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双语:《新疆的宗教信仰自由状况》白皮书 PDF下载

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新疆的宗教信仰自由状况
Freedom of Religious Belief in Xinjiang

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 (2016年6月)
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

June 2016

目 录

前 言

一、新疆的宗教历史

二、保障公民宗教信仰自由权利

三、满足信教公民正常宗教需求

四、依法管理宗教事务

五、开展宗教对外交流

六、防范和打击宗教极端

七、发挥宗教界的积极作用

结束语

Contents

Foreword

I. History of Religions in Xinjiang

II. Protecting Citizens’ Freedom of Religious Belief

III. Satisfying Believers’ Normal Religious Requirements

IV. Managing Religious Affairs in Accordance with the Law

V. International Religious Exchanges

VI. Preventing and Combating Religious Extremism

VII. Active Role of Religious Circles

Conclusion

 

前 言
Foreword

新疆维吾尔自治区(简称新疆)地处中国西北,千百年来,这里就是一个多民族聚居、多宗教并存的地区。目前,新疆主要有伊斯兰教、佛教、基督教、天主教和道教等。
The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang for short) is located in northwest China. For thousands of years it has been a multi-ethnic region of multiple religions. At present, the major religions in Xinjiang are Islam, Buddhism, Protestantism, Catholicism and Taoism.

历史上,新疆的宗教关系十分复杂。新中国成立以前,不同宗教之间、同一宗教的不同教派之间发生过多次冲突,甚至在局部地区爆发了长达数十年的宗教战争和数百年的教派纷争。宗教战争和冲突,不仅对经济社会造成严重破坏,也给人民带来深重灾难,使人们失去信仰自由。
Historically, religious relations in Xinjiang were very complicated. Before the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949 many conflicts had occurred between different religions or different sects of the same religion; some areas even experienced decades of religious wars and centuries of sectarian strife. Religious wars and conflicts not only caused serious damage to the economy and society, but also brought grave disasters to the people. As a result, people lost freedom of faith.

1949年新中国成立后,新疆各族人民真正获得了宗教信仰自由的权利。中央政府和新疆地方各级政府全面落实民族区域自治制度,贯彻实施宗教信仰自由政策,不断完善宗教事务管理法律法规,新疆各宗教迎来了和谐共处的历史新阶段。
After the People’s Republic of China was founded, people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang gained the freedom of religious belief. The central government and local governments at all levels of Xinjiang have fully implemented the system of regional ethnic autonomy and the policy on the freedom of religious belief, and constantly improved laws and regulations on the administration of religious affairs. All religions in Xinjiang have thus reached a new historical stage at which they coexist in harmony.

为了让国际社会了解新疆宗教信仰自由的真实状况,这里作些介绍和说明。
To let the peoples of the rest of the world know the real situation of religious freedom in Xinjiang, this paper hereby makes a brief introduction and explanation.

一、新疆的宗教历史
I. History of Religions in Xinjiang

新疆的宗教发展演变是一个长期的历史过程。不晚于新石器时期,新疆远古居民就产生了原始宗教观念。公元前4世纪起,祆教(即琐罗亚斯德教)、佛教等相继传入新疆,逐步形成了多种宗教并存的格局,并延续至今。
The evolution of religions in Xinjiang was a long historical process. The ancient residents of Xinjiang developed primitive religious ideas as early as in the Neolithic Period. From the fourth century BC, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and some other faiths were introduced into Xinjiang one after another. Gradually there came into being a pattern wherein a variety of religions coexisted, which continues today.

新疆的宗教发展演变,大致经历了四个阶段,即原始宗教阶段、佛教为主要宗教的多种宗教并存的形成阶段、伊斯兰教与佛教并立为主要宗教的多种宗教并存的演变阶段、伊斯兰教为主要宗教的多种宗教并存的发展阶段。
The evolution of religions in Xinjiang went through four stages: the stage of primitive religion, the formation stage for the coexistence of a variety of religions with Buddhism as the major one, the evolution stage for the coexistence of many religions with Islam and Buddhism as the two major ones, and the development stage for the coexistence of a variety of religions with Islam as the major one.

