双语:西藏和平解放与繁荣发展 PDF 下载

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西藏和平解放与繁荣发展
Tibet Since 1951: Liberation, Development and Prosperity

中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
二〇二一年五月·北京
The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
May 2021

前言
Foreword

一、和平解放前的西藏
I. Tibet Before the Peaceful Liberation

二、实现和平解放
II. Peaceful Liberation

三、社会制度的历史跨越
III. Historic Changes in Society

四、各项事业加快发展
IV. Rapid Development of Various Undertakings

五、脱贫攻坚全面胜利
V. A Complete Victory over Poverty

六、优秀传统文化得到保护和发展
VI. Protection and Development of Traditional Culture

七、民族宗教工作成效显著
VII. Remarkable Results in Ethnic and Religious Work

八、生态安全屏障日益坚实
VIII. Solid Environmental Safety Barriers

九、坚定维护国家统一和社会稳定
IX. Resolutely Safeguarding National Unity and Social Stability

十、新时代新征程
X. Embarking on a New Journey in the New Era

结束语
Conclusion

 

 

前言
Foreword

1951年5月23日,《中央人民政府和西藏地方政府关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》(简称《十七条协议》)的签订,宣告西藏和平解放。从此,西藏人民永远摆脱了帝国主义的侵略和羁绊,与全国各族人民一道在祖国大家庭里走上了团结、进步、发展的光明大道。
On May 23, 1951, the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (the 17-Article Agreement) was signed. The people of Tibet broke free from the fetters of invading imperialism for good, embarking on a bright road of unity, progress and development with all the other ethnic groups in China.

以和平解放为起点,西藏各族人民在中国共产党的坚强领导下团结奋进,贯彻执行《十七条协议》,有力维护了国家主权、祖国统一和领土完整;进行民主改革,彻底废除了政教合一的封建农奴制,百万农奴翻身解放、当家作主,各族人民的根本利益得到保障;建立社会主义制度,实行民族区域自治,西藏社会制度实现了历史性跨越;扎实推进改革开放和现代化建设,极大解放和发展了社会生产力,极大改善了西藏各族人民生产生活条件。进入新时代,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,在全国人民大力支持下,西藏脱贫攻坚全面胜利,社会大局更加稳定、经济文化更加繁荣、生态环境更加良好、人民生活更加幸福,一个崭新的社会主义新西藏呈现在世人面前。
Following the peaceful liberation, all the ethnic peoples of Tibet, united under the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), have worked together in implementing the 17-Article Agreement, and stood firm in safeguarding national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity. Together, they have:

• carried out democratic reform to abolish Tibet’s feudal theocratic serfdom, liberating millions of serfs and ensuring the fundamental interests of all ethnic groups in Tibet;

• established the socialist system and implemented regional ethnic autonomy in Tibet, bringing historic changes to Tibetan society; and

• pressed ahead with reform, opening up, and modernization, significantly unleashing the productive potential and improving the lives and working conditions of the people in Tibet.

In the new era, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core and with the vigorous support of the whole country, Tibet has eradicated extreme poverty. Enjoying a stable social environment, economic and cultural prosperity, and a sound eco-environment, the people now lead better lives and live in contentment. A brand new socialist Tibet has taken shape.

 

值此西藏和平解放70周年之际,回顾历史进程、展示伟大成就,全面立体真实展现社会主义新西藏,有助于以事实驳斥境外一些势力散布的种种谎言,有助于国际社会正确认识西藏翻天覆地的历史巨变。
On the occasion of the 70th anniversary of Tibet’s peaceful liberation, we are publishing this white paper to review Tibet’s history and achievements, and present a true and panoramic picture of the new socialist Tibet. This will help to counter the propaganda spread by a number of Western countries and their allies and provide the international community with a balanced account of the enormous transformation that has taken place in Tibet.

一、和平解放前的西藏
I. Tibet Before the Peaceful Liberation

西藏自古就是中国神圣领土不可分割的一部分,是中国藏族主要聚居区之一。近代以来,以英国为首的帝国主义势力一手制造了所谓的“西藏独立”问题,严重破坏了中国的主权和领土完整。
Tibet has been an integral part of Chinese territory since ancient times, and one of the main Tibetan-inhabited areas in China. In the aftermath of the Opium Wars in the middle of the 19th century, the UK-led imperialist powers began to cultivate the idea of “Tibet independence”, intentionally undermining China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

——西藏自古是中国不可分割的一部分
–Tibet has been an inseparable part of China since ancient times.

中国是一个历史悠久的统一的多民族国家,中华民族是一个命运共同体。西藏是各民族共同开发的,西藏历史是各民族共同书写的,藏族和其他各民族在政治经济文化上的交流贯穿了西藏历史发展始终,藏族就是在各民族交往交流交融中形成发展起来的。大量考古和学术研究表明,早在远古时期,居住在西藏高原的藏族先民就与汉族和其他兄弟民族有着血缘、语言和文化上的密切联系。公元7世纪在西藏建立的吐蕃地方政权,为中国西南边疆开发作出了重要贡献。
China is a unified multiethnic country with a long history. The Chinese nation is a community of shared future. Tibet has developed through the combined efforts of all the ethnic groups in China, and these are the peoples who have created its history. The political, economic and cultural exchanges between Tibetans and other ethnic groups throughout history have had an important bearing on the development of the Tibetan people as an ethnic group. Abundant archeological and academic research shows that in times of remote antiquity, the ancestral people inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau had close ties with the Han and other ethnic groups in terms of blood, language, and culture. The Tubo Kingdom established in Tibet in the 7th century contributed significantly to the exploration of China’s southwestern borders.

元朝(1271-1368年)中央政府实现了对西藏地方的有效管辖和治理。元朝设立总制院(后称宣政院),直接管理西藏地方事务,在西藏清查户口、设置驿站、征收赋税、驻扎军队、任命官员,并将元朝刑法、历法颁行西藏。明朝(1368-1644年)中央政府在西藏实施多封众建,给西藏各地政教首领封以“法王”“王”“灌顶国师”等名号,设置乌思藏、朵甘两个“卫指挥使司”和“俄力思军民元帅府”,分别管理卫藏、昌都等地和阿里地区的军政事务。清朝(1644-1911年)中央政府对西藏地方的管理十分完善,先后册封藏传佛教格鲁派首领五世达赖和五世班禅,正式确立达赖喇嘛与班禅额尔德尼的封号和政治、宗教地位,历世达赖、班禅均须中央政府册封遂成定制。设驻藏大臣,代表中央先后监督、共管西藏军政事务,总计派遣驻藏大臣百余人。1751年,乾隆皇帝授命七世达赖喇嘛与驻藏大臣共同管理西藏地方政教事务。1793年,清朝政府在驱除廓尔喀入侵势力之后整顿西藏地方秩序,颁布《钦定藏内善后章程二十九条》,完善中央政府治理西藏地方的多项制度,明确规定达赖等大活佛转世须经金瓶掣签认定,并报中央政府批准。此后清代五位达赖喇嘛中,三位经金瓶掣签认定,其余两位经中央政府特批免于金瓶掣签。
In the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the central government exercised jurisdiction and governance over Tibet. It established the Supreme Control Commission of Buddhism (later renamed the Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs) to directly manage local affairs in the region, conducting censuses, setting up courier stations, collecting taxes, stationing troops and appointing officials. It also issued and enacted the Yuan criminal law and calendar in Tibet.

The central government of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) implemented a policy of multiple enfeoffment, conferring honorific titles such as “Prince”, “Prince of Dharma”, and “National Master in Tantrism” on political and religious leaders in various parts of Tibet. It established the U-Tsang and Do-kham regional military commissions and the Ngari Commanding Tribal Office to manage military and political affairs in U-Tsang, Qamdo and Ngari respectively.

During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the central government exercised sound governance over Tibet. It granted honorific titles to the leaders of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism – the 5th Dalai Lama and the 5th Panchen Lama – officially establishing the titles of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni and their political and religious status in Tibet. From then on, it became an established convention that the central government conferred the titles of Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni. The Qing government began to station Grand Ministers Resident in Tibet to supervise and jointly manage local military and political affairs on behalf of the central authorities; in total it appointed more than 100 such ministers. In 1751, Qing Emperor Qianlong authorized the 7th Dalai Lama to jointly manage local political and religious affairs with the Grand Minister Resident in Tibet. In 1793, after dispelling Gurkha invaders, the Qing government restored order in Tibet and promulgated the Imperially Approved Ordinance for Better Governance of Tibet (the 29-Article Ordinance), improving several of the systems by which the central government administered Tibet. The ordinance stipulated that the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama and other grand Living Buddhas had to follow the procedure of “drawing lots from the golden urn”, and the selected candidate would be subject to approval by the central government of China. Observing the ordinance, three of the five Dalai Lamas in the Qing Dynasty were selected and approved in accordance with this procedure, and the other two were exempted from the procedure with special approval from the central government.

 

清朝灭亡后,中华民国继续对西藏实施主权管辖。1912年,中华民国第一部宪法《中华民国临时约法》明确规定中央对西藏的主权,宣布“西藏是中华民国领土的一部分”,提出“合汉、满、蒙、回、藏诸族为一人,实行五族共和”。同年7月,民国政府设蒙藏事务局。1929年,南京国民政府设立蒙藏委员会,管理蒙藏事务。1940年,国民政府在拉萨设蒙藏委员会驻藏办事处,作为中央政府在西藏地方的常设机构。民国时期官方和民间出版机构出版的世界地图和中国地图,均将西藏列为中国领土。虽然民国期间军阀混战,内乱频仍,国家孱弱,但中央政府仍坚定地维护了国家在西藏的主权。十四世达赖、十世班禅继续接受了中央政府的册封。国际上没有一个国家和政府承认过“西藏独立”。
After the downfall of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China (ROC) continued to exercise sovereignty over Tibet. In 1912, the ROC issued its first constitution – the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, which reaffirmed the central government’s sovereignty over Tibet. It clearly stipulated that “Tibet is a part of the territory of the ROC”, and stated that “the Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui and Tibetan peoples are of one nation, and are to run the Republic together.” In July, the government set up the Bureau of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs. The Nanjing National Government set up the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs in 1929 to act in the same capacity. In 1940, the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs opened an office in Lhasa as the permanent organ representing the central government in Tibet. Under the ROC, Tibet was clearly identified as Chinese territory in world maps and maps of China issued by government and non-government publishers. The central government of the ROC safeguarded the nation’s sovereignty over Tibet in spite of frequent civil wars among warlords and a weak state, and following the tradition by conferring the official titles on the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama. No country or government in the world has ever acknowledged the “independence of Tibet”.

——所谓“西藏独立”问题是近代帝国主义侵略中国的产物
– “Tibetan independence” was a product of imperialist aggression against China in modern times.

自18世纪以来,西方一些势力就通过“探险”“考察”等手段觊觎我西藏。19世纪末,帝国主义掀起瓜分中国的狂潮,英国侵略势力趁机染指西藏。鸦片战争后,英国加紧从英属印度侵略西藏,先后于1888年、1903年两次武装入侵,遭到当地军民坚决抵抗。在武装侵略未能达到目的后,又转而在西藏培植亲帝分裂势力,策划、煽动“西藏独立”。1907年,英俄秘密签订《西藏协定》,在中国政府不知情的情况下,第一次在国际文件中将中国对西藏地方的主权篡改为“宗主权”。1913年,英国策划召开西姆拉会议,唆使西藏地方代表首次提出“西藏独立”的无理要求,当即遭到中国政府代表严词拒绝。这便是“西藏独立”一词的首次出笼。1914年7月,中国政府代表拒绝在《西姆拉条约》上签字,并发表声明概不承认任何此类条约或文件,同时将该立场照会英国政府,西姆拉会议遂以失败告终。
Western attempts on Tibet began in the 18th century, pioneered by “adventurers” and “explorers” who made trips to the region. At the end of the 19th century, imperialist powers engaged in a fervent spree of carving up China, and the British aggressors took the opportunity to invade Tibet. British troops invaded Tibet twice in 1888 and 1903 and met with stubborn resistance from the Tibetan army and civilians. Its invasion plans thwarted, Britain began to cultivate pro-imperialist separatists in Tibet, devising activities to separate Tibet from China and championing “Tibet independence”. In 1907, Britain and Russia signed the Convention Between Great Britain and Russia on Tibet, without the Chinese government’s knowledge, changing China’s sovereignty over Tibet into “suzerainty” in an international document for the first time. In 1913, the British government engineered the Simla Conference to instigate the Tibetan representative to raise the issue of “Tibetan independence”, which was immediately rejected by the representative of the Chinese government. This was the first time the concept had been made public. In July 1914, the representative of the Chinese government refused to sign the Simla Convention, and made a statement saying that the government of China refused to recognize any such agreement or document. The Chinese government also sent a note to the British government, reiterating its position. Thereupon, the conference collapsed.

1942年,西藏地方政府在英国代表支持下突然宣布成立“外交局”,公开进行“西藏独立”活动,因遭到全国人民和国民政府的反对而不得不改变原议。1947年,英国幕后策划邀请西藏派代表参加“泛亚洲会议”,在会场上悬挂的亚洲地图和万国旗中把西藏作为一个独立国家来对待,经中国代表团严正交涉,会议组织者不得不改正这种错误做法。中华人民共和国成立前后,帝国主义加快了与西藏亲帝分裂势力勾结的步伐,1949年7月8日,西藏地方政府以“防止共产党混迹西藏”为借口,下令将国民政府驻藏办事处人员及相关人员驱赶出西藏,制造了拉萨“七·八”事件。1949年11月,西藏地方政府决定派所谓的“亲善使团”赴美国、英国、印度、尼泊尔等国,寻求对“西藏独立”的政治支持和军事援助,加紧分裂国家的活动。1949年,美国人劳尔·汤姆斯(Lowell Thomas)以哥伦比亚广播公司“无线电评论员”名义在西藏图谋“华盛顿给西藏以可能的援助”,并在美国报刊上宣称“美国已准备承认西藏为独立自由”的国家。1950年上半年,一批美国枪支弹药经由加尔各答进入西藏,用以对抗中国人民解放军进藏。
In 1942, the local government of Tibet, with the support of the British representative, suddenly announced the establishment of a “foreign affairs bureau” and began to openly engage in “independence” activities. With opposition from the Chinese people and the national government, the local government of Tibet had no choice but to withdraw its decision. In 1947, Britain conspired behind the scenes to invite Tibetan representatives to attend the Asian Relations Conference, and even identified Tibet as an independent country on the map of Asia hung in the conference hall and in the array of national flags. The organizers were forced to rectify this after the Chinese delegation made a stern protest.

