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双语:《中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议》白皮书 PDF下载

双语全文(PDF见文末)

中国坚持通过谈判解决中国与菲律宾在南海的有关争议

(2016年7月)

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation

the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines

in the South China Sea

目 录
Contents

引 言
Introduction

一、南海诸岛是中国固有领土
I. Nanhai Zhudao are China’s Inherent Territory

(一)中国对南海诸岛的主权是历史上确立的
i. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history

(二)中国始终坚定维护在南海的领土主权和海洋权益
ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea

(三)中国对南海诸岛的主权得到国际社会广泛承认
iii. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international community

二、中菲南海有关争议的由来
II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea

(一)菲律宾非法侵占行为制造了中菲南沙岛礁争议
i. The Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao

(二)菲律宾的非法主张毫无历史和法理依据
ii. The Philippines’ illegal claim has no historical or legal basis

(三)国际海洋法制度的发展导致中菲出现海洋划界争议
iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation

三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识
III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea

(一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺
i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea

(二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识
ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea

四、菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动
IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes

(一)菲律宾企图扩大对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的侵占
i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao

(二)菲律宾一再扩大海上侵权
ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China’s maritime rights and interests

(三)菲律宾企图染指中国黄岩岛
iii. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China’s Huangyan Dao

(四)菲律宾单方面提起仲裁是恶意行为
iv. The Philippines’ unilateral initiation of arbitration is an act of bad faith

五、中国处理南海问题的政策
V. China’s Policy on the South China Sea Issue

(一)关于南沙群岛领土问题
i. On the territorial issues concerning Nansha Qundao

(二)关于南海海洋划界问题
ii. On maritime delimitation in the South China Sea

(三)关于争端解决方式
iii. On the ways and means of dispute settlement

(四)关于在南海管控分歧和开展海上务实合作
iv. On managing differences and engaging in practical maritime cooperation in the South China Sea

(五)关于南海航行自由和安全
v. On freedom and safety of navigation in the South China Sea

(六)关于共同维护南海和平稳定
vi. On jointly upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea

引 言
Introduction

1. 南海位于中国大陆的南面,通过狭窄的海峡或水道,东与太平洋相连,西与印度洋相通,是一个东北-西南走向的半闭海。南海北靠中国大陆和台湾岛,南接加里曼丹岛和苏门答腊岛,东临菲律宾群岛,西接中南半岛和马来半岛。
1. Situated to the south of China’s mainland, and connected by narrow straits and waterways with the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west, the South China Sea is a semi-closed sea extending from northeast to southwest. To its north are the mainland and Taiwan Dao of China, to its south Kalimantan Island and Sumatra Island, to its east the Philippine Islands, and to its west the Indo-China Peninsula and the Malay Peninsula.

2. 中国南海诸岛包括东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛。这些群岛分别由数量不等、大小不一的岛、礁、滩、沙等组成。其中,南沙群岛的岛礁最多,范围最广。
2. China’s Nanhai Zhudao (the South China Sea Islands) consist of Dongsha Qundao (the Dongsha Islands), Xisha Qundao (the Xisha Islands), Zhongsha Qundao (the Zhongsha Islands) and Nansha Qundao (the Nansha Islands). These Islands include, among others, islands, reefs, shoals and cays of various numbers and sizes. Nansha Qundao is the largest in terms of both the number of islands and reefs and the geographical area.

3. 中国人民在南海的活动已有2000多年历史。中国最早发现、命名和开发利用南海诸岛及相关海域,最早并持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛及相关海域行使主权和管辖。中国对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益,是在漫长的历史过程中确立的,具有充分的历史和法理依据。
3. The activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea date back to over 2,000 years ago. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea have been established in the long course of history, and are solidly grounded in history and law.