公元前4世纪以前,新疆流行的是原始宗教。至今新疆许多民族都还程度不同地保留着原始宗教的观念及遗俗。此后,祆教经中亚传入新疆。约公元前1世纪佛教传入新疆后,逐渐形成了以佛教为主要宗教的多种宗教并存格局。4世纪至10世纪,祆教流行于新疆各地,吐鲁番地区尤为盛行,当时的高昌地方政权为此专门设置了管理机构。这一时期,佛教进入鼎盛阶段,塔里木盆地周缘各绿洲佛寺林立,僧尼众多,形成了于阗、疏勒、龟兹、高昌等著名佛教中心。道教于5世纪前后传入新疆,主要盛行于吐鲁番、哈密等地,至清代传播至新疆大部分地区。摩尼教和景教(基督教聂斯脱利派)于6世纪相继传入新疆。9世纪中叶,信奉摩尼教的回鹘人进入吐鲁番地区,建造寺院,开凿洞窟,翻译经典,绘制壁画。10世纪至14世纪,景教随着许多地方回鹘等民族改信而兴盛,当时的疏勒、叶尔羌、于阗、轮台、高昌、哈密、阿力麻里(今霍城县境内)等地都是传教区。
Before the fourth century BC primitive religion was practiced in Xinjiang. Many ethnic groups of Xinjiang still retain some concepts and practices of primitive religion to different degrees. Later, Zoroastrianism was introduced into Xinjiang via Central Asia. Around the first century BC Buddhism was introduced into Xinjiang, and gradually a pattern came into being wherein many religions coexisted with Buddhism as the major one. From the fourth to the 10th century Zoroastrianism became prevalent throughout Xinjiang, particularly in the Turpan area. For this, the local authorities of Gaochang set up a special administrative agency. During this same period Buddhism reached its peak. In oases on the periphery of the Tarim Basin Buddhist temples arose in great numbers, with a multitude of monks and nuns. Khotan, Kashgar (Shule), Kucha (Qiuci), Gaochang and other famous Buddhist centers took shape. Taoism was introduced into Xinjiang around the fifth century, becoming prevalent mainly in Turpan and Kumul (Hami). It spread to most parts of Xinjiang in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Manichaeism and Nestorianism were introduced into Xinjiang one after the other in the sixth century. In the middle of the ninth century, the Huihu people, who believed in Manichaeism, entered the Turpan area, where they built temples, dug caves, translated scriptures and painted frescoes. From the 10th to the 14th century, Nestorianism flourished as the Huihu people and some other ethnic peoples converted to it in many parts of Xinjiang. At that time Nestorianism was preached in Kashgar, Yarkant, Khotan, Bugur (Luntai), Gaochang, Hami, Almaliq (now in Huocheng County), and a few other places.

9世纪末10世纪初,伊斯兰教传入新疆南部,新疆原有宗教格局再次发生变化。喀喇汗王朝接受伊斯兰教后,于10世纪中叶向信仰佛教的于阗王国发动了40余年的宗教战争,11世纪初攻灭于阗,将伊斯兰教强制推行到这一地区。由此形成了南疆以伊斯兰教为主、北疆以佛教为主,伊斯兰教与佛教并立的格局。这一阶段早期,祆教、景教、摩尼教等宗教亦比较盛行。但随着伊斯兰教的不断传播,这些宗教日趋衰落。
In the late ninth and early 10th centuries, Islam was introduced into southern Xinjiang, changing the religious pattern of Xinjiang again. After the Kara-Khanid Khanate accepted Islam, in the mid-10th century it launched a religious war against the Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan, which lasted more than 40 years. In the early 11th century the Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Khotan and imposed Islam in that region. Thereafter, Islam dominated southern Xinjiang while Buddhism dominated northern Xinjiang, the two coexisting. In the early period of this stage Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism and Manichaeism were also very popular. But with the spread of Islam, these religions gradually declined.

14世纪中叶东察合台汗国时期,统治者以战争等强制手段,将伊斯兰教逐渐推行到塔里木盆地北缘、吐鲁番盆地和哈密一带。至16世纪初,新疆形成了以伊斯兰教为主要宗教、多种宗教并存的格局,原来当地居民信仰的祆教、摩尼教、景教等逐渐消失,佛教、道教仍然存在。17世纪初,卫拉特蒙古人接受了藏传佛教。约自18世纪始,基督教、天主教、东正教相继传入新疆。新疆以伊斯兰教为主要宗教、多种宗教并存的格局延续至今。
The rulers of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate in the mid-14th century spread Islam to the northern edge of the Tarim Basin, Turpan Basin and Hami area by warlike and other compulsory means. By the early 16th century many religions coexisted in Xinjiang, with Islam as the predominant one. Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Nestorianism gradually disappeared, although Buddhism and Taoism clung on. In the early 17th century the Oirat Mongols accepted Tibetan Buddhism. Beginning in the 18th century, Protestantism, Catholicism and the Eastern Orthodox Church were introduced into Xinjiang one by one. A pattern featuring coexistence of multiple religions, with Islam as the principal one, continues today in Xinjiang.

新疆的宗教历史表明:一教或两教为主、多教并存是新疆宗教历史的基本特点,交融共存是新疆宗教关系的主流;宗教必须与其所处时代和人文环境相适应,实现本土化,才能得以延续;不同宗教间的战争和同一宗教不同教派的纷争,致使人们没有自由选择宗教信仰的权利。
The religious history of Xinjiang shows that coexistence of multiple religions with one or two dominant was a basic characteristic, and blending and coexistence made up the mainstream religious relationships of Xinjiang. A religion should adapt itself to the times and human environment, and achieve localization, so that it can continue. History shows that wars between different religions and disputes between different sects of the same religion deprive people of the free choice of religion.