Around the time of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, imperialists accelerated their collusion with pro-imperialist separatists in Tibet. On July 8, 1949, the local government of Tibet issued an order to expel officials of the Tibet Office of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs on the pretext of “prohibiting Communists from staying in Tibet”. In November 1949, the local government of Tibet decided to dispatch a “goodwill mission” to the United States, Britain, India, Nepal and a number of other countries, seeking political and military support for “independence” and making it obvious that it was intensifying separatist activities. In 1949, the American Lowell Thomas crossed Tibet in the guise of a “radio commentator” of the Columbia Broadcasting System to explore the “possibility of aid that Washington could give Tibet”. He wrote in a US newspaper: “The United States is ready to recognize Tibet as an independent and free country.” In the first half of 1950, American weaponry was shipped into Tibet through Calcutta in order to help resist the People’s Liberation Army’s entry into Tibet.

历史事实清楚地证明,所谓“西藏独立”问题完全是帝国主义侵略中国的产物,驱逐帝国主义势力出西藏是中国人民维护祖国统一的必然要求。
Historical facts clearly demonstrate that “Tibetan independence” was no more than a product of imperialist aggression against China. Driving imperialist forces out of Tibet was the precondition for the Chinese people to safeguard national unification.

——解放西藏是各族人民的热切期盼
– Liberating Tibet was the shared aspiration of all ethnic groups in Tibet.

1949年9月2日,中国共产党授权新华社发表题为《决不容许外国侵略者吞并中国的领土——西藏》的社论,指出“西藏是中国的领土,绝不容许任何外国侵略;西藏人民是中国人民的一个不可分离的组成部分,绝不容许任何外国分割。这是中国人民、中国共产党和中国人民解放军的坚定不移的方针”。社论发表后,西藏各界纷纷响应和拥护,盼望解放军早日进藏。就在新中国成立当天,十世班禅致电中央政府:“速发义师,解放西藏,驱逐帝国主义势力。”12月2日,原西藏摄政五世热振活佛的近侍益西楚臣到西宁,向人民解放军控诉帝国主义破坏西藏内部团结的罪行,请求迅速解放西藏。当时在西藏颇有声望的藏族学者喜饶嘉措也在西安发表谈话,谴责帝国主义策划拉萨当局进行所谓“独立”的阴谋。1950年初,藏族农牧民、青年、妇女和民主人士代表百余人在刚刚解放的兰州集会,要求解放西藏。
On September 2, 1949, Xinhua News Agency, with authorization from the CPC, published an editorial under the headline, “Foreign Aggressors Are Resolutely Not Allowed to Annex China’s Territory – Tibet”. The editorial pointed out, “Tibet is part of the Chinese territory; no foreign aggression is allowed. The Tibetan people are an inseparable part of the Chinese nation, and any attempt to divide them from China will be doomed. This is a consistent policy of the Chinese people, the CPC and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).”

All sectors of society of Tibet quickly responded and expressed support for the editorial and the hope that the PLA would enter Tibet as soon as possible. On October 1, 1949, the day the PRC was founded, the 10th Panchen Lama sent a telegram to the central government: “Please send troops to liberate Tibet and expel the imperialists as soon as possible.”

On December 2, Yeshe Tsultrim, an aide of the 5th Regent Reting Rinpoche, arrived in Xining, Qinghai Province, to lodge complaints with the PLA about the imperialists destroying the internal unity of Tibet, and urged the PLA to liberate Tibet as soon as possible.

Sherab Gyatso, a prominent Tibetan scholar, delivered a talk in Xi’an, denouncing an imperialist conspiracy through which Lhasa authorities would seek “independence”. In early 1950, over 100 Tibetan people, including farmers and herdsmen, young people, women and democratic representatives, assembled in Lanzhou in Gansu Province, which had been liberated not long before, and urged the PLA to liberate Tibet.

 

毛泽东主席和朱德总司令在复电十世班禅时指出:“西藏人民是爱祖国而反对外国侵略的,他们不满意国民党反动政府的政策,而愿意成为统一的富强的各民族平等合作的新中国大家庭的一分子。中央人民政府和中国人民解放军必能满足西藏人民的这个愿望。”在中央人民政府的英明决策和全国各族人民的共同企盼下,解放西藏的伟大事业正式开启。
In their reply to the 10th Panchen Lama, Mao Zedong and Zhu De stated, “The Tibetan people love the motherland and stand against foreign aggression. They are discontent with the policies of the reactionary Kuomintang government, and want to be part of the big family of a unified New China, where all ethnic groups are equal and work together for prosperity. The Central People’s Government and the Chinese PLA will certainly comply with this wish of the Tibetan people.” With determined support from the Central People’s Government, Tibet saw the hope of a peaceful liberation anticipated by the whole of China.

 

二、实现和平解放
II. Peaceful Liberation

为了应对国际形势的复杂变化和西藏地方的严峻局势,满足西藏人民要求早日解放的愿望,1949年12月,毛泽东主席在前往苏联访问、途经满洲里时,写信给中共中央,作出了“进军西藏宜早不宜迟”的战略决策。
To address the complex and changing international landscape and the difficult situation in Tibet, and to satisfy the Tibetan people’s wish for liberation as soon as possible, Mao Zedong wrote a letter to the CPC Central Committee while in Manzhouli on his way to the Soviet Union for a visit in December 1949. In the letter, Mao made the strategic decision that “it is better for the PLA to enter Tibet sooner rather than later.”

——昌都战役的胜利,为西藏和平解放创造条件
– The victory in the Qamdo Battle created the conditions for the peaceful liberation of Tibet.

根据进藏交通状况和西藏的民族、宗教特点,毛泽东主席提出“政治解决优先”和解放西藏“不应操之过急”的基本方针,中央人民政府随后组织开展了大量的政治争取工作,先后多次派代表团或代表赴西藏进行劝和,争取能像解放北平、绥远、新疆等地一样实现西藏和平解放。1950年2月,西北局派出藏族干部张竞成携带青海省人民政府副主席廖汉生致十四世达赖和摄政达扎·阿旺松饶的书信等赴藏联络劝和。3月,在中共中央批准和西南局组织下,与西藏政教界有着良好关系的汉族高僧志清法师由成都启程赴藏。7月,以塔尔寺当才活佛为团长的青海寺院赴藏劝和团从西宁出发。青海省人民政府副主席、著名藏族学者喜饶嘉措向十四世达赖和藏族同胞发表广播讲话,呼吁西藏地方政府“迅速派遣全权代表赴京进行和平协商”。同月,西康省甘孜白利寺五世格达活佛一行赴藏。
Considering the difficulties of transport and the ethnic and religious characteristics of Tibet, Mao Zedong proposed two basic principles – to prioritize a political settlement, and to avoid undue haste in liberating Tibet. The Central People’s Government organized and carried out a lot of work in political persuasion, sending delegates or delegations to Tibet for mediation on several occasions in order to achieve peaceful liberation, a strategy with proven success for Beiping (Beijing), Suiyuan and Xinjiang. In February 1950, the Northwest Bureau of the CPC Central Committee sent a Tibetan official named Zhang Jingcheng to Tibet with a letter from Liao Hansheng, then vice chairman of the Qinghai Provincial People’s Government, directed to the 14th Dalai Lama and Regent Taktra Ngawang Sungrab. In March, an eminent Han monk, Master Zhiqing, who had good contacts in the political and religious circles of Tibet, set out for Tibet from Chengdu, with the approval of the CPC Central Committee and the support of the Southwest Bureau. In July, a delegation composed of members from Qinghai temples and monasteries, led by Taktser Rinpoche of Kumbum Monastery, set out from Xining. Sherab Gyatso, vice chairman of the Qinghai Provincial People’s Government and a leading Tibetan scholar, delivered a radio talk, calling on the local government of Tibet to “quickly dispatch plenipotentiary representatives to Beijing for peace talks”. Also in this month, a delegation including the 5th Gedar Tulku of Beri Monastery in Garze, Xikang, went to Tibet.

然而,这一系列劝和促谈活动,受到帝国主义侵略势力和西藏亲帝分裂分子的重重阻挠。与此同时,西藏上层分裂分子与历史发展潮流背道而驰,不顾地方经济凋敝而扩大军备、调遣藏军,妄图以武力抵抗人民解放军,还勾结帝国主义势力,建立电台、散布谣言,人为制造民族隔阂,派出所谓“亲善使团”寻求一些国家对“西藏独立”的支持。
However, these mediation activities suffered obstruction from Western imperialists and pro-imperialist separatists in Tibet. In the meantime, in spite of local economic decline, the separatists from the upper classes of Tibet expanded the Tibetan army and dispatched troops in an attempt to halt the PLA’s advance. They also colluded with their imperialist supporters to set up radio stations, spread rumors to deepen the rifts among the Han and local people, and dispatched a “goodwill mission” to seek support from other countries.

在这种情况下,中共中央和毛泽东主席意识到解放西藏已经迫在眉睫。西南局和西北局在中央人民政府的统一部署下,迅速做好进军西藏的准备。进藏部队按照“政治重于军事,补给重于战斗”原则,根据中央“多路向心进兵”部署,以十八军为主力的人民解放军分四路向西藏进军,并于1950年10月取得昌都战役的胜利。昌都解放后,召开了昌都地区第一次人民代表会议,选举产生了昌都地区人民解放委员会,成立了昌都地区僧俗人民争取和平解放西藏工作委员会。昌都战役的胜利为促进西藏和平解放创造了条件。中央人民政府和毛泽东主席始终没有放弃和平解放西藏的努力,在昌都战役进行中仍催促西藏地方政府尽快派人来京。
In the circumstances, Mao Zedong and the CPC Central Committee realized that the liberation of Tibet was a matter of extreme urgency. Under the unified deployment of the Central People’s Government, the southwest and northwest bureaux of the CPC Central Committee issued a prompt order for troops to stand by.

The PLA troops followed the principles that military operations should only be carried out when political persuasion failed and the troops had sufficient supplies to fight a battle. Guided by the central authorities’ strategy of outflanking the enemy from various directions, the PLA, with the 18th army as the major force, advanced into Tibet from four directions and won the Battle of Qamdo in October, 1950.

After the victory, the First People’s Congress of Qamdo was held. The Qamdo People’s Liberation Committee was elected and a working committee for the peaceful liberation of Tibet was founded, composed of both ecclesiastical and secular representatives. The battle created the conditions for the peaceful liberation of Tibet. The Central People’s Government and Chairman Mao Zedong had never given up their efforts to this end. Even during the battle, Mao Zedong urged that a local Tibetan delegation should come to Beijing as soon as possible.

 

——签订《十七条协议》,西藏实现和平解放
– Signing the 17-Article Agreement marked the liberation of Tibet.

昌都战役的胜利使西藏地方政府的爱国进步力量进一步增强,西藏地方政局朝着有利于和平解放的趋势发展。1951年2月,西藏地方政府“官员会议”决定正式派出代表到北京同中央人民政府和谈。十四世达赖在致中央人民政府的信中也表达了和平谈判的愿望。4月29日,中央人民政府和西藏地方政府关于和平解放西藏的谈判正式开始。双方经过认真协商和充分讨论,最终就西藏和平解放一系列问题达成协议,于5月23日在北京签订了《中央人民政府和西藏地方政府关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》(简称《十七条协议》),宣告西藏和平解放。
The victory at Qamdo gave the upper hand to the patriotic and progressive forces within the local government of Tibet, and the political situation moved in the direction of peaceful liberation. In February 1951, an “officials’ meeting” of the local government of Tibet decided to send a formal delegation to Beijing to conduct peace negotiations with the Central People’s Government. The 14th Dalai Lama expressed his wish for peace talks in a letter to the Central People’s Government. On April 29, the Central People’s Government and the local government of Tibet began official negotiations for the peaceful liberation. After serious consultations and thorough discussions, they signed the 17-Article Agreement in Beijing on May 23.

《十七条协议》明确:“西藏人民团结起来,驱逐帝国主义侵略势力出西藏,西藏人民回到中华人民共和国祖国大家庭中来”“人民解放军进入西藏,巩固国防”“中央人民政府统一处理西藏地区的一切涉外事宜”“西藏地方政府积极协助人民解放军进入西藏,巩固国防”“在中央人民政府统一领导之下,西藏人民有实行民族区域自治的权利”“尊重西藏人民的宗教信仰和风俗习惯”。《十七条协议》明确,对于达赖喇嘛和班禅额尔德尼的固有地位及职权,中央亦不予变更;原西藏地方政府中的各级官员,可以照常供职。《十七条协议》的签订,标志着中国大陆实现了完全解放,新中国在西藏的主权地位得到完整体现,团结了各方力量,维护了西藏社会大局稳定,保障了中国共产党民族、宗教、经济、文化政策在西藏的实行,为西藏社会发展改革打下了坚实的政治基础。
The 17-Article Agreement stipulates:

• The people of Tibet shall unite and drive out aggressive imperialist forces; they will return to the family of the People’s Republic of China.

• The PLA troops shall enter Tibet to consolidate national defense.

• All foreign-related affairs of Tibet shall be dealt with by the Central People’s Government on a centralized basis.

• The local government of Tibet shall actively assist the PLA to enter Tibet and consolidate the national defense.

• The Tibetan people shall have the right of regional ethnic autonomy under the unified leadership of the Central People’s Government.

• The religious beliefs and customs of the Tibetan people shall be respected.

The agreement also clarified that the central authorities would not alter the established status, functions and powers of the Dalai Lama and Panchen Erdeni, and that former officials of all ranks in the local government of Tibet could continue to hold office. The signing of the 17-Article Agreement symbolized the final liberation of all the Chinese mainland, embodied the full sovereignty of the People’s Republic in Tibet, united all forces to safeguard overall social stability, ensured the enforcement of the CPC’s ethnic, religious, economic and cultural policies, and laid a solid political foundation for social development and reform in Tibet.

《十七条协议》的签订,得到全国各族各界的拥护。1951年5月28日,《人民日报》用汉藏两种文字对外公布协议全文,同时发表题为《拥护关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》的社论,指出这是西藏人民从黑暗和痛苦走向光明和幸福的第一步。北京、西安、重庆、成都,以及新疆、内蒙古等地各族群众集会游行,热烈庆祝《十七条协议》的签订。
The 17-Article Agreement gained the support of all ethnic groups and people from all walks of life across the country. On May 28, 1951, the People’s Daily published in full the agreement in both Chinese and Tibetan accompanied by an editorial entitled “Supporting the Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet”. The article made the point that this was the first step for the Tibetan people out of a dark and miserable past and toward a bright and happy future. Assemblies and processions were held in Beijing, Xi’an, Chongqing, Chengdu, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia to celebrate the signing of the agreement.

