or so, the Chinese people have been working with stamina and diligence in the pursuit of nuclear energy utilization, with splendid achievements. At the same time, the Chinese people have been sparing no effort to improve nuclear safety techniques, enforce rigorous nuclear safety supervision, strengthen nuclear emergency management and ensure that nuclear energy has always maintained a sound safety record.

核事故影响无国界,核应急管理无小事。总结三哩岛核事故、切尔诺贝利核事故、福岛核事故的教训,中国更加深刻认识到核应急的极端重要性,持续加强和改进核应急准备与响应工作,不断提升中国核安全保障水平。中国在核应急法律法规标准建设、体制机制建设、基础能力建设、专业人才培养、演习演练、公众沟通、国际合作与交流等方面取得巨大进步,既为自身核能事业发展提供坚强保障,也为推动建立公平、开放、合作、共赢的国际核安全应急体系,促进人类共享核能发展成果作出积极贡献。
Nuclear accidents know no national boundaries, and everything related to nuclear emergency management is too important to be taken lightly. Drawing on the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents, China has come to a profound understanding of the utmost importance of nuclear emergencies, and the need to continuously strengthen and improve nuclear emergency preparedness and responses with a view to constantly enhancing the nuclear safety safeguard level. China has made great strides in a full range of nuclear emergency-related activities, including the enactment of regulations, codes and standards, the establishment of institutional and regulatory regimes, the building-up of basic capabilities, the fostering of professional personnel, related exercises and drills, public communication, and international cooperation and exchanges. This has not only provided a robust safeguard for China’s own nuclear energy development, but also contributed actively to the promotion of a fair, open, collaborative and mutually beneficial international nuclear safety emergency framework and mankind’s sharing of nuclear energy development achievements.

一、核能发展与核应急基本形势
I. Current Situation of Nuclear Energy Development and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

20世纪50年代中期,中国创建核工业。60多年来,中国致力于和平利用核能事业,发展推动核技术在工业、农业、医学、环境、能源等领域广泛应用。特别是改革开放以来,中国核能事业得到更大发展。
It was in the mid-1950s that China embarked on its nuclear industry. Over the past more than six decades China has made constant endeavors in the peaceful use of nuclear energy by promoting the extensive application of nuclear technologies to such areas as industry, agriculture, medicine, the environment and energy. In particular, since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policies in late 1978 China’s nuclear energy sector has seen particularly rapid development.

发展核电是中国核能事业的重要组成部分。核电是一种清洁、高效、优质的现代能源。中国坚持发展与安全并重原则,执行安全高效发展核电政策,采用最先进的技术、最严格的标准发展核电。1985年3月,中国大陆第一座核电站——秦山核电站破土动工。截至2015年10月底,中国大陆运行核电机组27台,总装机容量2550万千瓦;在建核电机组25台,总装机容量2751万千瓦。中国开发出具有自主知识产权的大型先进压水堆、高温气冷堆核电技术。“华龙一号”核电技术示范工程投入建设。中国实验快堆实现满功率稳定运行72小时,标志着已经掌握快堆关键技术。
The development of nuclear power constitutes an important component of China’s nuclear energy sector. Nuclear power is a clean, efficient and quality modern energy source. China has consistently adhered to the principle of placing equal emphasis on development and safety, and implemented the policy of developing nuclear power in a safe and efficient manner by adopting the most advanced technology and most stringent standards. In March 1985 construction started on the Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, the first of its kind in the mainland of China. As of the end of October 2015, in the mainland of China 27 nuclear generating units had been in operation, with a total installed capacity of 25.50 GWe, and another 25 nuclear generating units with a total installed capacity of 27.51 GWe had been under construction. China has already developed its large-sized advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technologies with proprietary intellectual property rights. Construction of the HPR1000 technology pilot project has already commenced. The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) has achieved full power operation over 72 hours, signifying that China has already mastered the core technology associated with fast reactors.

伴随着核能事业的发展,核安全与核应急同步得到加强。中国的核设施、核活动始终保持安全稳定状态,特别是核电安全水平不断提高。中国大陆所有运行核电机组未发生过国际核与辐射事件分级表二级以上事件和事故,气态和液态流出物排放远低于国家标准限值。在建核电机组质量保证、安全监管、应急准备体系完整。
With the development of the nuclear energy sector, nuclear safety and nuclear emergency work have seen steady synchronous reinforcement. China’s nuclear facilities and nuclear activities have all along been in safe and stable state and, in particular, the safety level of nuclear power stations has witnessed constant improvement. None of the nuclear power generating units in China’s mainland has suffered events or accidents rated above Level 2 under the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), with the release of gaseous and liquid effluents kept far below the national regulatory limits. All of the under-construction nuclear power generating units have intact quality assurance, safety supervision and emergency preparedness systems.

中国高度重视核应急,始终以对人民安全和社会安全高度负责的态度强化核应急管理。早在作出发展核电决策之时就同步部署安排核应急工作。切尔诺贝利核事故发生后,中国明确表示发展核电方针不变,强调必须做好核应急准备,1986年即开展国家核应急工作。1991年,成立国家核事故应急委员会,统筹协调全国核事故应急准备和救援工作。1993年,发布《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》,对核应急作出基本规范。1997年,发布第一部《国家核应急计划(预案)》,对核应急准备与响应作出部署,之后,为适应核能发展需要,多次进行修订形成《国家核应急预案》。目前,中国核应急管理与准备工作的体系化、专业化、规范化、科学化水平全面提升。
China has always attached great importance to nuclear emergency work by taking a highly responsible attitude toward the safety of the people and society as a whole in enforcing nuclear emergency management. Arrangements have been made for nuclear emergency work in tandem with the decision taken to proceed with nuclear power development. In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, China made it clear that there would be no change in its nuclear power development policy, while stressing that a good job would be done on nuclear emergency preparedness ― with the result that national nuclear emergency work got off the ground in 1986. In 1991 the National Nuclear Accident Emergency Committee was inaugurated and commissioned to make overall planning and coordinate nuclear accident emergency preparations and rescue work nationwide. In 1993 China promulgated the Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants to formalize nuclear emergency by regulatory means. In 1997 the first National Nuclear Emergency Plan (Scenario) was issued to lay out arrangements for nuclear emergency preparations and response in the form of a governmental decision. To cater to the needs of nuclear power development, multiple revisions have since been made to the original Plan and the latest version of National Nuclear Emergency Plan has been enacted. At present, China’s nuclear emergency management and preparations have seen comprehensive upgrades in terms of system, specialization, standards and scientific rigor.

按照中国核电中长期发展规划目标,到2020年,中国大陆运行核电装机容量将达到5800万千瓦,在建3000万千瓦左右;到2030年,力争形成能够体现世界核电发展方向的科技研发体系和配套工业体系,核电技术装备在国际市场占据相当份额,全面实现建设核电强国目标。面对核能事业发展新形势新挑战,中国核应急在技术、装备、人才、能力、标准等方面还存在一定不足,这也是其他国家在开发利用核能进程中面临的共同课题。中国将通过理念创新、科技创新、管理创新,不断强化国家核应急管理,把核应急提高到新水平。
Under China’s medium- and long-term development objectives, by 2020 the in-operation nuclear power installed capacity will reach 58 GWe in the mainland of China plus an additional 30 GWe approximately under construction. By 2030 endeavors will have been made to put into place science and technology R&D systems along with their associated industrial systems representing the global development trends of nuclear power, and to ensure that nuclear power technologies and equipment will take up a substantial share in the international market, thereby meeting the target of building a strong nuclear power country. Faced with the new situation, new challenges and new requirements, China is still confronted with shortfalls in nuclear emergency work in terms of technology, equipment, needed professionals, capacity and standards, which are the same problems encountered by other countries in developing nuclear energy. China will seek to reinforce national nuclear emergency management and raise its nuclear emergency work to a new level through idea innovation, scientific and technological innovation, and management innovation.

二、核应急方针政策
II. Guidelines and Policies for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

中国是发展中大国,在发展核能进程中,通过制定法律、行政法规和发布政令等方式,确定核应急基本方针政策。
As a large developing country, China has laid down basic guidelines and policies applicable to nuclear emergency preparedness through enactment of laws, administrative regulations and issuance of government decrees in the course of nuclear energy development.