二、保障公民宗教信仰自由权利
II. Protecting Citizens’ Freedom of Religious Belief

尊重和保护宗教信仰自由是中国政府一项长期的基本国策。《中华人民共和国宪法》明确规定:“中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由”“任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民”“国家保护正常的宗教活动。任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动”。
Respect for and protection of freedom of religious belief is a long-term basic national policy of the Chinese government. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China clearly stipulates: “Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of religious belief.” “No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.” “The state protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state.”

中华人民共和国国务院颁布的《宗教事务条例》和新疆制定的《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教事务条例》,体现了“公民有宗教信仰自由”“国家保护正常的宗教活动”的宪法精神,信仰宗教或不信仰宗教,完全由公民自主选择,任何组织和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民或不信仰宗教的公民。没有公民因信仰宗教或不信仰宗教而受到歧视和不公正待遇。新疆的相关法规规章,对宗教团体、宗教活动场所、宗教教职人员、宗教活动、宗教财产等作出了规定。公民宗教信仰自由权利与公民义务相统一,公民无论是否信仰宗教,都必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。侵犯公民宗教信仰自由权利要承担相应的法律责任。
The Regulations on Religious Affairs promulgated by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, and the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Religious Affairs promulgated by the local government of Xinjiang both reflect the above principles of the Constitution that “citizens enjoy freedom of religious belief” and that “the state protects normal religious activities.” It is a completely independent choice of citizens to believe in, or not believe in, any religion. No organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion. No citizen suffers discrimination or unfair treatment for believing in, or not believing in, any religion. Relevant rules and regulations of Xinjiang also have provisions on religious groups, venues for religious activities, clerical personnel, religious activities, religious property and related matters. Citizens’ freedom of religious belief and their obligations are unified; citizens who believe in or do not believe in any religion must fulfill the obligations prescribed by the Constitution and the law. Anyone who infringes upon citizens’ freedom of religious belief shall bear the corresponding legal liability.

法律保护正常的宗教活动。公民在宗教活动场所内以及按照宗教习惯在自己家里进行的一切正常的宗教活动,如礼拜、封斋、拜佛、祈祷、讲经、讲道、诵经、烧香、弥撒、受洗、受戒、终傅、追思、过宗教节日等,都由宗教团体和公民自理,受法律保护,任何组织和个人不得加以干涉。为保障顺利完成朝觐功课,新疆实行有组织、有计划的朝觐政策。自1996年以来,每年安排包机组织信教群众前往沙特阿拉伯麦加朝觐,政府对朝觐人员的医疗、翻译等给予资助,并做好随团服务保障,确保朝觐活动安全有序。
The law protects normal religious activities. All normal religious activities, including attending religious services, fasting, worshiping Buddha, praying, preaching, reciting scriptures, burning incense, attending Mass, being baptized or ordained, observing extreme unction, holding memorial ceremonies, and celebrating religious festivals, that believers conduct at venues for religious activities or in their own homes in accordance with customary religious practices, are exclusive affairs of religious groups and the believers themselves. These activities are protected by law, and no organization or individual may interfere with them. To ensure successful pilgrimages for believers in Islam, Xinjiang adopts a policy of organized and planned pilgrimages. Since 1996 the Xinjiang government has arranged charter flights every year to take believers in Islam to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Xinjiang government funds medical care and interpretation for pilgrims, and offers other services to ensure safe and orderly pilgrimages.

充分尊重信教公民的宗教感情、信仰需求。斋月期间,清真餐馆歇业或开业完全由业主自行决定,不受干涉。有吃斋饭传统的清真寺和一些信教公民免费为封斋者提供开斋饭。各地加强服务保障,确保斋月期间各项宗教活动有序进行。2015年7月3日正值斋月,和田地区发生6.5级地震,政府在积极做好救援安置工作的同时,及时搭建临时宗教活动场所,保障灾区信教公民礼拜、封斋等正常宗教生活。17日晚(开斋节前夜),新疆主要领导与伊斯兰教界人士、各族穆斯林群众代表共进开斋饭,共迎开斋节,受到社会各界广泛关注和好评。
Citizens’ religious feelings and needs are fully respected. During the holy Islamic month of Ramadan whether to close or open halal (Muslim food) restaurants is completely determined by the owners themselves without interference. There are mosques with a tradition of having iftar (the evening meal when Muslims end their daily Ramadan fast at sunset) and a number of religious believers provide free iftar to fasting people. Local governments ensure that all religious activities during Ramadan go on in an orderly manner. On July 3, 2015, during Ramadan, a 6.5-magnitude earthquake occurred in Hotan Prefecture. The government carried out rescue work while at the same time promptly setting up temporary sites to ensure prayer, fasting and other normal religious life for religious believers in the disaster-hit areas. On the evening of July 17 (the eve of Eid al-Fitr, festival of breaking of the fast), principal Party and government leaders of Xinjiang had iftar with Islamic personages and Muslim representatives of all ethnic groups to welcome Eid al-Fitr, attracting wide attention and praise from all sectors of society.

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