同日,十世班禅及班禅堪布会议厅全体人员发表声明拥护协议,表示“我们今后坚决拥护毛主席的领导,拥护中央人民政府和中国共产党的领导”。10月24日,十四世达赖以西藏地方政府和他个人名义,向中央人民政府致电拥护协议,表示“中央人民政府毛主席:今年西藏地方政府特派全权代表噶伦阿沛等五人于1951年4月底抵达北京,与中央人民政府指定的全权代表进行和谈。双方代表在友好基础上已于1951年5月23日签订了关于和平解放西藏办法的协议。西藏地方政府及藏族僧俗人民一致拥护,并在毛主席及中央人民政府领导下积极协助人民解放军进藏部队巩固国防,驱逐帝国主义势力出西藏,保护祖国领土主权的统一”。
On the same day, the 10th Panchen Lama and the Panchen Kampus Assembly made a statement in support of the agreement, declaring, “We will be the staunch supporters of Chairman Mao’s leadership, and of the leadership of the Central People’s Government and the CPC.” On October 24, the 14th Dalai Lama, on behalf of the local government of Tibet and himself, sent a telegram to the Central People’s Government to express his support for the agreement, which read, “Chairman Mao of the Central People’s Government: This year the local government of Tibet sent five delegates with full authority, headed by Kalon Ngapoi, to Beijing in late April 1951 to conduct peace talks with delegates with full authority appointed by the Central People’s Government. On the basis of friendship, the delegates of the two sides signed on May 23, 1951 the Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet. The local government of Tibet as well as the ecclesiastical and secular people unanimously support this agreement, and, under the leadership of Chairman Mao and the Central People’s Government, will actively assist the PLA troops entering Tibet to consolidate national defense, ousting imperialist influences from Tibet and safeguarding the unification of the territory and the sovereignty of the motherland.”

 

——落实《十七条协议》,维护国家主权和促进社会发展
– Implementing the 17-Article Agreement to safeguard national sovereignty and promote social development

按照《十七条协议》,从1951年9月到1952年6月,人民解放军各路进藏部队先后到达拉萨,进驻(抵)太昭、江孜、日喀则、山南隆子宗、亚东、察隅、改则等地,完成进军西藏任务,结束了西藏4000多公里边境线上长期有边无防的历史。
In line with the 17-Article Agreement and between September 1951 and June 1952, the PLA troops in Tibet reached Lhasa and were dispatched to Gyamda, Gyangze, Xigaze, Lhunze Dzong, Yadong, Zayu and Gerze. For the first time in history Tibet’s 4,000-km border was fully and properly defended.

1952年9月6日,中央人民政府驻西藏代表外事帮办办公室成立,在中央人民政府外交部领导下,具体处理西藏地方一切涉外事宜。1954年4月29日,中印双方在京签订《关于中国西藏地方和印度之间的通商和交通协定》,同时互换照会,取消印度继承的英国侵略西藏遗留下来的特权。1956年9月20日,中国和尼泊尔签订《中华人民共和国和尼泊尔王国保持友好关系以及关于中国西藏地方和尼泊尔之间的通商和交通的协定》,取消了尼泊尔在西藏的特权。至此,完全实现了由中央政府统一处理西藏地区的一切涉外事宜。
On September 6, 1952, the foreign affairs office of the Central People’s Government representative stationed in Tibet was set up, taking responsibility for all the foreign-related affairs of Tibet under the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Central People’s Government. On April 29, 1954, in Beijing, China and India signed the Agreement on Trade and Intercourse Between the Tibet Region of China and India and exchanged diplomatic notes, abolishing the privileges India had inherited from the British invaders. On September 20, 1956, China and Nepal signed the Agreement on Maintaining Friendly Relations Between the People’s Republic of China and the Kingdom of Nepal and on Trade and Intercourse Between the Tibet Region of China and Nepal, which cancelled Nepal’s privileges in Tibet. Henceforth, all the foreign-related affairs of Tibet would be dealt with by the Central People’s Government on a centralized basis.

中央人民政府作出“进军西藏,不吃地方”及“精打细算,生产自给”等指示,提出“保障军需,兼顾民用”“统一采购,紧缩开支”等一系列财经政策。人民解放军进驻拉萨后,先后建立“七一农场”“八一农场”开垦生产,依靠自身站稳脚跟。同时从羊毛出口贸易着手,解决军需民用问题。
The Central People’s Government issued a series of specific instructions and policies. Troops would be stationed in Tibet but would not depend on the local people for their grain supplies. They would operate according to a strict budget and produce what they needed. Food supplies would be guaranteed for the army itself while taking into consideration civilian needs. There would be unified procurement and economy would be practiced. Soon after the PLA troops entered Lhasa, they set up the Qiyi and Bayi Farms, reclaiming land to provide for themselves. They also used the revenues from export of wool to support the PLA and the local people.

在中央人民政府推动下,1952年4月,十世班禅自青海返回西藏,与十四世达赖友好会晤。1953年,十四世达赖和十世班禅当选为中国佛教协会名誉会长,功德林活佛被选为副会长。1954年9月,十四世达赖、十世班禅联袂赴京参加新中国第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议,十四世达赖当选全国人大常委会副委员长。12月25日,十世班禅在全国政协二届一次会议上,被选为全国政协副主席。1952年至1957年,中央政府组织了13批1000多人次到其他省市参观、访问,成员包括西藏各地僧俗官员、僧人、青年和妇女,增进了西藏与其他省市的联系和各民族团结。
Encouraged by the Central People’s Government, the 10th Panchen Lama returned to Lhasa from Qinghai Province to have an amicable meeting with the 14th Dalai Lama in April 1952. In 1953, the Dalai and Panchen lamas were elected as honorary presidents of the Buddhist Association of China, with Living Buddha Kundeling as vice president. In September 1954, the Dalai and Panchen lamas went together to Beijing to attend the First Session of the First National People’s Congress (NPC) of the People’s Republic of China, with the former elected vice-chairman of the NPC Standing Committee. On December 25, the 10th Panchen Lama was elected vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) at its First Plenary Session of the Second National Committee. From 1952 to 1957, a total of over 1,000 people in 13 groups, including ecclesiastical and secular officials, monks, and ordinary people including women and youngsters, made organized trips to other parts of the country, which strengthened connections between Tibet and the rest of the country and promoted national unity.

《十七条协议》签订后,在中央人民政府领导下,西藏各项事业发展明显加快。现代教育体系逐步建立。1951年3月,创办西藏第一所新型学校——昌都小学。1952年8月,创办拉萨小学,随后,日喀则、山南等地先后创办28所公办小学。1956年9月,西藏历史上第一所现代正规初级中学——拉萨中学正式成立。1958年9月,西藏公学在陕西咸阳正式开学,当年共招收学生3460人,其中绝大部分是农奴子女。交通运输条件明显改善。1954年,川藏、青藏公路同时建成通车到达拉萨。1956年,西藏第一座机场——当雄机场全部竣工,北京至拉萨正式通航。现代农牧工商业逐渐起步。大力发展种植业,改进农业灌溉系统。先后建成不同规模的小型工厂,各主要城镇办起了医院、银行、商店、邮局等服务机构。文化事业明显进步。1953年10月1日,拉萨有线广播站正式成立,有线广播开播,并用藏语直播。1956年4月22日,《西藏日报》藏、汉两种文版创刊。群众文化活动丰富多彩,多地组建各种文工团和联谊会。1954年,新组建的西藏歌舞团到北京、上海、广州等地演出,受到当地广大干部群众的热烈欢迎。
After the signing of the 17-Article Agreement, rapid progress was made in all social undertakings of Tibet under the leadership of the Central People’s Government.

A modern education system was gradually put in place. In March 1951, Qamdo Primary School was set up – the first modern school in Tibet. In August 1952, Lhasa Primary School was founded. Soon afterwards, 28 public primary schools were set up in locations such as Xigaze and Shannan. In September 1956, Lhasa Middle School was established – the first modern and standard middle school in the history of Tibet. In September 1958, Xizang Minzu University officially opened in Xianyang, Shaanxi Province, enrolling a total of 3,460 students, most of whom were the children of former serfs.

There were significant improvements in transport infrastructure. In 1954, the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and the Sichuan-Tibet Highway, both terminating at Lhasa, were completed and opened to traffic. In 1956, Damxung Airport – Tibet’s first airport – was completed, linking Beijing and Lhasa through official air services.

Modern agriculture, animal husbandry, industry and commerce began to emerge. Great efforts were made to improve crop farming and agricultural irrigation. Small factories of various sizes were built. Hospitals, banks, stores and post offices were set up in major cities and towns.

Visible progress was made in cultural undertakings. On October 1, 1953, a radio station was set up in Lhasa, broadcasting live programs in Tibetan. On April 22, 1956, the Tibet Daily started publication in both Tibetan and Chinese. A variety of rich and varied recreational activities were set up, including art troupes and social clubs. In 1954, newly-established performing groups from Tibet went on a performance tour in cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. They were universally and warmly welcomed by local audiences.

 

三、社会制度的历史跨越
III. Historic Changes in Society

西藏民主改革是西藏人民的愿望,但何时改革须根据西藏实际。1956年,中央人民政府作出“六年不改”的决定。然而,西藏上层统治集团的一些人企图永远保留封建农奴制,并在1959年3月发动全面武装叛乱。中央人民政府在平息叛乱的同时,在西藏开展了彻底废除封建农奴制的民主改革运动,从根本上改变了西藏旧的社会制度,并为西藏自治区的成立奠定了坚实的基础。
The Tibetan people yearned for democratic reform, but the timing had to be determined by the situation. In 1956, the Central People’s Government made a decision that no reform need be carried out in Tibet for the next six years. However, some members of the Tibetan ruling class wanted to preserve serfdom forever, and staged a full-scale armed rebellion in March 1959. The Central People’s Government quelled the rebellion, and carried out democratic reform to abolish feudal serfdom, putting an end to the old system and laying a solid foundation for forming the Tibet Autonomous Region.

——封建农奴制黑暗落后,必然退出历史舞台
– Wretched and backward feudal serfdom was doomed to die out.

旧西藏处于政教合一的封建农奴制统治之下,这种制度粗暴践踏人类尊严,严重侵犯基本人权,根本阻碍西藏社会发展,完全背离中国和世界进步潮流。
Old Tibet was ruled by a theocratic feudal serfdom. This system crushed human dignity, ignored human rights, and impeded development in Tibet, all of which flouted the progressive trend in China and elsewhere in the world.

政教合一,神权至上。政权庇护神权,神权控制政权,神权与政权融为一体,共同维护官家、贵族和寺院上层僧侣三大封建领主的统治。在神权政治下,寺庙成为集开展宗教活动、控制一方政权、实施经济剥削、囤积武装力量、进行司法审判等功能为一体的统治堡垒。有的寺庙内部设立公堂,不仅有手铐、脚镣、棍棒,还有用来剜目、抽筋的残酷刑具,惩罚农奴手段极其残忍。
In old Tibet, there was no separation of religious and political power, and the former enjoyed absolute supremacy. Religious power prevailed over political power, while political power protected religious privileges. The two combined to defend the interests of the three major stakeholders: officials, aristocrats and higher-ranking lamas in the monasteries. Under theocracy, monasteries became fortresses from which the local rulers organized religious activities, exercised administration, exploited the serfs, built up armed forces, and passed legal judgement. Some monasteries even had private dungeons, with instruments of torture used for eye gouging and hamstringing, in addition to handcuffs, chains and clubs.

等级森严,践踏人权。三大领主以野蛮、残酷的刑法维护封建农奴制度。在旧西藏通行数百年的《十三法典》和《十六法典》,明确将人分成三等九级,规定:“人分上中下三等,每一等人又分上中下三级。此上中下三等,系就其血统贵贱职位高低而定”“人有等级之分,因此命价也有高低”“上等上级人命价为与尸体等重的黄金”“下等下级人命价为一根草绳”。
In old Tibet, there was a rigid hierarchy and the higher ranks of society gave no thought to human rights. The three major stakeholders applied every means to maintain feudal serfdom. The 13-Article Code and 16-Article Code, which had been enforced for several hundred years in old Tibet, stipulated that people were divided into three classes by blood and position, and that each class was further divided into three ranks. The value of a life corresponded to the difference in class and rank. The bodies of people of the highest rank of the upper class were “worth their weight in gold”, while the lives of people of the lowest rank of the lower class were “worth a straw rope”.

贫富悬殊,阻碍发展。占人口不足5%的三大领主及其代理人几乎占有西藏全部耕地、牧场、森林、山川、河流、河滩以及大部分牲畜。民主改革前,西藏有世袭贵族197家,其中居前的几家大贵族,每家占有几十个庄园,几万克土地(15克相当于1公顷)。十四世达赖家族占有27座庄园、30个牧场,拥有农牧奴6000多人。十四世达赖本人就拥有黄金16万两,白银9500万两,珍宝玉器2万多件,有各种绸缎、珍贵裘皮衣服1万多件。占人口95%的农奴和奴隶没有生产资料和人身自由,遭受着沉重的赋税、乌拉差役和高利贷盘剥,挣扎在死亡线上。
In old Tibet, polarization of the rich and the poor hindered development. The three major stakeholders and their agents, who made up less than five percent of the population, owned almost all of the land, pastures, forests, mountains, rivers and flood plains, and most of the livestock. Before the democratic reform in 1959, there were 197 hereditary aristocratic families, and the few top families each possessed dozens of manors and thousands of hectares of land. The family of the 14th Dalai Lama owned 27 manors, 30 pastures, and over 6,000 serfs. The Dalai Lama alone owned 160,000 taels (one tael = 30 grams) of gold, 95 million taels of silver, over 20,000 pieces of jewelry and jade ware, and more than 10,000 pieces of silk clothing and rare furs. Meanwhile the serfs and slaves, who accounted for 95 percent of the population, had no means of production or freedom of their own. They were subjected to the three-fold exploitation of corvée labor, taxes, and high-interest loans, and struggled for mere existence.

 

——维护《十七条协议》,决定“六年不改”
– The central government upheld the 17-Article Agreement and honored its promise not to carry out reform for six years.

《十七条协议》明确:“有关西藏的各项改革事宜,中央不加强迫。西藏地方政府应自动进行改革,人民提出改革要求时,得采取与西藏领导人员协商的方法解决之。”和平解放后,西藏广大人民要求改革的呼声日益高涨,许多上中层的开明人士也认识到,如不改革旧制度,西藏民族断无繁荣昌盛可能。
The 17-Article Agreement stipulated, “In matters related to reform in Tibet, there will be no compulsion on the part of the central government. The local government of Tibet shall take initiative to carry out reform, and when the people raise demands for reform, the central government shall consult with the leading personnel in Tibet to settle the issue.” Following liberation, amidst the growing demand of the Tibetan people for democratic reform, many enlightened people of the upper and middle classes also realized that, if the old system were not reformed, the Tibetan people would never attain prosperity.