中国核应急基本目标是:依法科学统一、及时有效应对处置核事故,最大程度控制、缓解或消除事故,减轻事故造成的人员伤亡和财产损失,保护公众,保护环境,维护社会秩序,保障人民安全和国家安全。
The basic objectives of nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: scientific coordination according to law, timely and effectively coping with nuclear accidents, maximally controlling/mitigating or eliminating accidents, minimizing human casualties/fatalities and property damages, protecting the public and the environment, maintaining social order and safeguarding the people’s safety and national security.

中国核应急基本方针是:常备不懈、积极兼容,统一指挥、大力协同,保护公众、保护环境。
The basic policy of nuclear emergency management in China is: constant vigilance, versatile compatibility, unified command, active coordination, public safeguard and environmental protection.

——常备不懈、积极兼容。各级核应急组织以“养兵千日,用兵一时”的态度,充分准备,随时应对可能发生的核事故。建立健全专兼配合、资源整合、平战结合、军民融合的核应急准备与响应体系。核应急与其他工作统筹规划、统筹部署、兼容实施。
― Constant vigilance, versatile compatibility. Nuclear emergency organizations at all levels should stay alert and vigilant at all times in readiness to respond to possible nuclear accidents at any time. A nuclear emergency preparation and response system featuring coordination of dedicated and standby systems, rational deployment of resources, combination of routine exercises and actual emergency response, and integration of civilian and military resources is to be established and perfected. Nuclear emergency work must be planned and deployed in an overall manner together with other activities and implemented compatibly with them.

——统一指挥、大力协同。核设施营运单位统一协调指挥场内核事故应急响应行动,各级政府统一协调指挥本级管辖区域内核事故应急响应行动。在政府统一组织指挥下,核应急组织、相关部门、相关企业、专业力量、社会组织以及军队救援力量等协同配合,共同完成核事故应急响应行动。
― Unified command, active coordination. Operators of nuclear installations shall coordinate and direct on-site nuclear accident emergency response actions in a unified manner, and governments at all levels shall coordinate and direct nuclear accident emergency response actions within their respective jurisdictions in a unified manner. Under the unified organization and direction of the government, nuclear emergency organizations, relevant departments, relevant enterprises, professional teams, social organizations and military rescue units shall work in coordination with one another in a joint effort to complete nuclear accident emergency response actions.

——保护公众、保护环境。把保护公众作为核应急的根本宗旨,以一切为了人民的态度和行动应对处置核事故。把保护环境作为核应急的根本要求,尽可能把核事故造成的放射性物质释放降到最小,最大程度控制、减轻或消除对环境的危害。
― Public safeguard and environmental protection. Public safeguard constitutes the fundamental objective of nuclear emergency preparedness, and it is incumbent upon us to take the attitude and actions that everything is for the people in coping with nuclear accidents. Environmental protection should be viewed as the fundamental requirement of nuclear emergency preparedness in such a way that every effort is made to minimize the release of radioactive substances and do our best to control, mitigate and eliminate damages to the environment.

中国核应急基本原则是:统一领导、分级负责,条块结合、军地协同,快速反应、科学处置。
The basic principles underlying nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: unified leadership, different levels of responsibility, tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military, quick response, and scientific handling.

——统一领导、分级负责。在中央政府统一领导下,中国建立分级负责的核应急管理体系。核设施营运单位是核事故场内应急工作责任主体。省级人民政府是本行政区域核事故场外应急工作责任主体。
― Unified leadership, different levels of responsibility. Under the unified leadership of the central government, China has established a nuclear emergency management system featuring assignment of responsibility to different levels. The operator of the relevant nuclear installation is the major body of accountability for on-site emergency work. The people’s government at the provincial level is the major body of accountability for off-site emergency activities in its jurisdiction.

——条块结合、军地协同。核应急涉及中央与地方、军队与政府、场内与场外、专业技术与社会管理等方面,必须坚持统筹兼顾、相互配合、大力协同、综合施救。
― Tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military. Nuclear emergency involves the central and the local, the military and the government, on-site and off-site, specialized techniques and social administration. Therefore, it is necessary to uphold the principles of uniform deployment and centralized planning, mutual support, mutual coordination, and comprehensive rescue at all times.

——快速反应、科学处置。核事故发生后,各级核应急组织及早介入,迅速控制缓解事故,减轻对公众和环境的影响。遵循应对处置核事故特点规律,组织开展分析研判,科学决策,有效实施辐射监测、工程抢险、去污洗消、辐射防护、医学救援等响应行动。
― Quick response, scientific handling. When a nuclear accident occurs, all levels of nuclear emergency organizations shall be mobilized at the earliest possible time to rapidly control and mitigate the accident to minimize any impact on the public and the environment. Every effort shall be made to take into account the characteristics and rules applicable to nuclear accidents as the basis for organizing studies and evaluations to enable scientific decision-making, and enforce a full range of response actions in an effective manner, including radiation monitoring, worksite rescue, decontamination and cleansing, radiation protection and medical treatment, and so forth.

 

三、核应急“一案三制”建设
III. All-round Promotion of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

中国高度重视核应急的预案和法制、体制、机制(简称“一案三制”)建设,通过法律制度保障、体制机制保障,建立健全国家核应急组织管理体系。
China lays great store by the planning, and legislative/institutional/regulatory systems (known in Chinese as “One Planning plus Three Systems”) associated with nuclear emergency preparedness, and ensures the establishment and full functioning of a national nuclear emergency management system through the safeguards of legislation, institution and regulations.

加强全国核应急预案体系建设。《国家核应急预案》是中央政府应对处置核事故预先制定的工作方案。《国家核应急预案》对核应急准备与响应的组织体系、核应急指挥与协调机制、核事故应急响应分级、核事故后恢复行动、应急准备与保障措施等作了全面规定。按照《国家核应急预案》要求,各级政府部门和核设施营运单位制定核应急预案,形成相互配套衔接的全国核应急预案体系。
Strengthening national nuclear emergency planning system building. The National Nuclear Emergency Plan is an action program pre-set by the central government to cope with nuclear accident scenarios. The National Nuclear Emergency Plan lays down a whole set of regulations on the organizational system, command and coordination mechanism, emergency response classification, post-accident restoration actions, and emergency preparation and safeguard measures related to nuclear emergency preparation and response actions. In line with the requirements of the National Nuclear Emergency Plan, governments at all levels and nuclear installation operators must draw up nuclear emergency plans fully in keeping with the National Nuclear Emergency Plan, so as to form a nationwide system of nuclear emergency planning.

加强核应急法制建设。中国基本形成国家法律、行政法规、部门规章、国家和行业标准、管理导则于一体的核应急法律法规标准体系。早在1993年8月就颁布实施《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》。进入本世纪以来,又先后颁布实施《中华人民共和国放射性污染防治法》《中华人民共和国突发事件应对法》,从法律层面对核应急作出规定和要求。2015年7月,新修订的《中华人民共和国国家安全法》开始实施,进一步强调加强核事故应急体系和应急能力建设,防止、控制和消除核事故对公众生命健康和生态环境的危害。与这些法律法规相配套,政府相关部门制定相应的部门规章和管理导则,相关机构和涉核行业制定技术标准。军队制定参加核电厂核事故应急救援条例等相关法规和规章制度。目前,正积极推进原子能法、核安全法立法进程。
Strengthening nuclear emergency legislative system building. China has put in place its own nuclear emergency legal framework, comprising state laws, administrative regulations, departmental rules, national and industrial standards, and management guidelines. As early as August 1993 China put into effect the Regulations on Emergency Management of Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants. Since the beginning of this century China has, in succession, enacted the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution and Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China, providing regulations and requirements from the legal perspective on nuclear emergency preparedness. In July 2015 the newly revised State Security Law of the People’s Republic of China was promulgated, further reinforcing the nuclear accident emergency system and emergency response capacity building to prevent, control and eliminate damage to the life and health of the general public and ecological environment. In keeping with the foregoing laws and regulations, relevant departments of the government have worked out and put into effect their respective regulations and management guidelines, and relevant institutions and nuclear-related industries have drawn up applicable technical standards. The military also has drawn up relevant regulations, and established systems governing emergency rescue actions associated with nuclear emergency preparedness. Currently efforts are being made to push forward the legislative process associated with the Atomic Energy Law and Nuclear Safety Law.