4. 中国和菲律宾隔海相望,交往密切,人民世代友好,原本不存在领土和海洋划界争议。然而,自20世纪70年代起,菲律宾开始非法侵占南沙群岛部分岛礁,由此制造了中菲南沙群岛部分岛礁领土问题。此外,随着国际海洋法的发展,两国在南海部分海域还出现了海洋划界争议。
4. As neighbors facing each other across the sea, China and the Philippines have closely engaged in exchanges, and the two peoples have enjoyed friendship over generations. There had been no territorial or maritime delimitation disputes between the two states until the 1970s when the Philippines started to invade and illegally occupy some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao, creating a territorial issue with China over these islands and reefs. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain maritime areas of the South China Sea.

5. 中菲两国尚未举行旨在解决南海有关争议的任何谈判,但确曾就妥善处理海上争议进行多次磋商,就通过谈判协商解决有关争议达成共识,并在双边文件中多次予以确认。双方还在中国和东盟国家2002年共同签署的《南海各方行为宣言》(以下简称《宣言》)中就通过谈判协商解决有关争议作出郑重承诺。
5. China and the Philippines have not yet had any negotiation designed to settle their relevant disputes in the South China Sea. However, the two countries did hold multiple rounds of consultations on the proper management of disputes at sea and reached consensus on resolving through negotiation and consultation the relevant disputes, which has been repeatedly reaffirmed in a number of bilateral documents. The two countries have also made solemn commitment to settling relevant disputes through negotiation and consultation in the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) that China and the ASEAN Member States jointly signed.

6. 2013年1月,菲律宾共和国时任政府违背上述共识和承诺,单方面提起南海仲裁案。菲律宾把原本不属于《联合国海洋法公约》(以下简称《公约》)调整的领土问题,以及被中国2006年依据《公约》第298条作出的排除性声明排除的海洋划界等争议加以曲解和包装,构成对《公约》争端解决机制的滥用。菲律宾妄图借此否定中国在南海的领土主权和海洋权益。
6. In January 2013, the then government of the Republic of the Philippines turned its back on the above-mentioned consensus and commitment, and unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. The Philippines deliberately mischaracterized and packaged the territorial issue which is not subject to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the maritime delimitation dispute which has been excluded from the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures by China’s 2006 optional exceptions declaration pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS. This act is a wanton abuse of the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. In doing so, the Philippines attempts to deny China’s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.

7. 本文件旨在还原中菲南海有关争议的事实真相,重申中国在南海问题上的一贯立场和政策,溯本清源,以正视听。
7. This paper aims to clarify the facts and tell the truth behind the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea, and to reaffirm China’s consistent position and policy on the South China Sea issue, in order to get to the root of the issue and set the record straight.

一、南海诸岛是中国固有领土
I. Nanhai Zhudao are China’s Inherent Territory

(一)中国对南海诸岛的主权是历史上确立的
i. China’s sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history

8. 中国人民自古以来在南海诸岛和相关海域生活和从事生产活动。中国最早发现、命名和开发利用南海诸岛及相关海域,最早并持续、和平、有效地对南海诸岛及相关海域行使主权和管辖,确立了对南海诸岛的主权和在南海的相关权益。
8. The Chinese people have since ancient times lived and engaged in production activities on Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them, thus establishing sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and the relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea.

9. 早在公元前2世纪的西汉时期,中国人民就在南海航行,并在长期实践中发现了南海诸岛。
9. As early as the 2nd century BCE in the Western Han Dynasty, the Chinese people sailed in the South China Sea and discovered Nanhai Zhudao in the long course of activities.