考虑到西藏历史和现实的特殊情况,中央人民政府采取十分慎重态度,耐心劝说和等待西藏地方上层统治集团主动进行改革,并给他们以充分的时间。1956年,中央人民政府作出“六年不改”决定,等待西藏上层的觉悟。1957年1月,国务院总理周恩来访问印度期间向十四世达赖、十世班禅及随行的西藏地方政府主要官员转交了毛泽东主席的信,传达了中央的决定,强调六年不改,六年之后是否改革,仍然由西藏根据情况和条件决定。中央人民政府对西藏上层统治集团作出了最大让步,可谓仁至义尽。
In consideration of Tibetan history and the region’s special situation, the Central People’s Government adopted a circumspect attitude of patient persuasion, waiting for the ruling elite to carry out reform, and giving them adequate time to do so. In 1956, still awaiting a change in the attitude of the ruling upper class, the Central People’s Government made a decision that no reform should be carried out in Tibet for six years. During his visit to India in January 1957, Premier of the State Council Zhou Enlai handed a letter from Chairman Mao Zedong to the 14th Dalai Lama and 10th Panchen Lama, and the accompanying senior local Tibetan government officials. The letter informed them of the central government’s decision that reform would be deferred for six years; whether reform should be carried out after six years would still be decided by Tibet in accordance with its own situation and the prevailing conditions. The Central People’s Government showed the utmost patience and made every concession.

 

——平息武装叛乱,进行民主改革
– The armed rebellion was quelled and democratic reform was implemented.

改革西藏社会制度是西藏社会发展的必然要求和西藏人民的根本愿望。西藏反动上层企图永远保持封建农奴制,蓄意破坏《十七条协议》,策划一系列分裂祖国的活动,最终于1959年3月10日发动全面武装叛乱。中央政府采取果断措施,与西藏人民一道坚决平息了叛乱,并决定在西藏进行一场彻底废除封建农奴制度的民主改革运动。
Reforming the social system was an essential requirement of social development and the fundamental aspiration of the Tibetan people. To preserve serfdom, the reactionaries from Tibet’s upper class planned a series of activities to split Tibet from China, in blatant violation of the 17-Article Agreement. These led to a full-scale insurrection on March 10, 1959. The Central People’s Government, together with the Tibetan people, took decisive measures to suppress the rebellion, and subsequently implemented a democratic reform in Tibet that brought feudal serfdom to an end.

民主改革废除了政教合一的封建农奴制,实现政教分离;废除生产资料封建领主所有制,确立农牧民个体所有制;废除对“三大领主”的人身依附,使农奴和奴隶获得人身自由。在民主改革中,农奴和奴隶共分得土地约280多万克(约18.67万公顷)。建立起第一个供销社、第一个农村信用社、第一所民办小学、第一所夜校、第一个识字班、第一个电影放映队、第一个医疗卫生机构。纳金水电站建成发电,拉萨普通市民首次用上电灯。民主改革是西藏社会进步和人权发展史上划时代的重大变革,使西藏百万农奴和奴隶在政治、经济和社会生活多方面实现了翻身解放,有效促进了西藏社会生产力的发展,为西藏的现代化建设开辟了道路。
Through this reform, the theocratic system was annulled and religion was separated from government. The feudal serf owners’ right to own the means of production was abolished and private ownership by farmers and herdsmen was established. The personal bondage of serfs and slaves to the officials, nobles and upper-ranking monks was annulled, and they won their freedom as individuals. Former serfs and slaves were granted around 186,700 hectares of land in the democratic reform.

During this period Tibet’s first supply and marketing cooperative, first rural credit cooperative, first community primary school, first night school, first literacy class, first film projection team, and first medical institution were established. The Ngachen Hydroelectric Station was completed and entered service, bringing electric lighting for the first time to the citizens of Lhasa.

Democratic reform represented an epoch-making change in Tibetan society and in the human rights of its people. It granted political, economic and social emancipation to a million serfs and slaves, effectively promoted the development of social productive forces in Tibet, and opened up the road toward modernization.

 

——成立西藏自治区,逐步走上社会主义发展道路
– The Tibet Autonomous Region was established to launch Tibet on the path to socialism.

西藏民主改革过程同时也是民主建政过程。1959年3月叛乱发生后,国务院发布命令,解散西藏地方政府,决定由西藏自治区筹备委员会行使西藏地方政府职权。随后相继撤销了昌都地区人民解放委员会和班禅堪布会议厅,建立了统一的人民民主政权。1961年,西藏各地开始实行普选,昔日的农奴和奴隶第一次获得了当家作主的民主权利,选举产生西藏各级人民政权,一大批翻身农奴和奴隶担任各级领导职务。1965年8月,西藏县乡选举工作完成。9月,西藏第一届人民代表大会第一次会议在拉萨开幕,西藏自治区及其人民政府宣告成立,西藏开始实行民族区域自治制度,通过农牧业社会主义改造,走上社会主义发展道路。
The democratic reform in Tibet coincided with the introduction of democratic politics. After the rebellion broke out in March 1959, the State Council issued an order to dissolve the Tibetan local government and decided to have the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region exercise the duties and power of local government. Later, the Qamdo People’s Liberation Committee and the Panchen Kampus Assembly were abolished, and a centralized people’s democratic government was set up. In 1961, a general election was held across Tibet. For the first time, the former serfs and slaves were able to enjoy democratic rights as their own masters, as they elected people’s governments at all levels. Many emancipated serfs and slaves took up posts of leadership at various levels in the region. In August 1965, elections were completed in townships and counties across Tibet. In September, the First Session of the First People’s Congress of Tibet was convened in Lhasa, at which the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region and the Regional People’s Government were officially proclaimed. With regional ethnic autonomy established and through the socialist transformation of agriculture and animal husbandry, Tibet embarked on the road of socialism.

西藏自治区的成立和社会主义制度的实行,保障了各民族平等、团结、互助和共同繁荣发展政策在西藏的实现,保障了西藏各族人民平等参与管理国家事务和自主管理本地区事务的权利,为西藏实现与全国共同发展进步提供了制度保证。
The founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region and adoption of the socialist system provided a guarantee for the realization of ethnic equality, solidarity, mutual help, and common development and prosperity in the region. It also created the conditions for all ethnic groups in Tibet to enjoy equal rights to participate in the administration of regional and state affairs. In this way, an institutional structure was put in place that would allow Tibet to develop along with other parts of China.

 

四、各项事业加快发展
IV. Rapid Development of Various Undertakings

在中央人民政府领导和全国人民大力支持下,经过各族人民艰苦奋斗,西藏经济社会的发展和全国站在同一起跑线上。发展基础更加扎实,发展机遇更加良好,发展后劲十足。
Thanks to the leadership of the Central People’s Government and strong support from the rest of China, and to the great endeavors of people of all ethnic groups in the region, Tibet is catching up with other parts of the country in terms of socioeconomic development. With a more solid base, it enjoys better opportunities and enormous potential.

 

——社会经济持续快速发展
– Sustained and rapid socioeconomic development

西藏和平解放70年来,中央政府为西藏制定了许多特殊优惠政策,涉及财税金融、基础设施、产业发展、教育卫生、文化保护、生态文明等各个领域。中央财政对西藏转移支付力度逐年加大,在不同时期相继安排一大批关系西藏长远发展和人民生活的重大工程项目,极大改善了西藏人民生产生活条件,各族群众获得感、幸福感、安全感不断增强。1994年至2020年,对口援藏省市、中央国家机关及中央企业分9批共支援西藏经济社会建设项目6330个,总投资527亿元,并选派9682名优秀干部援藏。1951年西藏地区生产总值仅为1.29亿元,2020年地区生产总值突破1900亿元,经济实力明显提升,经济结构持续优化。2020年全区社会消费品零售总额实现745.78亿元,比1959年增长2192倍。
Over the last seven decades, the central government has introduced many favorable policies for the region, covering tax and finance, infrastructure, industrial development, education, health, cultural preservation, environmental protection, and other fields. The central government increases its fiscal transfer to Tibet every year, and has planned and carried out a number of major projects at different stages which have a bearing on the long-term development of the region and the living standard of the people. As a result, the local people enjoy much better working and living conditions, and their sense of gain, happiness, and security is growing. From 1994 to 2020, the provinces and equivalent administrative units, central government departments, along with state-owned enterprises (SOEs) directly under the central government, provided support to Tibet in the form of paired assistance through 6,330 projects, representing a total investment of RMB52.7 billion. They also selected and dispatched 9,682 outstanding officials to assist the region. In 1951, Tibet’s GDP was only RMB129 million. In 2020, its GDP exceeded RMB190 billion. There has been substantial economic growth and significant improvements to the economic structure. In 2020, Tibet’s retail sales of consumer goods reached RMB74.6 billion, more than 2,000 times larger than in 1959.

1930年出版的《西藏始末纪要》中形容西藏的道路:“乱石纵横,人马路绝,艰险万状,不可名态。”解放前从青海西宁或四川雅安到拉萨往返一次,需要半年到一年时间。和平解放以来,西藏逐步建立起涵盖公路、铁路、航空、管道等多种运输方式的综合立体交通网络。如今,建制村村村通公路,西藏公路通车里程达到11.88万公里,乡镇、建制村通畅率分别达94%、76%。高速及一级公路通车里程约700公里。青藏铁路和拉日铁路建成通车,川藏铁路开工建设。昌都邦达、林芝米林、日喀则和平、阿里昆莎等支线机场建成,国际国内航线达到140条,通航城市66个。以光缆、卫星为主的现代通讯网络体系将西藏带入信息快速路,所有行政村都有移动信号,光纤宽带通达率为99%。和平解放前西藏仅有一座只供少数上层贵族享受的小电站,目前已经形成以水电为主,太阳能、风能、地热等多能互补的综合能源体系。2020年,阿里与藏中电网联网工程正式投运,西藏实现主电网全区覆盖。
Xizang Shimo Jiyao, a book published in 1930, described the roads in Tibet as extremely rough and dangerous for passengers and their horses. In the old days, it took between six months and a year to make a round trip between Lhasa and Xining in Qinghai or Ya’an in Sichuan. Since 1951, Tibet has gradually built a comprehensive transport network composed of highways, railways, air routes, and pipelines. Highways with a total length of 118,800 km have been built, providing access to all administrative villages in the region. Ninety-four percent of towns and 76 percent of administrative villages have direct access to asphalt and concrete roads. Some 700 km of expressways and grade-one highways are in service. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway and the Lhasa-Xigaze Railway have been completed and opened to traffic. The construction of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway has begun. A number of feeder airports have been built, including Bamda Airport in Qamdo, Mainling Airport in Nyingchi, Peace Airport in Xigaze, and Gunsa Airport in Ngari. Tibet now has 140 domestic and international air routes in operation, reaching 66 cities. With a modern communications network mainly consisting of optical cables and satellites, Tibet is part of the information expressway. All administrative villages have mobile phone access, and optical cable broadband coverage has reached 99 percent. Before 1951, Tibet had only one hydropower station, which supplied electricity only to a handful of aristocrats. Now, a comprehensive energy network is in place, with hydro power as the mainstay, supplemented by solar, wind, and geothermal power. In 2020, Ngari Prefecture was connected to the central Tibet power grid, completing the full coverage of the main power grid across the whole of Tibet.

大力发展高原特色农牧业、绿色工业和第三产业。西藏农林牧渔业总产值从1965年的2.64亿元增长到2020年的233.5亿元。2015年,粮食产量突破100万吨,青稞产量保持在79.5万吨以上。清洁能源、天然饮用水、农畜产品加工业、民族手工业、藏医药、建材等在内的富有西藏特色的现代工业体系建立。清洁能源产业快速发展,电力总装机容量达423万千瓦,发电量超过90亿千瓦时。2020年,即使受到新冠肺炎疫情影响,西藏规模以上工业增加值增速仍达9.6%,居全国首位;旅游业保持高速增长态势,接待国内外游客3505余万人次。现代服务业整体发展,市县乡村四级电商服务全面推开,网络零售额累计突破200亿元,高新数字产业创新发展,数字经济规模突破330亿元。
A great effort has been made to develop agriculture, animal husbandry, green industries and tertiary industries adapted to local conditions. In 1965, the total value of output from Tibet’s agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries was no more than RMB264 million. In 2020, it reached RMB23.4 billion. In 2015, grain yield was over 1 million tonnes, and the yield of highland barley exceeded 795,000 tonnes. The region now has a modern industrial system with distinctive local features, covering clean energy, natural drinking water, farming and animal product processing, folk handicrafts, Tibetan medicine, and building materials, among others. The clean energy industry is developing rapidly, with a total installed capacity of 4.23 million kw and generation output of over 9 billion kwh. In 2020, despite the impact of Covid-19, the growth rate of the added value of industrial “enterprises of designated size” (enterprises with a turnover exceeding RMB20 million per annum) reached 9.6 percent, which was the highest in the country. Tourism in the region maintained rapid growth momentum, receiving more than 35 million tourist visits. There has been widespread development of service industries. E-commerce services are fully available at the city, county, township, and village levels, and total online retail sales exceeded RMB20 billion. The high-tech digital industry has seen multiple innovations, and the scale of digital economy surpassed RMB33 billion.

 

——人民生活水平显著提高
– Marked improvement in living standards

和平解放前,西藏90%以上的人没有自己的住房,过着衣不蔽体、食不果腹的生活。目前,西藏各族人民生活已迈进全面小康。通过实施农牧民安居、城乡保障房建设等系列工程项目,2020年西藏农牧民人均自有住房面积达41.46平方米,城镇居民人均自有住房面积达33.4平方米,幸福指数大幅提升。2011年至2020年,安排中央补助资金172.8亿元,支持西藏城镇保障性住房开工35.19万套。2019年以来,安排中央补助资金2.3亿元,支持西藏改造城镇老旧小区约8900户。推进农牧区水、电、路、气、讯、邮政、广播电视、优化环境为主的综合整治工程,乡村面貌发生彻底变化。2019年,西藏城镇化率达到31.5%。2020年西藏城乡居民人均可支配收入比2010年翻一番。农村居民人均可支配收入14598元,比上年增长12.7%,连续18年保持两位数增长,近5年增速保持在13%左右,增速均居全国第一。城镇居民人均可支配收入41156元,比上年增长10%。
Prior to liberation, more than 90 percent of Tibet’s residents had no private housing and lacked adequate food and clothing. Now, residents in the region enjoy a relatively comfortable life. Thanks to low-income housing projects for farmers and herdsmen and affordable housing projects in urban and rural areas, the per capita living space of farmers and herdsmen reached 41.46 sq m in 2020, and that of urban residents reached 33.4 sq m. From 2011 to 2020, the central government allocated funds totaling RMB17.3 billion, supporting the construction of 351,900 affordable homes in urban areas. Since 2019, the central government has allocated funds of RMB230 million to support the transformation of 8,900 dilapidated urban dwellings. The region has carried out comprehensive improvement projects in farming and pastoral areas, which mainly involve the supply of water, electricity, gas, telecommunications, postal services, radio and television, the construction of highways, and improvements to the environment. This has brought tremendous change to these areas. In 2019, the urbanization rate of Tibet reached 31.5 percent. In 2020, the per capita disposable income doubled in comparison with 2010. The average per capita disposable income of rural residents was RMB14,598, up 12.7 percent over the previous year and representing double-digit growth for the past 18 years. In the past five years, it recorded an annual increase of around 13 percent – the fastest growth in China. The average per capita disposable income of urban residents in 2020 was RMB41,156, a year-on-year increase of 10 percent.