加强核应急管理体制建设。中国核应急实行国家统一领导、综合协调、分级负责、属地管理为主的管理体制。全国核应急管理工作由中央政府指定部门牵头负责。核设施所在地的省(区、市)人民政府指定部门负责本行政区域内的核应急管理工作。核设施营运单位及其上级主管部门(单位)负责场内核应急管理工作。必要时,由中央政府领导、组织、协调全国的核事故应急管理工作。
Strengthening nuclear emergency management system building. China implements a nuclear emergency management system featuring unified leadership at the national level, overall coordination, assignment of responsibilities to different levels and emphasis on localized administration. The nuclear emergency management is led and placed under the responsibility of the department designated by the central government. The governments of the province (autonomous region or centrally administered municipality) wherein nuclear installations are located are responsible for nuclear emergency management within their respective jurisdictions. The operator of the relevant nuclear installation and its senior competent authority (unit) shall be responsible for on-site emergency management. Wherever necessary, the central government will lead, organize and coordinate nuclear emergency management at the national level.

加强核应急机制建设。中国实行由一个部门牵头、多个部门参与的核应急组织协调机制。在国家层面,设立国家核事故应急协调委员会,由政府和军队相关部门组成,主要职责是:贯彻国家核应急工作方针,拟定国家核应急工作政策,统一协调全国核事故应急,决策、组织、指挥应急支援响应行动。同时设立国家核事故应急办公室,承担国家核事故应急协调委员会日常工作。在省(区、市)层面,设立核应急协调机构。核设施营运单位设立核应急组织。国家和各相关省(区、市)以及核设施营运单位建立专家委员会或支撑机构,为核应急准备与响应提供决策咨询和建议。
Strengthening nuclear emergency mechanism building. China implements a nuclear emergency organization and coordination mechanism featuring leadership by one department and participation by multiple departments. At the national level, a National Nuclear Accident Emergency Coordination Committee has been set up comprising relevant governmental and military departments with the following main responsibilities: implementing state nuclear emergency work guidelines, drawing up national policies for nuclear emergency management, uniformly coordinating emergency activities at the national level, and deciding, organizing and commanding emergency assistance response actions. A National Nuclear Emergency Office has also been set up to undertake the routine work of the National Nuclear Accident Emergency Coordination Committee. At the provincial (regional and municipal) levels, nuclear emergency coordination bodies have been established, and operators of nuclear installations have set up their respective nuclear emergency bodies. At the national and provincial (regional and municipal) levels and within the operators of the nuclear installations, committees of experts or the support organizations thereof have been established to provide advice and suggestions on nuclear emergency preparedness and response.

四、核应急能力建设与保持
IV. Building and Maintenance of Nuclear Emergency Capabilities

中国坚持积极兼容、资源整合、专业配套、军民融合的思路,建设并保持与核能事业安全高效发展相适应的国家核应急能力,形成有效应对核事故的国家核应急能力体系。
Sticking to the guidelines of versatile compatibility, resource integration, interdisciplinary support, and integration of military and civilian capabilities, China builds and maintains national nuclear emergency capabilities commensurate with the safe and efficient development of nuclear energy, and forms a fully-fledged national system of nuclear emergency response capabilities.

国家建立全国统一的核应急能力体系,部署军队和地方两个工作系统,区分国家级、省级、核设施营运单位级三个能力层次,推进核应急领域的各种力量建设。
At the national level, a unified nuclear emergency response capabilities system is in place to coordinate military and local systems whereby three distinct tiers of capabilities are maintained, viz. national, provincial and nuclear installation operator levels, with a view to pushing forward with the building of various capabilities related to nuclear emergency response.

建设国家核应急专业技术支持中心。建设辐射监测、辐射防护、航空监测、医学救援、海洋辐射监测、气象监测预报、辅助决策、响应行动等8类国家级核应急专业技术支持中心以及3个国家级核应急培训基地,基本形成专业齐全、功能完备、支撑有效的核应急技术支持和培训体系。
Building national nuclear emergency response professional technical support centers. China has built eight types of national-level nuclear emergency technical support centers, i.e., radiation monitoring, radiation prevention, aviation monitoring, medical rescue, marine radiation monitoring, meteorological monitoring and forecasting, decision-making aid, and response action, along with three national-level nuclear emergency response training bases, thereby essentially forming an integrated emergency technical support and training system featuring a full array of disciplines and functions, and effective support.

建设国家级核应急救援力量。经过多年努力,中国形成了规模适度、功能衔接、布局合理的核应急救援专业力量体系。适应核电站建设布局需要,按照区域部署、模块设置、专业配套原则,组建30余支国家级专业救援分队,承担核事故应急处置各类专业救援任务。军队是国家级核应急救援力量的重要组成部分,担负支援地方核事故应急的职责使命,近年来核应急力量建设成效显著。为应对可能发生的严重核事故,依托现有能力基础,中国将组建一支300余人的国家核应急救援队,主要承担复杂条件下重特大核事故突击抢险和紧急处置任务,并参与国际核应急救援行动。
Building national-level nuclear emergency rescue forces. Through efforts over many years, China has already built a specialized nuclear emergency rescue capability system that is of a proper scale, well-coordinated and of a rational layout. To cater to the needs of layout for the construction of nuclear power stations, on the principle of regional deployment, modular set-up and disciplinary integration, over 30 national-level professional rescue teams have been formed to specifically take charge of various kinds of specialized rescue missions. The military constitutes an important part of the national-level nuclear emergency rescue force, and fulfills the mission of aiding local nuclear accident emergency response actions, and, as such, has scored brilliant achievements in building up its nuclear emergency response capabilities. To cope with possible severe nuclear accidents and on the basis of the available capabilities, China is to form a national nuclear emergency rescue team composed of over 300 people to be mainly responsible for undertaking unexpected rescue missions in serious nuclear accident scenarios and emergency treatment tasks, and stand ready to take part in international nuclear emergency rescue operations.

建设省级核应急力量。中国设立核电站的省(区、市)均建立了相应的核应急力量,包括核应急指挥中心、应急辐射监测网、医学救治网、气象监测网、洗消点、撤离道路、撤离人员安置点等,以及专业技术支持能力和救援分队,基本满足本区域核应急准备与响应需要。省(区、市)核应急指挥中心与本级行政区域内核设施实现互联互通。
Building provincial-level nuclear emergency rescue forces. Nuclear emergency response forces have been established at the provincial (regional and municipal) levels in areas where nuclear power stations are sited, including nuclear emergency command centers, emergency radiation monitoring networks, medical treatment networks, meteorological monitoring networks, decontamination points, evacuation roads and shelters for evacuees, along with specialized technical support and rescue task forces, thereby basically meeting the nuclear emergency preparedness and response needs of the involved regions. Each provincial (regional and municipal) nuclear emergency command center is connected with the nuclear installation(s) within its jurisdiction.

建设核设施营运单位核应急力量。按照国家要求,参照国际标准,中国各核设施营运单位均建立相关的核应急设施及力量,包括应急指挥中心、应急通讯设施、应急监测和后果评价设施;配备应对处置紧急情况的应急电源等急需装备、设备和仪器;组建辐射监测、事故控制、去污洗消等场内核应急救援队伍。核设施营运单位所属涉核集团之间建立核应急相互支援合作机制,形成核应急资源储备和调配等支援能力,实现优势互补、相互协调。
Building a nuclear emergency response force on the part of the operators of nuclear installations. In accordance with national requirements and following international standards, operators of nuclear installations in China have set up their own nuclear emergency response facilities and forces, including emergency command centers, emergency communication facilities, and emergency monitoring and consequence evaluation facilities. In addition, emergency facilities, equipment and instrumentation, such as emergency power supply, are in place. On-site rescue teams specializing in radiation monitoring, accident control, decontamination and cleansing have been established. Corporations controlling operators of the respective nuclear installations have set up a mutual support collaborative mechanism to form nuclear emergency response resource reserve and deployment assistance capabilities, thereby ensuring mutually complementary support and coordination.

按照积极兼容原则,围绕各自职责,中国各级政府有关部门依据《国家核应急预案》明确的任务,分别建立并加强可服务保障核应急的能力体系。
In accordance with the principle of versatile compatibility and based on their respective duties and responsibilities, government departments at different levels in China have established and reinforced their respective capability systems to serve and safeguard nuclear emergency response activities commensurate with the tasks established under the National Nuclear Emergency Plan.