10. 中国历史古籍,例如东汉的《异物志》、三国时期的《扶南传》、宋代的《梦粱录》和《岭外代答》、元代的《岛夷志略》、明代的《东西洋考》和《顺风相送》、清代的《指南正法》和《海国闻见录》等,不仅记载了中国人民在南海的活动情况,而且记录了南海诸岛的地理位置和地貌特征、南海的水文和气象特点,以很多生动形象的名称为南海诸岛命名,如“涨海崎头”、“珊瑚洲”、“九乳螺洲”、“石塘”、“千里石塘”、“万里石塘”、“长沙”、“千里长沙”、“万里长沙”等。
10. A lot of Chinese historical literatures chronicle the activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea. These books include, among others, Yi Wu Zhi (An Account of Strange Things) published in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), Fu Nan Zhuan (An Account of Fu Nan) during the period of the Three Kingdoms (220-280), Meng Liang Lu (Record of a Daydreamer) and Ling Wai Dai Da (Notes for the Land beyond the Passes) in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), Dao Yi Zhi Lüe (A Brief Account of the Islands) in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Dong Xi Yang Kao (Studies on the Oceans East and West) and Shun Feng Xiang Song (Fair Winds for Escort) in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and Zhi Nan Zheng Fa (Compass Directions) and Hai Guo Wen Jian Lu (Records of Things Seen and Heard about the Coastal Regions) in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). These books also record the geographical locations and geomorphologic characteristics of Nanhai Zhudao as well as hydrographical and meteorological conditions of the South China Sea. These books record vividly descriptive names the Chinese people gave to Nanhai Zhudao, such as “Zhanghaiqitou” (twisted atolls on the rising sea), “Shanhuzhou” (coral cays), “Jiuruluozhou” (nine isles of cowry), “Shitang” (rocky reefs), “Qianlishitang” (thousand-li rocky reefs), “Wanlishitang” (ten thousand-li rocky reefs), “Changsha” (long sand cays), “Qianlichangsha” (thousand-li sand cays), and “Wanlichangsha” (ten thousand-li sand cays).

11. 中国渔民在开发利用南海的历史过程中还形成一套相对固定的南海诸岛命名体系:如将岛和沙洲称为“峙”,将礁称为“铲”、“线”、“沙”,将环礁称为“匡”、“圈”、“塘”,将暗沙称为“沙排”等。明清时期形成的《更路簿》是中国渔民往来于中国大陆沿海地区和南海诸岛之间的航海指南,以多种版本的手抄本流传并沿用至今;记录了中国人民在南海诸岛的生活和生产开发活动,记载了中国渔民对南海诸岛的命名。其中对南沙群岛岛、礁、滩、沙的命名至少有70余处,有的用罗盘方位命名,如丑未(渚碧礁)、东头乙辛(蓬勃暗沙);有的用特产命名,如赤瓜线(赤瓜礁)、墨瓜线(南屏礁);有的用岛礁形状命名,如鸟串(仙娥礁)、双担(信义礁);有的用某种实物命名,如锅盖峙(安波沙洲)、秤钩峙(景宏岛);有的以水道命名,如六门沙(六门礁)。
11. The Chinese fishermen have developed a relatively fixed naming system for the various components of Nanhai Zhudao in the long process of exploration and exploitation of the South China Sea. Under this system, islands and shoals have become known as “Zhi”; reefs “Chan”, “Xian”, or “Sha”; atolls “Kuang”, “Quan” or “Tang”; and banks “Shapai”. Geng Lu Bu (Manual of Sea Routes), a kind of navigation guidebook for Chinese fishermen’s journeys between the coastal regions of China’s mainland and Nanhai Zhudao, came into being and circulation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and has been handed down in various editions and versions of handwritten copies and is still in use even today. It shows that the Chinese people lived and carried out production activities on, and how they named Nanhai Zhudao. Geng Lu Bu records names for at least 70 islands, reefs, shoals and cays of Nansha Qundao. Some were named after compass directions in Chinese renditions, such as Chouwei (Zhubi Jiao) and Dongtou Yixin (Pengbo Ansha); some were named after local aquatic products in the surrounding waters such as Chigua Xian (Chigua Jiao, “chigua” means “red sea cucumber”) and Mogua Xian (Nanping Jiao, “mogua” means “black sea cucumber”); some were named after their shapes, such as Niaochuan (Xian’e Jiao, “niaochuan” means “bird string”) and Shuangdan (Xinyi Jiao, “shuangdan” means “shoulder poles”); some were named after physical objects, such as Guogai Zhi (Anbo Shazhou, “guogai” means “pot cover”) and Chenggou Zhi (Jinghong Dao, “chenggou” means “steelyard hook”); still some were named after waterways such as Liumen Sha (Liumen Jiao, “liumen” means “six doorways”).

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