 

——基本公共服务全面进步
– All-round progress of basic public services

公共文化服务体系不断完善。截至2020年,西藏已建成区、市(地)、县(区)、乡(镇)、村(居)五级公共文化服务体系,图书馆、群众艺术馆、博物馆、综合文化活动中心、文化活动室等已成为人民群众自发开展文化活动的重要场所。现有10个专业文艺院团、76个县区艺术团、153个民间藏戏队、395个乡镇文艺演出队和5492个行政村文艺演出队,专兼职文艺演出队伍超过10万人。推出了《洗衣歌》《再唱山歌给党听》等一大批彰显时代精神、体现西藏特色、群众喜闻乐见的优秀文艺作品。文化惠民演出活动日益丰富,惠民演出已超过2.4万场次,人民群众文化权益得到充分保障。公共数字文化建设成效显著,数字化服务能力不断提高,实施“美丽西藏 可爱家乡”优秀文化产品乡村供给工程,建成并通过公共文化数字文化网发布地方特色资源和红色资源总量达9.33TB,外购资源2950余部20TB,少数民族语言译制数字资源4169小时。
The public cultural service system keeps improving. As of 2020, there is a five-tiered public cultural service system in place, which consists of the autonomous region, city/prefecture, county/district, town/township, and village/community levels. Libraries, people’s art halls, museums, comprehensive culture centers, and reserved halls have become important sites where people can participate in cultural activities. Tibet now has 10 professional performing art troupes, 76 art troupes at county/district level, 153 part-time Tibetan opera troupes, 395 performing teams at township level and 5,492 at administrative village level, with more than 100,000 performers, including amateurs and professionals. A large number of excellent works, including The Laundry Song and Another Folk Song Dedicated to the Party, have been released, highlighting the spirit of the times, demonstrating the flavor of Tibet, and winning popularity among the people. Designed to meet people’s cultural aspirations, free or subsidized performances have become increasingly colorful, and more than 24,000 such shows have been staged.

Notable progress has been made in developing a digital public culture. The region’s digital service capacity is increasing. The “Beautiful Tibet, Lovely Hometown” project designed to supply excellent cultural products to rural residents has been implemented. 9.33TB of programs with special local flavor or revolutionary themes have been produced and released on public culture and digital culture websites. Commissioned programs numbered 2,950, with a total size of 20TB. 4,169 hours of digital programs have been dubbed into minority languages.

广播电视和新闻出版事业快速发展。2020年,西藏已有广播电台1座、电视台1座、广播电视台75座,乡(镇)村级广播电视收转站112座,中、短波转播发射台27座,调频电视转播发射台3933座。60万户农牧民群众通过直播卫星可以收听收看到26套广播、54套电视节目。制作译制少数民族广播节目时长18594小时,制作译制少数民族电视节目时长6881小时。广播电视综合人口覆盖率均超过99%。目前,西藏公开发行的报刊种类已达66种,建成5464个农家书屋和1787个寺庙书屋,实现了行政村和寺庙全覆盖。
Tibet’s radio, TV, press, and publications are expanding rapidly. In 2020, the region had one radio station, one TV station, and 75 radio-TV stations, 112 radio and TV receiving and transmitting stations at township/village levels, 27 medium and short-wave transmitting and relay stations, and 3,933 FM TV transmitting and relay stations. More than 600,000 households of farmers and herdsmen can receive 26 radio channels and 54 TV channels via direct broadcasting satellites. The coverage rates of radio and TV programs have both reached 99 percent. A total of 18,594 hours of radio programs and 6,881 hours of TV programs have been translated or dubbed in minority languages. Tibet publishes 66 newspapers and periodicals, and has built 5,464 rural libraries and 1,787 monastery libraries, providing libraries to all administrative villages and monasteries.

旧西藏没有一所现代意义上的学校,文盲率高达95%,现代科技更是一片空白。1951年至2020年,国家累计投入教育经费2239.65亿元,推动西藏建立起涵盖学前教育、基础教育、职业教育、高等教育、继续教育、特殊教育的现代教育体系,实行15年公费教育,小学数学课程开课率、中学数理化生课程教学计划完成率、职业技术学校国家目录规定课程开出率等均达到100%,高中阶段教育普及攻坚如期完成。2015年以来,通过实施教育人才“组团式”援藏,有力提升了西藏的教育水平。目前,西藏有各级各类学校3195所,其中普通高等学校7所,中职学校12所,中学143所,小学827所,在校学生79万多人,另外在区外就读的西藏学生9.2万多人。学前教育三年毛入园率达87%,小学净入学率达99.93%,初中、高中、高等教育毛入学率分别达106.99%、90.2%、56.14%,县域义务教育实现基本均衡发展,义务教育巩固率95.03%,新增劳动力人均受教育年限提高到13.1年。坚持政府、社会、企业多渠道解决就业,高校毕业生就业率连续5年保持在95%以上、2020年达到99%。科技平台和人才队伍建设不断加快,拥有各类专业技术人员9.2万人,科技进步对经济增长贡献率达到45.6%。
In old Tibet there was not a single proper school. The illiteracy rate exceeded 95 percent, to say nothing of complete ignorance of modern science and technology. From 1951 to 2020, the central government invested RMB224 billion in Tibet’s education. Now, the region has established a modern educational system which includes preschool, primary and middle schools, vocational and technical schools, institutions of higher learning, and continuing and special education institutions. Students enjoy 15 years of publicly-funded compulsory education. All primary schools are offering math course, all middle schools have completed teaching plans for math, physics, chemistry, and biology courses, and all vocational and technical schools are offering the courses prescribed in the national catalog of courses for these schools. A campaign to popularize senior high school education was completed on schedule. Since 2015, organized educational professionals from across the country have made a tremendous contribution to Tibet’s education system. At present, Tibet has 3,195 schools of various types and at various levels, hosting more than 790,000 students. These include seven institutions of higher learning, 12 secondary vocational schools, 143 middle schools, and 827 primary schools. In addition, more than 92,000 students attend schools outside the region. The gross enrollment rate for the three-year preschool education has reached 87 percent. The net enrollment rate in primary school is more than 99.9 percent, and the gross enrollment rate in junior high, senior high, and higher education are 107, 90.2 and 56.1 percent respectively. Basic balanced development of compulsory education has been realized in all counties. The completion rate for compulsory education has reached 95 percent, and new entrants to the region’s workforce now have an average of 13.1 years of education. Tibet is addressing issues of employment by relying on the concerted efforts of the government, society, and enterprises. The employment rate among higher-education graduates has remained above 95 percent for the past five years, and reached 99 percent in 2020. The development of scientific and technological platforms and talent teams is accelerating. Tibet has 92,000 professional technical personnel, and the contribution of science and technology to economic growth has reached 45.6 percent.

和平解放前,西藏只有3所设备简陋、规模很小的官办藏医机构和少量私人诊所。目前已建立起健全的医疗服务、妇幼保健、疾病防控、藏医藏药等服务体系。各级各类医疗卫生机构达1642家,其中三级甲等医院11家。每千人床位数4.9张,每千人卫生技术人员5.89人。实施医疗人才“组团式”援藏,使各族群众在家门口就能享受到高水平的医疗服务。医疗卫生网遍布城乡,乡乡有卫生院、村村有卫生室。人民健康水平显著提高,孕产妇死亡率下降到48/10万,婴幼儿死亡率下降到7.6‰,均为历史最低值。人均寿命由1951年的35.5岁增加到2019年的71.1岁。400多种较大疾病不出藏就能治疗,包虫病、大骨节病、先天性心脏病、白内障等肆虐西藏的疾病得到历史性消除和防治。
Before liberation, there were only three small, shabby government-run institutions of Tibetan medicine and a small number of private clinics. Now, Tibet has a full system covering regular medical services, maternity and child care, disease prevention and control, and Tibetan medicine and therapies. In Tibet today there are 1,642 medical institutions of various types, 11 of which are grade A tertiary hospitals. There are 4.9 hospital beds and 5.89 medical workers per thousand people. Medical teams from other parts of China have been sent to assist Tibet, to ensure that people can receive excellent medical services in their own neighborhoods. The medical and healthcare network now covers the whole region. All townships have health centers and all villages have clinics.

These improvements in medical services have brought about a corresponding improvement in public health. The death rate of women in childbirth has dropped to 48 per 100,000, and the infant mortality rate to 7.6 per thousand. Both are record lows. The average life expectancy has increased from 35.5 years in 1951 to 71.1 years in 2019. Victims of more than 400 major diseases can now obtain treatment within the region. Ailments that were once widespread in Tibet, such as hydatidosis, Kashin-Beck disease, congenital heart disease, and cataracts, have been eradicated or brought under effective prevention and control.

社会保障体系不断完善。城镇登记失业率控制在4%以内,重点群体就业率居全国前列。以养老、医疗、失业、工伤和生育五大保险为主体的覆盖城乡全体居民的社会保障体系全面建立,群众基本生活得到有效保障。2020年完成城乡居民基本医疗保险制度整合,年人均补助标准提高至585元,实现先诊疗后结算、保障人口全覆盖、保险基金收支平衡。城乡居民年度医疗费最高报销额度达14万元,是城乡居民年人均可支配收入的近7倍。大病专项救治病种扩大到38种,基本医疗保障更加有力。已实现社会保险全覆盖,各族人民享受到全面社会保障。
Social security provision is improving. The registered urban unemployment rate is below 4 percent. The employment rates of key groups are among the highest in the country. A social security system including mainly five major types of insurance (old age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, work-related injury insurance, and maternity insurance) is now in place and covers both urban and rural residents. Basic living standards are effectively guaranteed. In 2020, the basic medical insurance systems of urban and rural residents were integrated, and the standard subsidy increased to RMB585 per person per year. One-time settlement after diagnosis and treatment, full coverage of the insured, and balance of insurance funds have been realized. Individual reimbursement of medical expenses can be as high as RMB140,000, nearly seven times the average annual per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents in Tibet. A special treatment policy has been extended to cover 38 serious diseases. Basic medical insurance is more effective. Full coverage of social insurance has been realized, and people of all ethnic groups now enjoy comprehensive social security.

五、脱贫攻坚全面胜利
V. A Complete Victory over Poverty

西藏是全国贫困发生率最高、贫困程度最深、扶贫成本最高、脱贫难度最大的集中连片特困地区。消除贫困是中央人民政府的一贯政策,早在西藏和平解放初期,进藏人民解放军及工作人员就做了许多扶贫济困的工作。废除封建农奴制度后,西藏走上了社会主义道路,中国共产党以解放生产力,发展生产力,消灭剥削,消除贫困,实现共同富裕为己任,一代一代人致力于发展经济、改善民生工作。中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会以来,连续5年召开深化对口援藏扶贫工作会议,创新开展“央企助力富民兴藏”等活动,通过精准施策、精准帮扶,西藏打赢脱贫攻坚战,各族人民实现了不愁吃、不愁穿和义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障。截至2019年底,全区62.8万建档立卡贫困人口已全部脱贫,74个贫困县区全部摘帽,历史性消除了绝对贫困问题,目前已脱贫人口年人均可支配收入突破1万元,脱贫成果得到进一步巩固。事实说明,民主改革使西藏社会制度一步跨千年,脱贫攻坚让西藏人民生活方式一步跨千年。
Tibet was a contiguous poor area with the highest incidence and most severe level of poverty, where the cost of poverty eradication was highest and the difficulty greatest. Ending poverty in Tibet is a consistent policy of the Central People’s Government.

As early as 1951, after the liberation of Tibet, the PLA and other organizations in Tibet were already taking action to reduce poverty.

In 1959 after feudal serfdom was abolished and Tibet embarked on the path of socialism, the CPC set about developing the productive forces, eliminating exploitation and poverty, achieving common prosperity, growing the economy, and improving people’s lives.

After the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Party convened the National Conference on Better Poverty Alleviation Partnership Assistance from Other Parts of the Country to Tibet for five successive years, and launched a campaign under which SOEs directly under the central government would assist Tibet in achieving prosperity. Through targeted poverty alleviation policies and measures, Tibet has won a decisive victory over poverty, and local people of all ethnic groups now have adequate food and clothing and access to compulsory education, basic medical services and safe housing.

By the end of 2019, all the 628,000 registered poor and 74 designated poor counties in Tibet had risen from poverty, marking the end of absolute poverty in Tibet for the first time in history. The average annual per capita disposable income of those who have just emerged from poverty now exceeds RMB10,000, an indication that the positive results of poverty elimination have been consolidated.

It was the democratic reform in Tibet that led to leapfrog progress in its social system, and the fight against poverty secured historic improvements in its ways of life.

 

——绝对贫困彻底消除
– Eliminating absolute poverty

发展特色产业,找准发展路子。大力发展青稞和牦牛产业,推广“藏青2000”“喜玛拉22”“帕里牦牛”“类乌齐牦牛”“岗巴羊”等优良品种,提高单产水平。扶持深加工,创新产品供给,扩展产业链。2020年,西藏共有农牧业产业化龙头企业162家,农畜产品加工业总产值57亿元,比2015年末翻了一番。通过“合作社+农户”“龙头企业+村集体经济组织+农户”等方式,不断提高专业化水平和生产效率,主要农作物综合机械化率达到65%。推进电商扶贫,量身打造电子商务进农村整区推进模式,累计安排中央财政资金8.79亿元,带动特色农产品网上销售,促进农牧民增收就业,助力脱贫攻坚。重点发展旅游业,创新升级“藏文化体验游”,打造“最美318线”,推出“冬游西藏”等。截至2020年,西藏农牧民通过直接或间接方式参与乡村旅游就业8.6万人(次),年人均增收4300余元。发展文化产业,扶持传统文化的市场化开发,唐卡、塑像及传统手工技艺如纺织、服饰、家居装饰等供需两旺,已形成颇具规模的新兴产业。建成各级各类文化产业示范园区(基地),产值超过60亿元,年均增长率15%。2016年以来,西藏累计整合涉农资金753.8亿元用于脱贫攻坚,实施产业扶贫项目3037个,直接带动23.8万建档立卡贫困群众脱贫,发放贴息贷款647.68亿元、小额信贷63.32亿元,为产业发展提供强大支撑。
Tibet has made great efforts to develop industries that leverage local strengths, to find the right path for economic growth. It has been vigorously developing and promoting highland barley strains such as Zangqing 2000, Ximala 22, and livestock breeds such as Pagri yak, Riwoqe yak, and Gamba sheep, to raise the per unit yield.