按照国家、相关省(区、市)和各核设施营运单位制定的核应急预案,在国家核应急体制机制框架下,各级各类核应急力量统一调配、联动使用,共同承担核事故应急处置任务。
In accordance with the nuclear emergency response plans worked out by the national and provincial (regional and municipal) authorities and the operators of nuclear installations and within the institutional framework of the national nuclear emergency response system, various levels and categories of nuclear emergency response forces ensure unified deployment and interactive mobilization to jointly undertake tasks associated with nuclear accident emergency situations.

 

五、核事故应对处置主要措施
V. Main Measures to Cope with Nuclear Accidents

中国参照国际先进标准,汲取国际成熟经验,结合国情和核能发展实际,制定了控制、缓解、应对核事故的工作措施。
By referring the advanced international standards and drawing on worldwide mature experience, China has defined working measures to control, mitigate and cope with nuclear accidents commensurate with its national conditions and actual situation of nuclear energy development.

实施纵深防御。设置五道防线,前移核应急关口,多重屏障强化核电安全,防止事故与减轻事故后果。一是保证设计、制造、建造、运行等质量,预防偏离正常运行。二是严格执行运行规程,遵守运行技术规范,使机组运行在限定的安全区间以内,及时检测和纠正偏差,对非正常运行加以控制,防止演变为事故。三是如果偏差未能及时纠正,发生设计基准事故时,自动启用电厂安全系统和保护系统,组织应急运行,防止事故恶化。四是如果事故未能得到有效控制,启动事故处理规程,实施事故管理策略,保证安全壳不被破坏,防止放射性物质外泄。五是在极端情况下,如果以上各道防线均告失效,立即进行场外应急响应行动,努力减轻事故对公众和环境的影响。同时,设置多道实体屏障,确保层层设防,防止和控制放射性物质释入环境。
Implementing the defense-in-depth concept. Five lines of defense have been set up under which the nuclear emergency preparedness threshold is moved ahead and multiple barriers are installed to strengthen nuclear safety, prevent accidents and mitigate the consequences of an accident. The five lines of defense are: First, the quality of design, manufacturing, construction and operation shall be assured to prevent deviation from normal operation; second, operation procedures and operation technical specifications shall be rigorously followed and observed to ensure that each nuclear generating unit is operated within the defined safety range, any deviations therefrom are detected and corrected in a timely manner, and any abnormal operation is controlled to prevent it from evolving into an accident; third, in case a deviation fails to be corrected in a timely manner, plant safety and protection systems shall be automatically activated upon occurrence of an accident within the design datum, and emergency operations shall be organized to prevent the situation deteriorating; fourth, in case an accident fails to be controlled effectively, accident handling procedures shall be activated with the accident management strategy enforced to ensure that the containment shall remain intact and no radioactive substances are released into the environment; and fifth, in the event of failure of the above-mentioned lines of defense, off-site emergency actions shall be immediately activated in an effort to minimize any impact from the accident on the public or the environment. Meanwhile, multiple physical barriers shall be set up to ensure that multiple lines of defense are in place to prevent and control release of radioactive substances into the environment.

实行分级响应。参照国际原子能机构核事故事件分级表,根据核事故性质、严重程度及辐射后果影响范围,确定核事故级别。核应急状态分为应急待命、厂房应急、场区应急、场外应急,分别对应Ⅳ级响应、Ⅲ级响应、Ⅱ级响应、Ⅰ级响应。前三级响应,主要针对场区范围内的应急需要组织实施。当出现或可能出现向环境释放大量放射性物质,事故后果超越场区边界并可能严重危及公众健康和环境安全时,进入场外应急,启动Ⅰ级响应。
Exercising a tiered response scheme. The level of a nuclear accident shall be determined in accordance with the nature and seriousness of the accident and scope of effect from radiation, based on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The nuclear emergency preparedness condition is divided into Emergency Standby, Building Emergency, On-Site Emergency and Off-Site Emergency, which respectively correspond to Level IV response, Level III response, Level II response and Level I response. The first three levels of response mainly focus on the organization and implementation of emergency actions within the site. Off-Site Emergency shall be announced with its corresponding Level I response activated upon occurrence of release or possible release of a large quantity of radioactive substances into the environment in which accident consequences have crossed boundaries of the site, with the possibility of seriously jeopardizing public health and environmental safety.

部署响应行动。核事故发生后,各级核应急组织根据事故性质和严重程度,实施以下全部或部分响应行动。
Deploying actions of response. Every level of nuclear emergency organization shall implement the following response actions in whole or in part depending upon the nature and seriousness of the accident:

——迅速缓解控制事故。立即组织专业力量、装备和物资等开展工程抢险,缓解并控制事故,努力使核设施恢复到安全状态,防止或减少放射性物质向环境释放。
― Mitigating and controlling the accident in a timely manner. A professional force, equipment and supplies shall be thrown into immediate engineering emergency measures to mitigate and control any accident in an attempt to bring the relevant nuclear installation back to a safe condition while preventing or minimizing the release of radioactive substances into the environment.

——开展辐射监测和后果评价。在事故现场和受影响地区开展放射性监测以及人员受照剂量监测等。实时开展气象、水文、地质、地震等观(监)测预报。开展事故工况诊断和释放源项分析,研判事故发展趋势,评价辐射后果,判定受影响区域范围。
― Conducting radiation monitoring and consequence assessment. Radiation monitoring shall be conducted at the site of the accident and areas affected and doses possibly absorbed by personnel shall be measured. Observation/surveillance and forecast on meteorological, hydrological, geological and seismic impacts shall be provided on a real-time basis. The accident conditions shall be diagnosed and substances released shall be analyzed to determine the accident evolution trend, evaluate radiation consequences and define the areas affected.

——组织人员实施应急防护行动。当事故已经或可能导致碘放射性同位素释放,由专业组织及时安排一定区域内公众服用稳定碘,以减少甲状腺的受照剂量。适时组织受辐射影响地区人员采取隐蔽、撤离、临时避迁或永久迁出等应急防护措施,避免或减少受到辐射损伤。及时开展心理援助,抚慰社会公众情绪,减轻社会恐慌。
― Organizing personnel to implement emergency protection actions. If radioactive isotope of iodine has already been released or may be released arising from an accident, a professional team shall organize the public within a given area to take stable iodine pills to minimize radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. The people in the affected area shall be duly organized to take emergency protection measures deemed necessary, including hiding, evacuating, seeking temporary shelter or permanently moving out in order to prevent or minimize injuries from radiation exposure. Psychological assistance shall be provided in a timely manner to minimize social anxiety and panic.

——实施去污洗消和医疗救治。由专业人员去除或降低人员、设备、场所、环境等放射性污染。组织核应急医学救援力量实施医学诊断、分类,开展医疗救治,包括现场紧急救治、地方医院救治和后方专业救治等。
― Arranging decontamination and medical treatment. Professionals shall be dispatched to remove or minimize radioactive pollution affecting people, equipment, premises and the environment. A nuclear emergency preparedness medical rescue force shall be organized to perform medical diagnoses, case identification and medical treatment, including on-site first-aid treatment, local hospital treatment and backup professional treatment.

——控制出入通道和口岸。根据受事故影响区域具体情况,划定警戒区,设定出入通道,严格控制各类人员、车辆、设备和物资出入。对出入境人员、交通工具、集装箱、货物、行李物品、邮包快件等实施放射性污染检测与控制。
― Controlling access passages and ports. Zones shall be demarcated according to the areas affected and strict control shall be enforced over the passage of people, vehicles, equipment and supplies in and out of the designated passages. People, vehicles, cargo containers, goods, travelers’ belongings and parcels moving in or out of the border checkpoints shall be screened for radiation detection and control.

——加强市场监管与调控。针对受事故影响地区市场供应及公众心理状况,及时进行重要生活必需品的市场监管和调控。禁止或限制受污染食品和饮用水的生产、加工、流通和食用,避免或减少放射性物质摄入。
― Strengthening market supervision and regulation. Necessities shall be subject to market supervision and regulation in a timely manner in line with the supply of market and the public psych in the areas affected. Manufacturing, processing, circulation and consumption of contaminated food and drinking water shall be banned or limited, so as to prevent or minimize the intake of radioactive substances.

