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纽约时报双语:拉姆之死:当家暴在中国只是“家务事”

拉姆之死:当家暴在中国只是“家务事”
Her Abuse Was a ‘Family Matter,’ Until It Went Live
ELSIE CHEN
2020年11月16日
纽约时报双语:拉姆之死:当家暴在中国只是“家务事”

Lhamo, a Tibetan farmer in southwestern China, lived her life mostly outdoors and shared it online, posting videos of herself cooking, singing and picking herbs in the mountains around her village. By this fall, she had about 200,000 followers, many of whom praised her as cheerful and hardworking.

拉姆是生活在中国西南部的一位藏族农民,她大部分时间都在户外生活,并且在网上分享,发布自己做饭、唱歌和在村子附近山上采摘草药的视频。到今年秋天,她有了大约20万粉丝,很多人称赞她勤劳开朗。

Over 400 of them were watching one evening in mid-September as Ms. Lhamo, 30, streamed a video live from her kitchen on Douyin, the Chinese version of the TikTok app. Suddenly, a man stormed in and Ms. Lhamo screamed. Then the screen went dark.

9月中旬的一个晚上,30岁的拉姆在自己的厨房里用抖音(TikTok的中国版)直播视频,有400多人观看。突然,一名男子冲进来,拉姆尖叫起来。然后屏幕暗下去。

When Ms. Lhamo’s sister Dolma arrived at the hospital a few hours later, she found Ms. Lhamo struggling to breathe, her body covered with burns. The police in Jinchuan County, where she lived, are investigating Ms. Lhamo’s ex-husband on suspicion that he doused her with gasoline and set her on fire.

几小时后,拉姆的姐姐卓玛赶到医院,看到拉姆呼吸困难,全身烧伤。拉莫所居住的金川县警方正在调查她的前夫,怀疑他将汽油浇在她身上并放火。

“She looked like a piece of charcoal,” said Ms. Dolma, who, along with her sister and many other Tibetans, goes by one name. “He burned almost all her skin off.”

“看起来就像是一块炭,”卓玛说。姐妹俩跟许多藏人一样,只有名字没有姓。“他把她烧的她身上没有一处皮肤是好,面目全非。”

Ms. Lhamo died two weeks later.

拉姆在两周后去世。

Her case, one of several that have gained national attention this year, reflects the shortcomings of China’s legal system in protecting women from domestic violence — even when they repeatedly seek help, as Ms. Lhamo did.

这是今年引起全国关注的几起案件之一,反映出中国法律体系在保护女性免遭家庭暴力方面的缺陷——即使这些女性一再寻求帮助,就像拉姆那样。

Public outrage has helped some get justice, including a woman in Henan Province who was denied a divorce until she posted video evidence of her abuse. But for many women like Ms. Lhamo it comes too late.

公众的愤怒帮助一些人伸张了正义,包括河南一名离婚遭法院拒绝的女子,直到她上传了自己遭受虐待的视频证据。但对于许多像拉姆这样的女性来说,这一切来得太晚了。

In July, a man in the eastern city of Hangzhou was arrested on suspicion of murdering his wife after her dismembered remains were found in a communal septic tank. Late last month, video footage went viral that appeared to show a man in Shanxi Province beating his wife to death in front of bystanders.

今年7月,东部城市杭州的一名男子因涉嫌谋杀妻子被捕,此前她的残肢在一个公共化粪池中被发现。上月底,一段网上疯传的视频似乎显示山西的一名男子当着旁观者的面将妻子殴打致死。

More than 900 women have died at the hands of their husbands or partners since China’s law against domestic violence was enacted in 2016, according to Beijing Equality, a women’s rights group.

据妇女权利组织北京为平称,自2016年中国颁布《反家庭暴力法》以来,已有900多名女性死于丈夫或伴侣之手。

The domestic violence law promised police investigations and easier access to restraining orders, but enforcement is spotty and punishments are light in a society that stigmatizes divorce and pressures victims of abuse to keep silent. Activists say many police officers are not properly trained to handle domestic violence cases. In the countryside, where Ms. Lhamo was from, victims often lack social support networks and are less educated about their rights.

反家暴法承诺警方将进行调查,受害者将更容易获得限制令,但在一个将离婚视为耻辱、迫使被虐待的受害者保持沉默的社会,执法不力,惩罚力度也不够。活动人士说,许多警察没有受过处理家庭暴力案件的适当培训。拉姆所在的农村地区,受害者往往缺乏社会支持网络,对自己的权利了解甚少。

Just one day after Ms. Lhamo’s death, Xi Jinping, China’s top leader, told a U.N. conference on women that the “protection of women’s rights and interests must become a national commitment.”

就在拉姆女士去世一天后,中国最高领导人习近平在联合国的一个妇女大会上表示,“保障妇女权益必须上升为一项国家意志”。

The Chinese internet seized on the speech. And soon, people were calling for stronger enforcement of the domestic violence law using the hashtag #LhamoAct. Within a day, the hashtag had been censored on Weibo, one of China’s most popular social media platforms. Other hashtags condemned the failure of the police to prevent Ms. Lhamo’s murder, including #StopNotActing and #PunishNotActing.

中国互联网抓住了这篇演讲的机会。很快,人们就使用“#拉姆法案”这个标签,呼吁加强家庭暴力法的执行。一天之内,这一标签就在中国最受欢迎的社交媒体平台之一微博上受到审查。还有其他标签谴责警方未能阻止拉姆遇害,包括“#停止不作为”和“#惩罚不作为” 。

Wan Miaoyan, a women’s rights lawyer in Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, said she hoped the backlash from Ms. Lhamo’s case would result in better enforcement of the law.