Tibet has been supporting deep processing, improving product supply, and expanding industrial chains. In 2020, there were 162 leading agriculture and animal husbandry enterprises, with a total processing output value of RMB5.7 billion. This was double the figure for 2015.

Tibet has been increasing the level of specialization in production and boosting production efficiency through cooperation between cooperatives and rural households, and among leading enterprises, village-level collective economic organizations and rural households. The comprehensive mechanization rate for growing staple crops has reached 65 percent.

Tibet has been alleviating poverty by developing e-commerce programs targeted at the entire rural community to improve the marketing of local specialties. A total of RMB879 million from the state budget was allocated to promote the online sales of agro-products, boost incomes and employment, and reduce poverty in Tibet.

Tibet has been fully engaged in developing tourism, launching programs such as “Tibetan Cultural Tour”, “G318 Self-drive Tour” for the 2018 Around China Self-driving Tour Championship (ACSC), and “Winter Tour in Tibet”. By 2020, rural tourism had created, directly or indirectly, 86,000 jobs for local farmers and herdsmen, resulting in an increment in annual per capita income of RMB4,300.

Tibet has been developing its cultural industry by expanding the market for traditional Tibetan culture. Thangka, sculpting, textiles, costumes, home decoration and other handicrafts have grown into emerging industries, huge in both supply and demand. Cultural industry demonstration parks/centers at all levels and in all categories have been completed, creating a total output value of more than RMB6 billion at an average annual growth rate of 15 percent. Since 2016, Tibet has applied agricultural funds totaling RMB75.4 billion to poverty alleviation and implemented 3,037 programs supporting local businesses, which has helped 238,000 registered poor out of poverty. It has issued subsidized loans of RMB64.8 billion and micro-credit loans of RMB6.33 billion, providing strong support for the development of local industries.

实施农村危房改造,实现住房安全有保障。2008年以来,累计下达资金36.18亿元,支持西藏建档立卡贫困户、农村低保户、分散供养特困人员、贫困残疾人家庭等4类重点对象39.97万户,通过实施农村危房改造,告别了破旧的夯土房、石砌房等危房,住上了宽敞明亮的安全房。对于部分鳏寡孤独等无力改造住房的特困群众,通过统建农村集体公租房、修缮加固现有闲置公房等方式,兜底解决其住房安全问题,为打赢脱贫攻坚战和全面建成小康社会奠定了坚实基础。
Efforts have been made to renovate dilapidated rural homes to ensure safe housing. Since 2008, a total of RMB3.62 billion has been applied to 399,700 households in Tibet for the renovation of dilapidated homes, covering registered poor households, households entitled to subsistence allowances, severely impoverished rural residents cared for at their homes with government support, and impoverished families of individuals with disabilities. The project has enabled them to abandon rammed-earth dwellings and stone shacks, and presented them with bright and spacious housing. The widowed, orphaned and childless in extreme poverty are eligible for rural public rental housing, or vacant public housing that has been renovated, to guarantee their access to safe housing. All these measures have laid a solid foundation for Tibet to beat poverty and achieve moderate prosperity.

实施易地搬迁,改善生产生活条件。西藏的贫困人口主要集中在藏北高海拔牧区、南部边境地区和藏东横断山区等海拔高条件差、远离腹心市场的地区,易地搬迁成为摆脱贫困的合理选择。2016年以来,西藏加大了以扶贫脱贫为目标的易地搬迁力度,截至2020年,在海拔较低、适宜生产生活的地区建成了964个易地扶贫搬迁区(点),26.6万人自愿搬迁。全区产业扶贫资金的5%用于安置点产业发展,确保每个搬迁户至少“一户一人”就业,实现了稳得住、有就业,逐步能致富。
Tibet has relocated the impoverished to improve their living and working conditions. Poverty-stricken populations in Tibet are concentrated in the northern pastoral areas, the southern border areas, and the eastern areas along the Hengduan Mountains. All these areas are located at high altitudes. They are remote from vital markets and live in harsh conditions. Therefore, relocating the inhabitants of these areas is a rational solution to lift them out of poverty. Since 2016, Tibet has increased efforts to resettle the impoverished from inhospitable areas to places with better economic prospects. By 2020, Tibet had completed the construction of 964 relocation zones/sites for poverty alleviation in low-altitude, hospitable areas, where 266,000 poor were happy to resettle. Some five percent of Tibet’s growth-driven poverty alleviation funds were applied to the development of industries and businesses at relocation sites, and at least one individual from each resettled household was guaranteed employment. This was a significant primary step ensuring steady progress toward a prosperous life.

坚持扶贫先扶志扶智,培育内生动力。坚持教育经费向贫困地区、基础教育、职业教育倾斜政策,帮助贫困地区改善办学条件。西藏已全面建成从学前教育到高等教育阶段的学生资助体系,资助政策达40项,资助范围实现各学段全覆盖、公办民办全覆盖、家庭经济困难学生全覆盖。目前,教育“三包”经费标准提高到年生均4200元,建档立卡贫困家庭失辍学生动态清零。推动高校面向农牧区和贫困地区学生专项招生。落实“三免一补”政策,“十三五”期间累计资助在校贫困大学生4.67万人次。结合市场需求和贫困群众意愿,开展建筑、生活服务、食品加工、汽车维修、护理、手工艺等职业技术教育,为贫困人口提供相对稳定和报酬更高的就业机会。
Tibet has implemented policies to sustain poverty elimination through the endogenous initiatives of the poor themselves by increasing their confidence and helping them acquire knowledge and skills. Tibet’s education funds are directed more to basic education and vocational education in poor areas to improve conditions there. Tibet has established a student financial assistance system covering all stages of education from preschool to higher education, covering both private and public education, and covering all students experiencing economic difficulties, supported by 40 financial assistance policies. The Three Guarantees policy for education in Tibet – providing food, accommodation and school expenses for preschool to senior high students from farming and herding households and impoverished urban families – has resulted in a rise in subsidy to an average of RMB4,200 per student per year; dropouts from registered poor families are all identified and helped back into school in a timely manner.

Tibet has encouraged institutions of higher learning to recruit students from its farming and pastoral areas and poverty-stricken areas through special programs. Tibet has implemented the Three Cost-frees and One Subsidy policy, under which college students from registered poor households and rural families entitled to subsistence allowances are exempt from tuition, textbook and accommodation fees and are provided with cost-of-living subsidies. Altogether 46,700 impoverished undergraduates received assistance from this policy during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020). Based on market demand and personal choice, poor populations in Tibet are provided with vocational and technical education covering constructional engineering, service, food processing, vehicle repair and maintenance, nursing, and handicrafts, to help them obtain stable jobs with higher payments.

提高社会保障水平,实现兜底保障。西藏对11.4万建档立卡贫困人口实施社会救助兜底保障,实现应保尽保,城乡居民最低生活保障标准分别提高至每人每年10164元和4713元,农村分散供养和城乡集中供养的特困人员基本生活标准分别提高至每人每年7070元、13213元;临时救助平均水平提高至4334元/人次。在74个国家级贫困县实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,改善6至24月龄儿童营养状况。
Tibet has improved social security by providing subsistence allowances for the impoverished. All the 114,000 registered poor in Tibet are provided with subsistence allowances. Currently, the standards are RMB10,164 per person per year for urban residents, RMB4,713 for rural residents, RMB7,070 for severely impoverished rural residents cared for at their homes with government support, and RMB13,213 for severely impoverished urban and rural residents cared for at nursing homes with government support. The standard for temporary social relief has been raised to RMB4,334 on average. In all its 74 national-level poor counties, Tibet has implemented the national nutrition improvement program for children in impoverished areas, targeted at 6 to 24-month-olds.

实施“强基惠民”工程,创新结对帮扶措施。2012年至2020年,连续9批选派干部19.33万余人次开展驻村帮扶。各级干部与所有贫困县、乡、村、建档立卡户结对帮扶,为贫困地区产业发展和贫困户转移就业、贫困家庭大学生就业等提供一对一帮助。
Tibet has implemented the project of “Laying the Foundations for Better Lives”, through innovative paired-up assistance for the impoverished. From 2012 to 2020, Tibet dispatched 193,300 resident officials in nine groups to help alleviate poverty in villages. Officials at all levels in Tibet were paired up with registered poor households in all designated poor villages, townships and counties, to offer one-to-one employment assistance to the relocated poor and college graduates from impoverished families, and to help boost the economy in poverty-stricken areas.

 

——兴边富民大力推进
– Developing border areas and improving people’s lives

西藏边境线长达4000多公里,多数地方生产生活条件十分恶劣,贫困发生率高,兴边富民一直为各级政府所重视。在党中央的关怀下,边境地区投入逐年增加。特别是2012年以来,边境县、乡、村充分享受到国家更加优惠的政策,水、电、路、居等人民生活急需的基础设施加大了建设力度。2017年西藏发布《西藏自治区边境地区小康村建设规划(2017-2020年)》,主要目标是改善边民的住房条件和边境村庄的“水电路讯网、教科文卫保”以及产业建设。截至2020年底,边境一、二线行政村公路通达通畅,主电网延伸到全部边境乡(镇),实现村村通邮,移动通信网络全覆盖,农村人口饮水安全得到保障。边境村庄基础设施条件显著改善,各类产业蓬勃发展,边民生产生活水平明显提升。
Tibet has a 4,000-km long external border line. The inhabitants of the contiguous areas experience harsh living and working conditions and a high incidence of poverty. Governments at all levels have been making constant efforts to develop border areas and improve people’s lives. Under the guidance of the Party Central Committee, financial input has been increasing year by year for border development in Tibet. Particularly since 2012, border villages, townships and counties in Tibet have been granted more preferential state policies on infrastructure construction, covering water, electricity, roads, and housing. In 2017, the Plan of Tibet Autonomous Region on the Construction of Villages of Moderate Prosperity in Border Areas (2017-2020) was released, designed to ensure better access to housing, water, electricity, roads, communications and the internet, to improve education, technology, culture, healthcare and social security in border villages, and to boost industries in border areas. By the end of 2020, first-tier and second-tier border villages had access to highways, all border townships and towns were connected to the main power grid, and all border villages had access to postal services, mobile communications, and safe drinking water. Through all these efforts in the border areas in Tibet, infrastructure has seen remarkable improvements, all industries are flourishing, and the people enjoy better living and working conditions.

 

——乡村振兴有序实施
– Revitalizing the countryside

2017年,中国提出乡村振兴战略。根据党中央部署,西藏编制《西藏自治区乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》,按照产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕的总要求,巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果,同乡村振兴有效衔接。着力发展高原生物、旅游文化、绿色工业、清洁能源、现代服务、高新数字、边贸物流等产业。着力创新农牧区人才培养方式,规模化培训乡土人才,建立完善农牧民教育培训体系,统筹各类人才向乡村聚集。着力推广新型村规民约,提升公共文化服务水平,繁荣农业农村农民题材文艺创作,传承发展优秀传统文化,加强乡村文化队伍建设等,培育文明乡风、良好家风、淳朴民风。着力通过生态系统保护与修复、人居环境整治、生态产业发展、乡村生态文明体制机制建设,确保生态环境质量保持全国领先水平,把西藏农牧区建设成为生态宜居、环境优美、人与自然和谐共生的美丽乡村。
In 2017, China proposed the strategy of rural revitalization. Accordingly, the Strategic Plan of Tibet Autonomous Region on Rural Revitalization (2018-2022) was formulated, to build rural areas with thriving businesses, an eco-friendly environment, social etiquette and civility, effective governance, and a prosperous rural population, making sure that the positive results in poverty elimination are consolidated and become an integral part of rural revitalization in Tibet. The plan focuses on:

• developing plateau biotechnology, tourism, green industry, clean energy, modern services, advanced digital technology, and border trade and logistics;

• improving talent training in farming and pastoral areas, scaling up the training of native professionals, establishing a complete training system for farmers and herdsmen, and attracting talent toward rural development;

• promoting civilized village rules, improving public cultural services, encouraging literary and artistic works on agriculture, rural areas and rural people, carrying forward the best of traditional Tibetan culture, strengthening the competence of rural cultural workers, nurturing healthy folk customs, cultivating fine family traditions, and encouraging virtues in individuals;

• protecting and restoring the rural eco-system, improving rural living environments, developing eco-friendly rural industries, and building institutional mechanisms for promoting rural eco-environmental progress, so as to keep Tibet’s eco-environment at the highest national level, and turn its farming and pastoral areas into a beautiful, hospitable countryside where the people live in harmony with nature.

 

六、优秀传统文化得到保护和发展
VI. Protection and Development of Traditional Culture

国家高度重视保护和发展西藏传统文化,投入巨大人力、财力、物力,运用法律、经济和行政等多种手段,使西藏优秀传统文化在有效保护的基础上得到了弘扬和发展。
China attaches great importance to the protection and development of traditional Tibetan culture. It has invested huge human, financial and material resources to protect, develop and carry forward the fine traditional culture of Tibet through a variety of legal, economic and administrative means.

 

——藏语言文字得到广泛使用
– The Tibetan spoken and written language is widely used.

藏语文的学习、使用受到法律保护。自治区成立以来,西藏自治区人民代表大会通过的决议、法规,西藏各级政府和政府各部门下达的正式文件、发布的公告都使用汉藏两种文字。地方各级政府和企事业单位组织的大型会议和主要活动中,行文坚持使用汉藏两种文字。司法诉讼活动中,根据藏族诉讼参与人的需要使用藏语文审理案件、制作法律文书,保障藏族公民使用藏语言文字诉讼的权利。目前,西藏公开发行藏文期刊16种、藏文报纸12种,累计出版藏文图书7185种、4009万册。此外,藏语言文字在卫生、邮政、通讯、交通、金融、科技等领域都得到广泛使用。
The study and use of the Tibetan language is protected by law. Since the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region, the resolutions and regulations adopted by its people’s congress, and the official documents and announcements by governments at various levels and government departments have all been issued in Chinese and Tibetan. The two languages are used in large meetings and major activities organized by local governments, enterprises and public institutions. In judicial proceedings, the Tibetan language is used to hear cases and make legal documents in accordance with the needs of Tibetan litigants, so as to guarantee the right of Tibetan citizens to use the language for litigation. Tibet now has 16 periodicals and 12 newspapers in the Tibetan language, and has published more than 40 million copies of 7,185 Tibetan-language books. In addition, the language is widely used in health, postal services, communications, transport, finance, and science and technology.