——维护社会治安。严厉打击借机传播谣言、制造恐慌等违法犯罪行为。在群众安置点、抢险救援物资存放点等重点地区,增设临时警务站,加强治安巡逻。强化核事故现场等重要场所警戒保卫,根据需要做好周边地区交通管制等工作。
― Maintaining social order. Illegal or criminal acts, such as spreading rumors to create panic, shall be dealt with rigorously. Additional makeshift police posts shall be established to reinforce security patrols in important locations such as settlement sites and storage places for rescue supplies. Security for important premises such as the site of the nuclear accident shall be enhanced, and traffic control in the surrounding areas shall be properly coordinated according to actual needs.

——发布权威准确信息。参照国际原子能机构做法,根据中国法律法规,由国家、省(区、市)和核设施营运单位适时向社会发布准确、权威信息,及时将核事故状态、影响和社会公众应注意的事项、需要个人进行防护的措施告知公众,确保信息公开、透明。
― Releasing accurate official information. Accurate and official information shall be duly published to the public by the central, provincial (regional or municipal) governments and operators of nuclear installations in accordance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) practice, and the laws and regulations of China to ensure that information with respect to nuclear accident status, effects on the public and individual protection measures shall be disclosed to the public in an open, transparent and timely manner.

——做好国际通报与申请援助。按照国际原子能机构《及早通报核事故公约》要求,做好向国际社会的通报。按照国际原子能机构《核事故或辐射紧急情况援助公约》要求,视情向国际原子能机构和国际社会申请核应急救援。
― Doing well in notifying the international community and requesting for help. Notification shall be given to the international community in accordance with the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident of the IAEA. Request for assistance shall be made to the IAEA and the world community in accordance with the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency of the IAEA, depending upon the actual situation.

建立健全国家核应急技术标准体系。建立包括设置核电厂应急计划区、核事故分级、应急状态分级、开展应急防护行动、实施应急干预原则与干预水平等完整系统的国家核应急技术标准体系,为组织实施核应急准备与响应提供基本技术指南。
Establishing a robust system of technical standards for national nuclear emergency preparedness. A complete system of technical standards for national nuclear emergency preparedness shall be established, and it covers the standards for classification of nuclear power plant emergency planning zones, nuclear accidents and emergency status, implementation of emergency protection actions, and definition of emergency intervention principles and levels of intervention, so as to provide a primary technical guideline for the implementation of nuclear emergency preparedness and response.

加强应急值班。建立核应急值班体系,各级核应急组织保持24小时值班备勤。在国家核事故应急办公室设立核应急国家联络点,负责核应急值班,及时掌握国内核设施情况,保持与国际原子能机构信息畅通。
Strengthening emergency on-duty system. An emergency on-duty system shall be established to ensure that each level of nuclear emergency organization stays on-duty 24 hours a day. National contact points for nuclear emergency preparedness under the national nuclear accident emergency office shall be on duty for nuclear emergency preparedness to collect information about domestic nuclear installations and keep the IAEA updated.

六、核应急演习演练培训与公众沟通
VI. Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises, Drills, Training and Public Communication

中国高度重视核应急演习演练,切实加强专业培训,注重公众沟通,不断提高各级核应急组织应对处置严重核事故的能力水平,普及社会公众核安全应急知识,营造促进核能发展良好环境,树立全社会对发展核能事业信心。
China attaches great importance to nuclear emergency preparedness exercises, drills, training and public communication, and continuous efforts have been made to enhance the capabilities of nuclear emergency preparedness organizations at various levels to cope with nuclear accidents, popularize knowledge of nuclear safety and emergency preparedness, create an environment conducive to facilitating nuclear energy development and build society-wide confidence in the country’s nuclear energy sector.

组织实施核应急演习。发布《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》《突发事件应急预案管理办法》《突发事件应急演练指南》《核应急演习管理规定》等规章,明确规定国家核应急演习方针原则、组织机构、内容形式、分类频次、保障准备、实施程序等。适应核能发展需要,定期举行全国性核应急联合演习;相关省(区、市)每2年至4年举行一次本级场内场外核应急联合演习;核设施营运单位每2年组织一次综合演习,每年组织多种专项演习,拥有3台以上运行机组的演习频度适当增加;核电站首次装投料前,所在地省级核应急管理机构组织场内场外联合演习。近年来,先后组织代号为“神盾—2009”“神盾—2015”的国家核应急联合演习,参演规模近6000人,日本、韩国、法国、巴基斯坦、国际原子能机构等派出官员、专家观摩。
Organizing nuclear emergency preparedness exercises. The policies and principles, organization, formats, classifications, frequency, safeguard preparation and implementation procedures for China’s nuclear emergency preparedness have been clearly defined in such documents as Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, Contingency Measures for Unexpected Events, Guideline on Emergency Exercises for Unexpected Events and Regulations on Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises. To cater to the needs of nuclear energy development, national-level nuclear emergency preparedness joint exercises shall be conducted on a regular basis; provincial-level on-site and off-site joint exercises for nuclear emergency preparedness shall be conducted once every two to four years by the relevant provinces (autonomous regions or centrally administered municipalities); operators of nuclear installations shall conduct comprehensive exercises once every two years and special exercises for different purposes every year, with higher frequency for those which have three or more generating units. Prior to the initial fuel loading, an on-site and off-site joint exercise shall be organized by the provincial-level nuclear emergency management organization where the relevant nuclear power plant is located. National-level nuclear emergency joint exercises with the code names “Shendun-2009” and “Shendun-2015” have been conducted and observed by officials and experts from Japan, ROK, France, Pakistan and the IAEA, involving the participation of about 6,000 persons on the two occasions.

建立三级核应急培训制度。国家核应急管理机构负责全国核应急管理人员培训,省(区、市)核应急管理机构负责本行政区域内核应急人员培训,核设施营运单位负责本单位核应急工作人员专业技术培训。福岛核事故以来,中国各级举办培训班110多期,培训近万人次。目前,中国核应急管理人员、专业技术人员均参加过不同级别、专业的培训。
Establishing a three-level nuclear emergency preparedness training system. The state nuclear emergency preparedness management organization shall be in charge of training for nation-wide nuclear emergency preparedness management personnel; nuclear emergency preparedness management organizations at the provincial (regional and municipal) level shall be in charge of training for nuclear emergency preparedness personnel within their respective jurisdictions; operators of nuclear installations shall be in charge of providing professional skills training for their own staff in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. Since the Fukushima accident, China has organized more than 110 training sessions for different levels of nuclear emergency preparedness organizations, attended by a total of 10,000 people. China’s nuclear emergency preparedness management personnel and technical professionals have all attended nuclear emergency preparedness trainings of different levels and disciplines.

加强核应急公众沟通与信息发布。中国高度重视核应急公众沟通和信息发布,制定相关规定,明确公开透明、客观真实、权威可信、科学通俗的工作原则。各级核应急组织建立专门的核应急宣传队伍,适时向全社会宣传国家核能政策、核安全政策、核应急政策,增加核能发展透明度,确保公众享有核安全监督权、核应急准备与响应知情权。2013年以来,以“共筑核应急核安全防线、共促核能事业科学发展”为主题,多次组织全国范围核应急宣传活动,国内外受众面达到10亿人次。2015年1月,利用中国核工业创建60周年契机,开展一系列面向国内外的宣传活动。2015年12月,组织媒体走进中国核电企业,开展“助推核能发展、助力‘一带一路’”采访活动,向国内外集中展示中国核电技术先进性、核电安全可靠性、核电管理规范性、核应急准备充分性,产生了积极社会反响。各涉核企业、大专院校和有关团体还以各种形式开展涉核科普宣传活动,努力营造安全高效发展核能的良好氛围。
Reinforcing public communication and information disclosure about nuclear emergency preparedness. China attaches great importance to public communication and information disclosure regarding nuclear emergency preparedness by developing relevant regulations on the principles of transparency, objectivity, trustworthiness and scientific accuracy. Each level of nuclear emergency preparedness organization has established a special nuclear emergency preparedness publicity team to publicize national policies on nuclear energy, nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness to the public and to enhance transparency of nuclear energy development to ensure the public’s right to supervise nuclear safety and access to information on nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Since 2013 a number of nationwide nuclear emergency preparedness publicity activities with the theme “Joining Efforts to Establish Defense on Nuclear Emergency and for Nuclear Safety, and to Foster the Scientific Development of Nuclear Energy Sector” have been held, arousing extensive attention both at home and abroad. In January 2015 publicity activities targeting domestic and foreign audiences were successively conducted by nuclear-related organizations to mark the 60th anniversary of the launch of China’s nuclear industry. In December 2015 the domestic and foreign media were invited to visit Chinese nuclear power enterprises for the well-received campaign “Boosting Nuclear Energy Development for the One Belt and One Road Initiative,” showcasing to Chinese audience the advanced nature of China’s nuclear power technology, the safety and reliability of nuclear power, standardization of nuclear power management and adequacy of nuclear emergency preparedness, producing positive social repercussions. Nuclear-related enterprises, universities and colleges, and relevant organizations have conducted a variety of publicity activities in relation to the popularization of nuclear-related scientific knowledge in a bid to foster an atmosphere conducive to the safe and efficient development of nuclear energy.