四川省会成都的维权律师万淼焱说,她希望拉姆一案引发的强烈反响能促使法律得到更好执行。

“But why does it take a tragedy and a victim to sacrifice herself in such a bloody way before we make progress on law enforcement?” she said.

“但是为什么每次都一定要这么惨烈,每次都要有受害人者这么血淋淋的牺牲,才能推动执法吗?”她说。

Ms. Lhamo was from a remote village in the region of Aba, called Ngaba by Tibetans. Born into poverty, she made a living picking herbs in the mountains. As a child, she was kind and optimistic, her sister said. When Ms. Lhamo was 18, she met a man named Tang Lu from a nearby village. Before long they were married, and Ms. Lhamo moved in with his family and gave birth to two boys, who are now 3 and 12.

拉姆来自阿坝地区一个偏远的村庄。她出身贫寒,靠在山里采摘草药为生。姐姐说,她从小就善良乐观。18岁时,拉姆遇到了附近村子里一个名叫唐路的男人。没过多久,他们就结婚了,拉姆搬去他家,生下了两个儿子,现在一个三岁,一个12岁。

Ms. Dolma said she had seen bruises on her sister’s face and body many times over the years. Ms. Lhamo often fled to their father’s house to recover from her injuries, which Ms. Dolma said included a dislocated elbow.

卓玛说,多年来,她多次看到妹妹脸上和身上有瘀伤。拉姆经常逃到父亲的家里养伤,卓玛说那些伤包括肘部脱臼。

Mr. Tang did not respond to multiple messages on his Douyin account asking for comment. Ms. Dolma said she did not have phone numbers for him or his relatives.

唐路没有回复他的抖音账户上多条要求置评的信息。卓玛说,她没有他或他亲属的电话号码。

Ms. Lhamo divorced Mr. Tang in March. But he immediately pushed her to remarry, Ms. Dolma said, threatening to kill their children if she refused. Ms. Lhamo called the police twice but they ignored her pleas for help, her sister said. The couple remarried.

拉姆今年3月与唐路离婚。但卓玛说,他立即催促她复婚,并威胁,如果拒绝,就杀了他们的孩子。卓玛说,拉姆给警察打了两次电话,但警察对此置之不理。两人复婚了。

Two weeks later, when Ms. Lhamo went to the police again after Mr. Tang tried to hurt her and Ms. Dolma, the authorities said that since she had chosen to remarry him, “this is your personal family matter.” The officer said there was nothing they could do, according to Ms. Dolma.

两周后,唐路试图伤害拉姆和卓玛,拉姆再次报警。当局表示,既然她已经选择同他复婚,“这是你们自己的家务事,”据卓玛说,这名官员表示他们无能为力。

The Jinchuan County police department did not respond to a request for comment.

金川县公安局没有回复记者的置评请求。

In May, Ms. Dolma said, Mr. Tang tried to choke Ms. Lhamo and threatened her with a knife.

卓玛说,今年5月,唐路试图掐死拉姆,还用刀子威胁她。

She sought help from the local chapter of the All-China Women’s Federation, the government agency in charge of protecting women’s rights. Ms. Dolma said her sister cried later as she recounted when an official dismissed her injuries, saying other women were worse off.

她向当地妇联寻求帮助,该组织是负责保护妇女权益的机构。卓玛说,妹妹后来哭着说起一名官员对她的伤势不屑一顾,说其他女性的情况更糟。

An employee at the Jinchuan County Women’s Federation confirmed that Ms. Lhamo had visited the office and said there was an investigation underway.

金川县妇联的一名工作人员证实拉姆曾到过办公室,并说调查正在进行中。

Ms. Lhamo refused to give up, Ms. Dolma said. She filed for divorce again and hid with relatives as she waited for court approval.

卓玛说,拉姆不肯放弃,再次提出离婚,等待法庭批准的同时,跟亲戚躲在一起。

In early June, Mr. Tang went looking for Ms. Lhamo at Ms. Dolma’s house. When Ms. Dolma wouldn’t tell him where her sister was, he hit her in her left eye. Ms. Dolma was hospitalized for almost two weeks for bone fractures, according to a copy of the medical report viewed by The New York Times. She said she reported the incident to the police but they only briefly questioned Mr. Tang and let him go.

6月初,唐路去卓玛家里找拉姆。卓玛没有告诉他自己的妹妹在哪里,他打伤了卓玛的左眼。《纽约时报》看到的一份医疗报告副本显示,卓玛因骨折住院近两周。她说,她向警方报告了这起事件,但警方只对唐路进行了简短询问,就放他走了。

A court granted the couple’s second divorce a few weeks later, awarding Mr. Tang full custody of their two sons. Ms. Lhamo spent most of the summer deep in the mountains picking herbs. On Sept. 12, two days before the attack that would kill her, she posted a video saying she was coming home.

几周后,法院批准了这对夫妇的第二次离婚,将两个儿子的全部监护权判给了唐路。拉姆夏天的大部分时间都在深山中采摘草药。9月12日,也就是导致她丧生的袭击发生前两天,她发布了一段视频,说自己要回家了。

Mr. Tang, who was also severely burned, is being investigated on suspicion of homicide. That is cold comfort for Ms. Dolma.

唐路也严重烧伤,目前正因涉嫌杀人接受调查。这对卓玛来说没有太大安慰。

“It’s too late to talk about these things now,” she said. “If they had taken it seriously at that time and disciplined or punished him, we wouldn’t be in this situation today.”

“现在说这些都晚了,”她说。“当时如果他们重视一点的话,好好管教惩罚他,现在不可能会出这么大的事情。”

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