藏文典籍得到保护和利用。1984年,国家拨款新建西藏自治区档案馆,保存和收藏了大量珍贵的藏文档案,目前馆藏档案达300多万卷(册、件)。持续支持重要藏文经典的搜集、整理、翻译和出版工作,组织对勘出版《中华大藏经》藏文版,抢救整理《格萨尔王传》,出版《先哲遗书》丛书、《中华大典·藏文卷》、“雪域文库”丛书等众多宝贵藏文典籍。
Tibetan classics are protected and utilized. In 1984, the state allocated funds for the establishment of the Archives of the Tibet Autonomous Region, which houses and preserves a large number of precious Tibetan archives. The archives in its collection now number more than 3 million items. The state supports the collection, collation, translation and publication of important Tibetan classics. It has organized the collation and publication of the Tibetan-language Chinese Tripitaka, the rescue and collation of the epic Life of King Gesar, and the publication of many valuable Tibetan classics, including the Collected Works of Ancient Tibetan Scholars, Library of Chinese Classics: Tibet Volume, and the “Library of Snowfield Classics” series.

高度重视藏语术语标准化工作。1995年,成立全国藏语术语标准化工作委员会,2018年,工作委员会发布《党的十八大以来审定的藏语新词术语》,包含近1500条藏语新词术语。藏语文信息化、藏文软件研发推广等工作取得显著成果。1997年7月藏文编码标准正式获得通过,成为国际标准《信息技术 通用多八位编码字符集》的重要组成部分,藏语言文字成为第一个具有国际标准、获得全球信息高速公路通行证的中国少数民族语言文字。2004年,西藏自治区人民政府与国家信息产业部签订《关于藏文软件开发和推广应用的合作协议》,研发出输入法、操作系统、办公软件、网页浏览器等一系列基础性藏文软件。2015年底,国家标准《信息技术 藏文词汇》正式发布,标志着我国第一个少数民族文字的信息技术词汇国家标准正式诞生。
The standardization of Tibetan terminology is high on the state agenda. In 1995, the National Working Committee for the Standardization of Tibetan Terminology was established. In 2018, the working committee issued the New Tibetan Terms Approved Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, which contains nearly 1,500 new terms. Remarkable results have been achieved in employing the Tibetan language in IT and in the research, development and promotion of Tibetan-language software. In July 1997, the Tibetan coded character set was officially adopted, and became an important part of the Information Technology – Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set. The Tibetan language thus became the first ethnic-minority language in China with an international standard and a pass to the global information superhighway. In 2004, the People’s Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region and the Ministry of Information Industry signed the Cooperation Agreement on the Development, Promotion and Application of Tibetan-Language Software, on which base a core set of Tibetan-language software was developed, including input method, operating system, office software, and web browser. At the end of 2015, the national standard Information Technology – Vocabulary in Tibetan was officially released, which marked the birth of China’s first national standard vocabulary for information technology in an ethnic-minority language.

 

——风俗习惯得到充分尊重
– Customs and habits are fully respected.

国家尊重和保障西藏各民族按照传统风俗习惯生活和进行社会活动的权利。各族群众在保持服饰、饮食、住房的传统方式和风格的同时,也吸收了不少新的现代文化习俗。藏历新年、拉萨雪顿节、那曲赛马节等一大批群众性文化传统节庆得到继承和创新。近年来,增设“西藏百万农奴解放纪念日”,以及日喀则珠峰文化节、山南雅砻文化节、林芝桃花节等各种文化旅游节,丰富了广大人民群众的精神生活,展示了新时代西藏人民的精神风貌。
The state respects and protects the rights of all ethnic groups in Tibet to live and conduct social activities in accordance with traditional customs and habits. While maintaining their traditional ways and styles of dress, diet and housing, people of all ethnic groups have also absorbed many new and modern cultural customs. The Tibetan New Year, the Shoton Festival in Lhasa, and the Horse Racing Festival in Nagqu are among a large number of cultural and traditional festivals that have been conserved and upgraded. In recent years, various cultural and tourism festivals, such as the Commemoration Day for the Liberation of One Million Serfs in Tibet, the Mount Qomolangma Culture and Art Festival in Xigaze, the Yarlung Cultural Festival in Shannan, and the Peach Blossom Festival in Nyingchi, have enriched the lives of Tibetan people and showcased their vitality in the new era.

 

——文化遗产得到有效保护传承
– Cultural heritage is effectively protected and passed on.

几十年来,西藏多次组织大规模、有系统的文化遗产普查、搜集、整理和研究工作。现已调查登记的各类文物点4277处,各级文物保护单位1985处,其中国家级文物保护单位70处。继1972年维修大昭寺之后,国家持续投入巨额资金对布达拉宫、罗布林卡、大昭寺等文物古迹进行维修保护,仅1989年至1995年,国家就投入2亿多元对布达拉宫进行维修及广场扩建。2018年底,启动了周期10年、投资3亿元的布达拉宫文物(古籍文献)保护利用项目。2006年至2020年,安排资金34亿多元,实施西藏博物馆改扩建工程等155处文物保护单位的维修工程。35个村落列入中国传统村落名录,中央财政支持6900万元,保护了农耕文明传承和文化遗产,改善了农牧民居住环境。
Over the past few decades, Tibet has organized large-scale and systematic surveys, and the collection, collation and research of cultural heritage. A total of 4,277 cultural relics sites of all kinds have been examined and registered. Tibet has 1,985 cultural relics sites under the protection of governments at different levels, of which 70 are under state protection. Since restorative work was done on the Jokhang Temple in 1972, the state has continued to invest huge funds in the maintenance and protection of the Potala Palace, Norbulingka, Jokhang Temple and other cultural relics and historic sites. From 1989 to 1995 alone, the state invested more than RMB200 million in the maintenance of the Potala Palace and the expansion of its square. At the end of 2018, the state launched a 10-year project to protect and utilize cultural relics of the Potala Palace – mainly ancient books and documents – at an investment of RMB300 million. From 2006 to 2020, the state allocated more than RMB3.4 billion for the maintenance of 155 cultural relic sites under protection, including the renovation and expansion of the Tibet Museum. Thirty-five villages have been added to the list of Traditional Chinese Villages, and central government funding of RMB69 million has been used to protect elements of agricultural civilization and cultural heritage and to improve the living environment of farmers and herdsmen.

 

国家重视支持藏医药的传承发展。建立西藏藏医药大学,培养了7000余名藏医药专业人才。规范藏医诊疗标准,目前西藏公立藏医医疗机构达44所,乡镇卫生院和村卫生室藏医药服务覆盖率分别达到94.4%和42.4%。藏药生产迈向标准化、规范化、规模化的工业化生产,藏医药产业体系基本形成。西藏已有17家藏药生产企业通过国家GMP认证,拥有311个藏药国药准字号。启动民族医药古籍文献整理项目,截至2020年,已完成145部藏医药、天文历算的古籍整理与出版发行。国家已先后整理出版300多部藏医药古籍文献,收集珍贵古籍文本600多卷。
The state makes a point of supporting the inheritance and development of Tibetan medicine. It established the University of Tibetan Medicine, which has trained more than 7,000 professionals in this field. It has standardized the diagnosis and treatment of Tibetan medicine. There are 44 public Tibetan medical institutions in Tibet, and about 94 percent of township health centers and 42 percent of village health clinics provide Tibetan medicine services. Industrial production of Tibetan medicine has been scaled up and standardized, and a basic Tibetan medicine industry chain has taken shape. Seventeen Tibetan medicine manufacturers in Tibet have passed GMP certification, and 311 Tibetan drugs have been approved by the state. The state has launched a project to collate ancient books on ethnic medicine. By 2020, 145 ancient books on Tibetan medicine, astronomy and calendars had been collated, published and distributed. Over the years, the state has compiled and published more than 300 ancient books on Tibetan medicine, and collected more than 600 volumes of rare ancient books.

2006年以来,中央财政累计投入2.09亿元,用于西藏国家级非物质文化遗产代表性项目的保护、国家级代表性传承人的抢救性记录、非物质文化遗产传承人群培训以及扶持传承人开展传习活动、非物质文化遗产保护利用项目基地建设等。目前,西藏有联合国人类非物质文化遗产代表作3项(格萨〈斯〉尔、藏戏、藏医药浴法);国家级代表性项目89项,国家级代表性传承人96名,自治区级代表性项目460项,自治区级代表性传承人522名。
Since 2006, the state has invested a total of RMB209 million in Tibet in the following areas – protecting intangible cultural heritage (ICH) items on the national representative list, taking steps to record and conserve the knowledge and skills of the bearers of the ICH items on the national list, training ICH practitioners, and assisting them to set up sites for the protection and utilization of intangible cultural heritage and pass on their skills. Tibet now has three items (Gesar, Tibetan opera and Lum medicinal bathing of Sowa Rigpa) included on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. There are 89 items on the national ICH list with 96 state-level representative bearers, 460 items on the regional list with 522 regional-level representative bearers.

 

七、民族宗教工作成效显著
VII. Remarkable Results in Ethnic and Religious Work

国家制定一系列方针政策,全面落实民族区域自治制度,依法保护正常宗教活动,促进各民族共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展。
The state formulates guidelines and policies to fully implement the system of regional ethnic autonomy, protect normal religious activities in accordance with the law, and promote the unity and common prosperity of all ethnic groups.

 

——民族区域自治制度全面实施
– The system of regional ethnic autonomy has been fully implemented.

民族区域自治制度是国家一项基本政治制度。1965年,西藏自治区成立,选举产生自治区人民委员会,民族区域自治制度在西藏全面实施。1984年,国家颁布实施《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》。经过几十年探索实践,西藏各民族人民构建起平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系。
The system of regional ethnic autonomy is a basic political system of the state. In 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was founded and its People’s Committee was elected. Since then, the system of regional ethnic autonomy has been fully implemented in Tibet. In 1984, the central government promulgated and implemented the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy of the People’s Republic of China. After decades of experimentation and practical work, people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have built ethnic relationships characterized by equality, unity, mutual support and harmony.

西藏人民依法享有当家作主权利。自治区成立以来,先后出台152部地方性法规和规范性文件,为维护各族人民的各项权益提供了重要法治保障。西藏各族人民积极行使宪法和法律所赋予的选举权和被选举权,参加全国和自治区各级人大代表选举,参与管理国家和地方事务。1979年以来,先后进行多次自治区、地(市)、县、乡(镇)四级换届选举,选民参选率都在90%以上,有些地方参选率达到100%。2018年1月18日公布的西藏自治区第十一届人民代表大会439名代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表共289人,占65.83%。中国人民政治协商会议西藏委员会历届委员中的绝大多数是藏族和其他少数民族人士。坚持各民族平等参与、共同管理原则,在人口较少民族聚居区设立民族乡保障人口较少民族的权益。目前在山南、林芝、昌都三市人口较少民族聚居区共设立9个民族乡,其中门巴民族乡5个、珞巴民族乡3个、纳西民族乡1个。
People in Tibet enjoy the right to be masters of the country and the region in accordance with the law. Since its founding, the autonomous region has issued 152 local regulations and normative documents, providing an important legal guarantee for the rights and interests of all ethnic groups. People in Tibet actively exercise the right to vote and stand for election as prescribed by the Constitution and laws; they participate in the election of deputies to people’s congresses at the national and local levels, and in the administration of state and local affairs. Since 1979, elections have been held at the regional, prefectural (city), county and township (town) levels, with the voter participation rate above 90 percent, and in some places as high as 100 percent. Of the 439 deputies to the 11th People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region announced on January 18, 2018, 289 – almost exactly two-thirds – are from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. Most of the current and previous members of the Tibetan Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference are or were Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. The state supports equal participation and joint management by all ethnic groups, and sets up ethnic townships in areas where ethnic groups with small populations live in compact communities, to protect the rights and interests of these groups. At present, nine ethnic townships have been set up in Shannan, Nyingchi and Qamdo, of which five are Monba townships, three are Lhoba townships and one is a Naxi township.

国家历来重视少数民族干部和人才培养。和平解放后,特别是民主改革过程中,大批农奴和奴隶出身的积极分子迅速成长,成为优秀的民族干部。1981年,西藏专门设立培养教育民族干部的机构,1989年,成立干部教育工作领导小组,通过培训学习、基层锻炼、异地交流、岗位轮换等多种形式,培养了大批少数民族行政和专业技术干部。
The state pays great attention to the training of officials and personnel from minority ethnic groups. After the liberation of Tibet, especially during democratic reform, a large number of liberated serfs and slaves grew rapidly into outstanding officials. By setting up a special institution to train and educate ethnic minority officials in 1981, and a leading group for official education in 1989, Tibet has cultivated a large number of administrative and technical ethnic minority officials through training, job rotation, providing work opportunities at the grass-roots, and arranging for leading officials to hold posts in different localities.

 

——中华民族共同体意识更加牢固
– The sense of national identity has been heightened.

西藏自古以来就有各民族交往交流交融的优良传统。早在西藏和平解放之初,就有大批各族各界人士到其他省市参观考察。改革开放后,各民族间的经济、文化交流更加紧密,中华民族共同体意识更加牢固。每年在国庆节、西藏和平解放、“民族团结月”等节庆节点,大力开展中国梦主题教育、爱国主义教育,民族团结进步事业得到进一步发展。目前,国务院、西藏自治区表彰的民族团结进步先进单位共有1985个(次)、先进个人2846人(次),拉萨、日喀则、昌都、阿里先后成为全国民族团结进步示范市(地)。截至2020年,西藏颁布实施关于民族团结进步模范区创建条例等地方性法规1部、规范性文件4个。西藏籍学生和劳动者到其他省市就业创业,每年约有10%以上的西藏籍大学生选择区外就业。鼓励其他省市人员在藏求学投资兴业,不断创新招商引资举措,2016年以来出台涉及税收、金融、土地等52条特殊优惠政策,有效提高行政审批效率和服务质量,招商引资到位资金达2535亿元。积极打造各民族互嵌式社会结构和社区环境,大力促进公共服务均等化,保障城市和散居地区少数民族合法权益,尊重他们在节庆、饮食、丧葬等方面的风俗习惯。
Tibet has had a fine tradition of exchanges, communication, and integration among ethnic groups since ancient times. In the early 1950s, a large number of people from various ethnic groups and sectors in Tibet visited other parts of China. Since reform and opening up in 1978, economic and cultural exchanges between ethnic groups have become closer and the sense of national identity has grown stronger. Every year on National Day, and during the Peaceful Liberation Celebration and the Ethnic Unity Month, Tibet conducts themed education on the Chinese Dream and patriotism. Thanks to these efforts, ethnic unity and progress have been promoted. To date the State Council and the Tibet Autonomous Region have presented 1,985 awards to exemplary organizations and 2,846 awards to exemplary individuals for ethnic unity and progress. Lhasa, Xigaze, Qamdo and Ngari have each become demonstration cities (prefectures) for ethnic unity and progress. By the end of 2020, Tibet had promulgated and implemented one regulation – Regulations on the Establishment of Model Areas for Ethnic Unity and Progress – and four normative documents on ethnic unity and progress. Tibetan students and workers are free to find jobs and start businesses anywhere in the rest of China. Every year, more than 10 percent of Tibetan college students take jobs outside the autonomous region.