香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区毗邻广东省,特区公众和舆论关注内地核能发展。1992年以来,粤港双方针对广东大亚湾和岭澳核电站核应急事宜达成多项共识。国家核应急管理机构多次与广东省、香港特别行政区政府组织宣介会,不断充实粤港核应急合作机制内容,完善粤港核应急交流平台,及时回应公众关切,消除疑虑。中央政府有关部门还有针对性地与港澳地区相关部门联合开展各领域专业培训,提高当地人员专业水平,为保持香港、澳门繁荣稳定作出积极贡献。
As the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions (SAR) are adjacent to Guangdong Province, the public in Hong Kong and Macao pay close attention to the nuclear energy development in China’s mainland. Since 1992 Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong SAR have reached consensus on a number of issues in relation to nuclear emergency preparedness associated with the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants in Guangdong. The state nuclear emergency management organ has, on more than one occasion, organized promotional activities in conjunction with Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong SAR to further enrich the contents of their collaborative mechanism on nuclear emergency preparedness, refine the communication platform for nuclear emergency preparedness between Guangdong and Hong Kong, and respond to public concerns in a timely manner to allay any misgivings. The relevant departments of the central government have held special training sessions focusing on various disciplines in conjunction with the departments concerned of Hong Kong and Macao SAR governments with a view to raising the professional level of the local public, therefore contributing positively to maintaining the prosperity and stability of both Hong Kong and Macao.

核能安全利用是关系台湾海峡两岸人民生命财产安全的大事,两岸双方对此高度重视。2011年10月,海协会与台湾海基会签署《海峡两岸核电安全合作协议》。在该协议框架下,两岸建立核应急事务联系机制,在核电安全法规与标准、核电厂事故紧急通报、核电厂环境辐射监测、核电厂事故紧急应变及准备等领域不断拓展交流与合作,取得积极成效。
As the safe use of nuclear energy is a major issue bearing on the safety of both life and property of people across the Taiwan Straits, both sides of the Straits lay great store by it. In October 2011 the Association for Relations across the Taiwan Straits and Straits Exchange Foundation signed the Cross-straits Nuclear Power Safety Cooperation Agreement. Under the framework of this agreement, a communication mechanism has been put in place between the two sides across the Straits on nuclear emergency matters, and positive achievements have reaped in expanded exchange and cooperation in such areas as regulations and standards concerning nuclear power safety, emergency reporting on nuclear power plant accidents, environmental radiation monitoring for nuclear power plants, and emergency response and preparations for nuclear power plant accidents.

 

七、核应急科技创新
VII. Scientific and Technological Innovations in Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

中国制定国家核应急工作规划,明确核应急领域科技创新目标要求、体制机制、人才建设、主要任务、保障措施等,取得一批科技创新成果,部分成果达到国际先进水平。
China has worked out a national plan for nuclear emergency preparedness work, which has clearly defined the targets, mechanism, training of professionals, main tasks and safeguard measures for scientific and technological innovation in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. New achievements have been made, and some of them have even reached the international advanced level.

核事故后果评价与决策支持系统开发。坚持技术引进与自主创新相结合,中国有关院校和科研院所,在事故源项估算、风场诊断与预报、气载放射性扩散、水体放射性扩散、核辐射医学应急分类及救援、放射性剂量估算等技术领域取得成果,为国家核应急决策提供了技术支持。
Development of nuclear accident consequence evaluation and decision-making support system. By insisting on the combination of technology introduction and self-reliant innovations, China’s relevant universities and R&D institutes have made achievements in such technological areas as accident source term estimation, wind field diagnosis and forecast, airborne radioactive material dispersion, radioactive material dispersion in water bodies, nuclear radiation medicine emergency classification and treatment, radioactive dose estimation, etc., which have provided technical support for the state in decision making related to national nuclear emergency preparedness.

核应急基础技术研究。开展“华龙一号”反应堆、AP1000反应堆(美国先进压水堆)、EPR反应堆(欧洲压水堆)、高温气冷堆、快堆等三代、四代核电技术反应堆核应急技术与管理研究。针对多机组同时出现共模事故、内陆核电站严重事故源项分析、跨地区核应急准备、核燃料循环设施应急准备、核与辐射恐怖袭击事件应急处置等重大课题,持续开展研究,取得一批成果,促进了中国核应急基础技术水平的整体增强。
Basic research in nuclear emergency preparedness. Research in nuclear emergency preparedness technologies and management for third and fourth generation of nuclear power technologies, such as HPR1000, AP1000 (US Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor), EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor), High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors and fast reactors has been carried out. Studies are continuing on important subjects such as simultaneous common-mode failure for multiple units, severe accident source term analysis for inland nuclear power plants, inter-regional nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear fuel cycle facility emergency preparedness and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist attacks, and some achievements have been made, uplifting as a whole the level of China’s basic technologies concerning nuclear emergency preparedness.

核应急专用装备研发。重点推进核应急辐射监测、辐射防护、医学救援、去污洗消等装备研发和系统集成。自主研制车(船)载巡测设备、航空辐射监测系统、辐射监测与事故响应机器人等装备设备,以及车(船)载核应急指挥系统、核应急医学分类及监测平台、医疗支援系统等,并已装备各级核应急救援队。中国海关使用的门户式辐射探测设备全部由国内企业自主研发制造。
Research and development of nuclear emergency special equipment. Priority is given to the R&D (research and development) and SI (system integration) of equipment for nuclear emergency radiation monitoring, radiation protection, medical treatment and decontamination. Independently developed equipment includes vehicle (vessel)-mounted detection equipment, aviation radiation monitoring system, radiation monitoring and accident response robots and vehicle (vessel)-mounted nuclear emergency command system, and nuclear emergency medical assorting and monitoring platform and medical support system. Each level of nuclear emergency rescue team is equipped with such equipment and systems. All gate-frame walk-through radiation detectors used by China Customs are developed by domestic enterprises.

核应急信息化技术研究。开展核应急数据采集和传输标准化研究,建立健全全国核应急资源管理系统。研发核应急指挥信息化系统,创新核应急预案模块化、响应流程智能化、组织指挥可视化、辅助决策科学化等技术,实现日常管理与应急响应一体化,提高了核应急响应能力和组织指挥效率。
Research in nuclear emergency preparedness information technology. Studies on the standardization of nuclear emergency preparedness data collection and transfer have been conducted, and a nationwide nuclear emergency preparedness resources management system has been established and efforts are constantly made to improve it. Development of a nuclear emergency preparedness information system, innovative modularization of nuclear emergency preparedness plan, automation of response process, visualization of organization and command and auxiliary scientific decision-making have led to the integration of routine management with emergency response, which has also helped enhance nuclear emergency preparedness response capabilities and organizational efficiency.

核应急医疗救治技术研究。开展急性放射损伤诊治等技术研究,制定急性放射损伤诊断与治疗方案和救治指南。开展核辐射突发事件医学应急关键技术研究及其推广应用研究,研制适用于广大人群的核辐射事故生物剂量快速估算方法,优化重度、极重度急性骨髓型放射病患者的非清髓造血干细胞、间充质干细胞(MSC)联合移植救治模式,在放射病治疗中实现多项突破,以最大程度减少核辐射事故引起的人员伤亡。持续开展系统的间充质干细胞治疗核辐射损伤的基础与临床研究,创建了MSC联合造血干细胞治疗重度放射病的治疗新方案,其研究成果“成体干细胞救治放射损伤新技术的建立与应用”项目获得该领域首个国家科技进步一等奖。军队医疗机构研究创建了“三级处置、四级救治”体系化核应急医学应急救援能力建设模式。
Research in nuclear emergency preparedness medical treatment technology. Research on the technology of diagnosis and treatment for acute radiation injuries has been carried out, and guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and rescue for acute radiation injuries have been developed. Key technical and promotional application research in unexpected nuclear radiation events has resulted in the development of methods for rapid biological dose assessment for nuclear radiation accidents applicable for the general public, which has helped optimize non-myeloablative stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined transplantation treatment for severe and extremely severe bone marrow acute radiation patients. A number of breakthroughs in the treatment of radiation diseases have been achieved, leading to a reduction of casualties of nuclear radiation accidents to the maximum extent. With primary and clinical research on the treatment of radiation injuries by use of mesenchymal stem cells, a new therapy using transplantation of combined MSC and hematopoietic stem cells for severe radiation sickness has been created. The research achievement “Establishment and Application to Treat Radiation Diseases by Using Somatic Stem Cells” won a first prize for national science and technology improvement. A “three-level handling and four-level treatment” systemized nuclear emergency medical rescue capabilities development model has been developed by China’s military medical research organizations.

公众风险沟通和心理援助研究。开展核突发事件(事故)情况下大范围公众群体危机心理援助技术研究,构建相关心理干预模型,提出应对预案、标准和实施指南。针对核辐射特点,研究编制核事故公众防护问与答、核与辐射事故医学应急等面向社会公众的应用丛书。
Research in public risk communication and psychological assistance. Research in mass psychological assistance techniques under circumstances of unexpected event (accident) has been conducted, and relevant psychological intervention models have been established, and countermeasures, criteria and implementation guidelines have been proposed. In view of the characteristics of nuclear radiation, Q&A publications in relation to nuclear accident protection and applied books on medical countermeasures in case of nuclear and radiological accidents geared toward the public have been compiled.

核应急环境气象创新性研究。持续研发并建设完善中国气象环境应急响应数值预报业务系统。通过技术引进和自主研发,改进升级核及危险化学品泄漏气象服务系统,完成大气扩散模式的精细化改进,全球模式分辨率由原来的85千米左右提高到30千米,中尺度区域模式分辨率由15千米提高到10千米,实现了对污染物扩散更加精细化模拟和预报。
Innovative research in nuclear emergency environmental meteorology. A numerical prediction system of China’s meteorological environmental emergency response is being developed and improved. Following the upgrading of the meteorological service system for nuclear and hazardous chemicals leakage and improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling by way of technology import and self-reliant R&D, the global mode resolution has been enhanced to 30km from about 85km, and medium-scale model resolution has been enhanced to 10km from 15km, realizing a more detailed and precise simulation and prediction of pollutant dispersion.

八、核应急国际合作与交流
VIII. International Cooperation and Exchanges in the Field of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness

中国是国际原子能机构成员国,始终致力于同各国一道推动建立国际核安全应急体系,促进各国共享和平利用核能事业成果,坚定不移支持和推进核应急领域国际合作与交流。中国与国际原子能机构等国际组织在核应急领域开展多层次、全方位合作,与世界有关国家核应急领域合作与交流不断拓展。
As a member state of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), China has always been, along with the other members, dedicated to promoting the development of an international nuclear safety emergency system and the sharing of achievements resulting from the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and unswervingly supports and facilitates international cooperation and exchange in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. China has launched multi-level and all-round cooperation in respect of nuclear emergency preparedness with international organizations, including the IAEA, and is stepping up collaboration and exchange in the field of nuclear emergencies with relevant countries.

积极加入相关国际公约。中国作为联合国常任理事国、国际原子能机构理事国,高度重视融入国际核安全应急体系。自1984年加入国际原子能机构以来,先后加入《核事故或辐射紧急情况援助公约》《及早通报核事故公约》《核材料实物保护公约》《不扩散核武器条约》《核安全公约》《制止核恐怖主义行为国际公约》等国际公约。在这些公约机制内,中国始终致力于同各国一道推动建立和平、合作、共赢的国际核安全应急体系,充分发挥建设性作用。
Actively acceding to relevant international conventions. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a member of the Board of Governors of the IAEA, China lays great store by integrating itself into the international nuclear safety emergency system. Since joining the IAEA in 1984, China has acceded to a number of international conventions, including the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on Nuclear Safety, and International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. Under these conventions, China has always been committed to playing a constructive role in promoting the establishment of a peaceful, cooperative and mutually beneficial international nuclear safety emergency system in tandem with other countries.

积极履行核应急国际义务。中国支持国际原子能机构在促进核能与核技术应用、加强核安全、加强核应急、实施保障监督等领域发挥主导作用。中国积极履行有关国际公约规定的国际义务,响应国际原子能机构理事会、大会提出的各项倡议。中国代表团出席了历次国际原子能机构组织的核应急主管当局会议和核安全公约履约大会,负责任地提交核应急、核安全履约国家报告。多次参加国际原子能机构组织的公约演习活动。推荐中国核应急领域的专家学者数百人次参加国际原子能机构开展的工作,为全球核应急领域合作献计献策。2014年5月,中国加入“国际核应急响应与援助网络”,为国际社会核应急体系建设提供支持。
Actively fulfilling international obligations regarding nuclear emergency preparedness. China supports the IAEA’s leading role in the fields of promoting nuclear energy and nuclear technology applications, strengthening nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness, and implementing safeguard supervision. China actively undertakes the international obligations set out in the relevant international conventions, and responds to each initiative put forward by the Board of Governors and General Conference of the IAEA. Chinese delegations have attended all conferences on nuclear emergency preparedness and nuclear safety convention obligation compliance organized by the IAEA, and submitted national reports on nuclear emergency preparedness and compliance with nuclear safety obligations, taking a responsible attitude. China has also, on numerous occasions, participated in exercises sponsored by the IAEA within the framework of the conventions. In addition, China has made contributions in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness to the whole world by recommending hundreds of Chinese experts and scholars in this field to participate in the work of the IAEA. In May 2014 China joined the International Nuclear Emergency Response and Assistance Network ― an act of support for the construction of the international nuclear emergency preparedness network.

积极开展双边交流。1984年以来,中国先后与巴西、阿根廷、英国、美国、韩国、俄罗斯、法国等30个国家签订双边核能合作协定,开展包括核应急在内的合作与交流。中国同美国合作在华建设核安保示范中心,为地区乃至国际核安保技术交流合作提供平台。在中美和平利用核能协定框架下,中国国家原子能机构与美国能源部联合举办核应急医学救援培训班、核应急后果评价研讨班等多种培训活动。在中俄总理定期会晤框架内设立中俄核问题分委会机制,定期研讨交流核应急领域合作与交流事宜。中国与法国建立中法核能合作协调委员会机制,与韩国建立中韩核能合作联委会机制,定期开展相关活动。中国援助巴基斯坦建设核电站,在核应急领域开展广泛深入的合作交流。
Actively conducting bilateral exchanges. Since 1984, China has successively entered into bilateral agreements on nuclear energy cooperation with 30 countries, including Brazil, Argentina, the UK, the US, ROK, Russia and France, and conducted cooperation and exchange which include nuclear emergency preparedness. China and the US have cooperated on the construction of the Center of Nuclear Security Excellence in China as a forum for technical exchange on nuclear security within the region and the rest of the world. Under the framework of the Sino-US agreement on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) and the US Department of Energy have jointly upheld a number of training activities, including a nuclear emergency medical rescue training program and a nuclear emergency consequence evaluation workshop. The Sino-Russian Sub-commission for Nuclear Issues was established within the framework of the Sino-Russian Prime Ministerial Regular Meeting, by which both sides conduct exchanges and cooperation in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness on a regular basis. Furthermore, China has been involved in relevant activities on a regular basis with France and ROK, establishing the Sino-French Commission on Nuclear Energy Cooperation and Coordination with France and Sino-Korean Joint Commission on Nuclear Energy Cooperation with ROK, respectively. In addition to assisting Pakistan in building nuclear power stations, China has conducted extensive cooperation and exchanges with that country in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness.

积极拓展多边合作。中国坚持合作共赢原则,与各国开展核应急领域合作与交流。中国国家领导人先后出席2010年华盛顿核安全峰会、2012年首尔核安全峰会、2014年海牙核安全峰会,呼吁国际社会加强核安全应急管理、提升核安全应急能力、增强各国人民对实现持久核安全、对核能事业造福人类的信心。中国国家原子能机构以各种形式与国际原子能机构开展交流与合作,2014年7月,在福建举办“严重核事故下核应急准备与响应”亚太地区培训班,为11个国家和地区的专家提供交流平台;2015年10月,在首次全球核应急准备与响应大会上,中国与90多个与会国家和10多个国际组织共同分享核应急准备与响应的成就,介绍中国核应急方针政策。中国通过亚洲核安全网络、亚洲核合作论坛、亚太地区核技术合作协定等机制,在地区合作交流中积极发挥作用。中国于2004年1月正式加入世界卫生组织辐射应急医学准备与救援网络。中国持续举办核应急领域国际学术交流活动。中日韩建立核事故及早通报框架和专家交流机制,定期开展相关领域合作与交流。
Actively expanding multilateral cooperation. China conducts cooperation and exchange with other countries in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness, pursuing results that are beneficial to all involved. Chinese heads of state have appealed to the world community to strengthen nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness management, enhance nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness capabilities and boost the confidence of all peoples in achieving permanent nuclear security and the goal of nuclear energy benefiting mankind, at the 2010 Washington Nuclear Security Summit, 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit and 2014 Hague Nuclear Security Summit. The CAEA and IAEA have organized various forms of exchanges and cooperation, including “Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response under Circumstances of Severe Nuclear Accidents” training sessions for the Asia-Pacific Region held in July 2014 in China’s Fujian, which served as a platform for exchanges among experts from 11 countries and regions. In October 2015 China shared its achievements in nuclear emergency preparedness and response with around 90 participating countries and a dozen international organizations, and briefed them China’s policies concerning nuclear emergency preparedness at the First International Conference on Global Nuclear Emergency Preparation and Response. China plays an active role in regional exchange and cooperation through such mechanisms as the Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN), Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia and Cooperation Agreement on Nuclear Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region. In January 2004 China officially joined the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network of the World Health Organization (REMPAN). China itself has successively upheld international academic exchange activities in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. China, Japan and ROK have established a framework of early notification of nuclear accidents and a mechanism of expert exchange for cooperation and exchange in the relevant fields on a regular basis.

积极开展应对福岛核事故合作交流。中国是日本的近邻,对福岛核事故尤为关切。在第一时间启动核应急响应机制、开展本国应对工作的同时,积极履行《核事故或辐射紧急情况援助公约》国际义务,向日本政府表明提供辐射监测、医疗救护等援助的意愿。2011年5月,应日本政府邀请,中国组织专家代表团赴日本,就福岛核事故进行交流,提出处置意见建议。中国还选派权威专家参加国际原子能机构福岛核事故评估团,开展福岛核事故影响评估。福岛核事故发生后四年多来,中国政府机关、企事业单位、大专院校、科研院所,以各种形式与国际组织合作,总结探讨后福岛时代核应急领域重大问题。这些合作交流活动,既促进了中国核应急的改进提高,也促进了国际社会对福岛核事故的经验反馈。
Actively carrying out cooperation and exchange in response to the Fukushima nuclear accident. As a close neighbor of Japan, China was especially concerned about the Fukushima nuclear accident. It immediately activated its nuclear emergency preparedness and response mechanism and countermeasures, while expressing willingness to the Japanese government to offer radiation monitoring and medical aid by fulfilling its international obligations under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. In May 2011, at the invitation of the Japanese government, China organized a delegation of experts to visit Japan to conduct focused exchanges with their Japanese counterparts on the Fukushima nuclear accident, and put forward suggestions for the handling of it. Furthermore, China dispatched senior experts to join the IAEA’s Fukushima Nuclear Accident Assessment Team to evaluate the impact from the Fukushima accident. In the past four years or so since the Fukushima nuclear accident, Chinese government organs, enterprises and institutions, colleges and universities and R&D institutes have conducted various forms of collaboration with international organizations in summing up and discussing important issues in relation to post-Fukushima nuclear emergency preparedness. These activities not only have helped China improve its nuclear emergency work, but also have helped the international community in accessing experience feedback from the Fukushima nuclear accident.

积极响应国际原子能机构核安全行动计划。福岛核事故后,国际原子能机构发布《核安全行动计划》,为国际社会改进核应急工作提供借鉴。中国参考新的标准和理念,全面改进国家核应急准备与响应工作;充实增加国家核安全核应急监管力量和技术支持力量;全面检查所有核设施营运单位核应急工作,按照新的标准完善应急措施;加强顶层设计,进行统筹规划,建立健全核应急能力体系。中国坚持采用最先进的技术、执行最严格的标准,全面提升核应急管理,努力把核应急提高到新水平。
Actively responding to the IAEA’s Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. The IAEA published the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident to serve as reference for all countries in improving their respective nuclear emergency work. Consulting the new criteria and concepts, China has comprehensively improved its nuclear emergency preparation and response mechanism by enhancing supervision and technical support for national nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness, conducting inspections on nuclear emergency work of all operators of nuclear installations, perfecting emergency measures in accordance with the new criteria and strengthening top-tier design and planning to establish a robust nuclear emergency preparedness capabilities system. China is endeavoring to upgrade its nuclear emergency work to a new level by persisting in using state-of-the-art technology, upholding the most rigorous criteria and enforcing nuclear emergency management in a comprehensive manner.

结束语
Conclusion

贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享发展理念,坚定不移推进核能事业发展,是中国的重要战略选择。发展核能事业的步伐不停止,加强核应急的步伐就不会停止。中国将不断加强和改进核应急工作,为核能事业安全高效、持续健康发展提供坚强保障。
China will continue to press forward with the development of nuclear energy as an important strategic choice for promoting economic and social development in line with the ideas of innovation, coordination, greening, openness and shared development. As long as China continues to develop nuclear energy, it will never relent in its efforts to further strengthen its nuclear emergency preparedness. China will spare no effort to improve this work on a continuing basis to provide a robust bulwark in support of the safe, efficient, sustainable and healthy development of the nuclear energy sector.

在未来,中国将坚持总体国家安全观和理性、协调、并进的核安全观,多措并举,综合施策,不断增强核安全应急能力,扎实做好核应急工作。坚持发展与安全并重,以安全为前提发展核能事业,使核应急与核能发展协调并进;坚持能力与需求匹配,适应核能事业发展要求,不断提升核应急能力,确保核应急响应及时有效;坚持国内与国际交流,继续深化核应急领域国际合作,推进建立面向未来的国际核安全应急体系,国际社会共享和平利用核能事业成果;坚持当前与长远兼顾,着眼中国和世界核能事业发展大势,前瞻谋划核应急工作,确保筹划在先、准备在先、预防在先,增强主动性、掌握主动权。
In future, while adhering to the concept of overall national security and the nuclear safety concept of rational, coordinated and tandem development, China will take multiple and comprehensive measures to enhance its nuclear safety emergency capabilities and ensure its nuclear emergency preparedness at all times. China will continue to place equal emphasis on development and safety, and develop nuclear energy on the premise of safety, strengthen coordinated improvement in nuclear emergency preparedness and nuclear energy development to ensure that each and every action item of nuclear emergency preparedness is fully implemented. China will persist in matching capacity to demand, meet the requirements of nuclear energy development in terms of situation and tasks, continuously enhance its national nuclear emergency capabilities, and ensure that its nuclear emergency response is timely and effective. Meanwhile, China will persist in domestic and international exchange by continuing to deepen international cooperation in respect of nuclear emergency preparedness to promote the establishment of an international nuclear safety emergency preparedness system with an eye to the future, and share with the international community its achievements in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. China will persist in giving equal attention to present and long-term development, keep in perspective the megatrends of nuclear energy development at home and abroad, plan nuclear emergency preparedness in a forward-looking manner, and ensure that efforts in respect of planning, preparation and prevention are made in advance so that we can always take the initiative in case of any emergencies.

中国的发展离不开世界,世界的发展也离不开中国。中国将积极参与构建国际核安全应急体系,与国际社会一道,共同解决核应急领域面临的重大课题。中国有信心、有能力不断提升核应急准备与响应水平,为实现持久核安全、实现核能事业造福人类作出贡献。
China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world, nor can the world enjoy prosperity without China. China will take an active part in constructing an international nuclear safety emergency system, and join hands with the nations of the rest of the world to tackle the important issues facing nuclear emergency preparedness. China has the confidence and ability to enhance its nuclear emergency preparedness and responses to realize permanent nuclear safety and achieve the goal of nuclear energy benefiting mankind.

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