The autonomous region encourages people from other parts of China to study, invest and start businesses in Tibet, and constantly creates innovative new measures to attract investment. Since 2016, the region has issued 52 special preferential policies related to taxation, finance, and land, which have effectively improved the efficiency of administrative examination and approval and the quality of services. As a result, a total of RMB253.5 billion has been in place. The region has also worked hard to create an integrated social structure and community environment for all ethnic groups, promote equal access to public services, protect the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minorities living in cities and scattered residential areas, and respect their festive, food and funeral customs and traditions.

 

——宗教信仰自由得到充分保障
– Freedom of religious belief is fully protected.

在西藏,各宗教、各教派一律平等,信教和不信教群众一视同仁。现有藏传佛教宗教活动场所1700多处,僧尼约4.6万人,清真寺4座,世居穆斯林群众12000余人,天主教堂1座,信徒700余人。为坚持我国宗教中国化方向,切实保障宗教信仰自由与秩序,依法管理宗教事务,依照《宗教事务条例》制定《藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法》,并制定《西藏自治区实施〈宗教事务条例〉办法(试行)》《西藏自治区大型宗教活动管理办法》《西藏自治区藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法实施细则》等一系列政策措施和规范性文件。
In Tibet, all religions and sects are equal, as are all believers and non-believers. There are more than 1,700 sites for Tibetan Buddhist activities with 46,000 monks and nuns, 4 mosques serving 12,000 native Muslims, and a Catholic church with more than 700 followers. In order to adapt religions to the Chinese context, ensure the freedom and order of religious belief, and manage religious affairs in accordance with the law, the state has formulated the Measures on the Management of the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas of Tibetan Buddhism in accordance with the Regulations on Religious Affairs. It has also formulated a series of policies, measures and regulatory documents, which include Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region on Implementing the Regulations on Religious Affairs (trial), Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region on the Management of Major Religious Activities, and Detailed Rules of the Tibet Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the Measures on the Management of Living Buddha Reincarnation of Tibetan Buddhism.

按照法规规章、宗教仪轨和历史定制,有序开展活佛转世认定。1995年,通过金瓶掣签,经国务院批准,完成十世班禅转世灵童寻访、认定以及十一世班禅坐床工作。2010年,经金瓶掣签,报西藏自治区人民政府批准,完成六世德珠活佛的认定和坐床工作。截至2020年,已有92位新转世活佛严格按照宗教仪轨和历史定制,得到批准和认定。依法开展正常宗教活动,寺庙学经、辩经、受戒、灌顶、修行等传统宗教活动和寺庙学经考核晋升学位活动正常进行。
The reincarnation of Living Buddhas has been carried out in an orderly manner in accordance with laws, regulations, religious rituals and historical conventions. In 1995, with the approval of the State Council, the search for and identification of the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama and the enthronement of the 11th Panchen Lama were completed by drawing lots from a golden urn. In 2010, the Sixth Living Buddha Dezhub was identified and enthroned through the drawing of lots from a golden urn and with the approval of the government of the Tibet Autonomous Region. By 2020, 92 reincarnated Living Buddhas had been identified and approved through traditional religious rituals and historical conventions. Traditional religious activities are carried out regularly in accordance with the law – activities such as studying scriptures and debate, initiation as a monk or nun, abhisheka (an empowerment ceremony), and self-cultivation. Examination on scriptures and subsequent promotion in academic degrees are also held in monasteries on a regular basis.

西藏佛学院及其10所分院现有学经僧尼3000余人,2005年到2020年共有240人获得藏传佛教最高学衔“拓然巴”。寺庙传统印经院得到保留和发展,现有布达拉宫印经院等规模性传统印经院3家。信教群众正常参加萨噶达瓦节、拉萨祈愿大法会、马年转冈底斯山、羊年转纳木错等各种各样的宗教和传统活动。当前各级人民代表大会、政治协商会议中,有600余名宗教界人士担任代表、委员。
The Tibetan Buddhist Institute and its 10 branches now have more than 3,000 monks and nuns who are studying the sutras, and 240 received senior academic titles between 2005 and 2020. Monastery-run scripture printing houses have been conserved and developed; there are three large-scale printing houses at the Potala Palace and other monasteries. Religious believers regularly participate in various religious and traditional activities such as the Saga Dawa Festival, the Monlam Prayer Festival in Lhasa, the Tour of Gangdise Mountains in the Year of the Horse, and the Tour of Lake Namtso in the Year of the Sheep. Currently more than 600 religious figures serve as deputies or members of people’s congresses and political consultative conferences at various levels.

八、生态安全屏障日益坚实
VIII. Solid Environmental Safety Barriers

青藏高原是“世界屋脊”“亚洲水塔”,西藏是中国重要的生态安全屏障。国家高度重视西藏生态文明建设,持续推进制度创新、筑牢科技文化支撑、加大生态建设投入,推动构建人与自然生命共同体。目前,西藏生态系统整体稳定,环境质量持续向好,绿色发展格局初步形成,人民生态环境权益不断提升,“绿水青山就是金山银山、冰天雪地也是金山银山”的理念深入人心,西藏成为世界上生态环境最好的地区之一。
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is known as “the roof of the world” and “the water tower of Asia.” Tibet is an important guarantor of China’s environmental security. The Chinese government attaches great importance to eco-environmental protection in Tibet. It has made constant efforts to improve institutions, provide strong scientific and cultural support, and increase investment in this field, with the goal of building a community of life for humanity and nature.

Tibet’s ecosystems are now generally stable. Environmental quality is improving, a green development model is in place, and eco-environmental rights and interests are more secure. “Clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets, so is snow-covered land” – this concept is alive in people’s hearts. Tibet has become one of the regions with the best eco-environment in the world.

 

——生态文明建设统筹推进
– Making coordinated progress in improving the eco-environment

和平解放初期,中国科学院就派出专家学者对西藏生态、地质气象进行综合考察。1973年和2017年国家先后开展两次青藏高原综合科学考察。2012年以来,出台《关于全面加强生态环境保护 坚决打好污染防治攻坚战的实施意见》《关于建设美丽西藏的意见》《关于创建国家生态文明建设示范区 加快建设美丽西藏的实施意见》《西藏自治区国家生态文明高地建设条例》等,不断完善监测监察考核体系。截至2020年,西藏累计投入生态环境领域的资金达814亿元。统筹山水林田湖草系统治理,大力实施《西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划(2008-2030年)》和“两江四河”流域绿化项目。持续推进生态文明创建示范工作。拉萨市、山南市、林芝市、昌都市和阿里地区获国家生态文明建设示范市称号,巴宜区、亚东县和当雄县获国家生态文明建设示范县称号,隆子县获“绿水青山就是金山银山”实践创新基地称号。加强水土保持工作,加大水土流失综合治理力度,全面推进河湖长制,设立区、市、县、乡、村五级河湖长1.48万名,实现河湖“清四乱”常态化制度化。2020年,噶尔县因河湖长制工作成效明显,被国务院办公厅列入激励名单。
Shortly after liberation, the Chinese Academy of Sciences sent specialists to Tibet to survey the local ecology, geology and meteorology. The Chinese government organized two comprehensive scientific investigations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, in 1973 and 2017.

Since 2012, a number of regulations have been released to improve the system for monitoring and assessing the local eco-environment. These include Opinions on Strengthening Eco-environmental Protection and Pollution Prevention and Control, Opinions on Building a Beautiful Tibet, Opinions on Building National Ecological Culture Demonstration Areas to Boost Efforts for Building a Beautiful Tibet, and Regulations on Developing Ecological Highlands in the Tibet Autonomous Region. By 2020, Tibet had invested a total of RMB81.4 billion in this field.

A holistic approach to conserving mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands has been adopted. The Plan for Protecting and Improving the Ecological Safety Barriers in Tibet (2008-2030) and the afforestation project in the watersheds of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Nujiang River, Lhasa River, Nianchu River, Yalong River, and Shiquan River have been implemented.

Work has been carried forward to build eco-environmental culture demonstration areas. Lhasa, Shannan, Nyingchi and Qamdo cities and Ngari Prefecture won national titles for their pioneering work, as did Bayi District of Nyingchi City, Yadong County and Damxung County. Lhunze County has become a base for practicing the concept that clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets.

The efforts to conserve water and soil and control soil erosion have been increased. A river/lake responsibility system, where officials at different levels are assigned responsibility for the governance of specific rivers and lakes, has been rolled out, involving 14,800 officials at the regional, city, county, township and village levels. In addition, the cleanup campaign initiated in 2018 to regulate illegal riverside occupation, construction, mining and waste, has become a systematic and standard practice. Gar County was recognized for outstanding performance in this regard by the State Council General Office in 2020.

 

——生态环境保持良好
– Maintaining a good eco-environment

现有11个国家级自然保护区、4个国家级风景名胜区、3个国家地质公园、9个国家森林公园、22个国家湿地公园,自然保护地占全区国土面积的38.75%。建立1个防沙治沙综合示范区、5个沙化土地封禁保护区,封禁面积达到4.8万公顷。2004年至2014年荒漠化土地面积减少9.24万公顷,沙化土地面积减少10.07万公顷。2020年森林覆盖率达到12.31%,天然草原综合植被覆盖度提高到47%,湿地面积达到652.9万公顷。加强野生动物及其栖息地保护,黑颈鹤由不到3000只上升到8000多只,藏羚羊约30万只。在第二次陆生野生动物资源调查中发现白颊猕猴等新物种5个,东歌林莺等中国新纪录物种5个。第二次野生植物资源调查结果显示,国家一级保护野生植物巨柏稳步增加并得到有效保护。调查中发现桫椤、喜马拉雅红豆杉等21个物种的新分布点。主要江河湖泊水质整体良好,雅鲁藏布江、纳木错水质达到《地表水环境质量标准》Ⅱ类标准,珠穆朗玛峰下绒布河达到Ⅰ类标准。实现化肥农药使用量零增长,土壤处于自然本底状态。2020年PM10和PM2.5年均浓度较2015年分别降低28.1%和37.5%,西藏空气优良天数达到99.4%。
Tibet has 11 national nature reserves, 4 national scenic spots, 3 national geological parks, 9 national forest parks, and 22 national wetland parks. Protected natural areas make up almost 40 percent of the region’s land area. Tibet has one comprehensive demonstration area for desertification control, and five closed-off protection zones of desertified land covering an area of 48,000 hectares. From 2004 to 2014, Tibet saw a fall of 92,400 hectares in desertification and a decline of 100,700 hectares in sandification. In 2020, the forest coverage reached 12.3 percent, the comprehensive vegetation coverage of natural grassland grew to 47 percent, and the wetland area totaled 6.53 million hectares.

Wild animals and their habitats are better protected. The population of black-necked cranes has increased from no more than 3,000 in the 1990s to more than 8,000, and the population of Tibetan antelopes is around 300,000. In the second survey of terrestrial wild animals, five new species including white-cheeked macaques were discovered, and another five species were found for the first time in China, including the Eastern Orphean Warbler. The second survey of wild plants showed that the number of giant cypress – under Class A national protection – has steadily increased and been effectively protected. The survey also found 21 species including Alsophila spinulosa and Taxus wallichiana Zuccarini in new sites.

The water quality of major rivers and lakes is generally good. Quality in both the Yarlung Zangbo River and Lake Namtso is up to Class II standard of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water of China, and that of the Rongbuk River under Mount Qomolangma, Class I standard.

The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has been held stable in Tibet, bringing the soil to a natural state. In 2020, Tibet saw its average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 declining by 28.1 and 37.5 percent respectively compared with 2015, and its days of good air quality fell just short of 100 percent.

 

——绿色发展格局初步形成
– A green development model in place

西藏将建设成为国家清洁能源接续基地。截至2020年,清洁能源已达到发电装机容量的89.09%。2015年至2020年底,累计外送清洁电力65亿千瓦时,大量减少了二氧化碳排放。推进国家级循环经济试点,加快餐厨废弃物资源化利用。深入推进固体废物监管,县级以上城镇生活垃圾无害化处理率达到97.34%,医疗废物实现应收尽收、应处尽处。2016年至2020年,城市污水处理率从50.19%提高到96.28%。美丽乡村建设持续推进,相继实施薪柴替代、厕所革命、环境整治、乡村绿化等项目,逐步建立健全农村生活垃圾收运处置体系。建立起覆盖草原、森林、湿地、野生动物肇事等领域的生态保护补偿机制,2019年至2020年,累计安排生态护林员补助资金2.74亿元,支持选聘生态护林员7.82万名,安排森林生态效益补偿补助31.82亿元,生态环境权益得到保障。持续开展“爱粮节约”活动和“光盘行动”,城乡居民节约用水用电意识显著增强,新能源电动汽车数量快速增长,绿色生活正成为新时尚。
Tibet is working to develop itself into a national clean energy base. By 2020, clean energy had contributed 89.1 percent of the installed power-generating capacity in Tibet. From 2015 to the end of 2020, 6.5 billion kwh of clean energy-generated electricity was transmitted, which greatly reduced carbon dioxide emissions.

A pilot national circular economy program has been carried out in Tibet, and efforts have been made to increase the utilization of kitchen waste. Solid wastes have been brought under strict regulation. The rate of safe domestic bio-waste disposal at or above the county level has reached 97.3 percent, and all medical waste requiring collection and treatment is collected and treated properly. The rate of urban sewage disposal grew from 50.2 percent in 2016 to 96.3 percent in 2020.

The initiative to build a beautiful countryside has advanced. Projects have been carried out to replace firewood with clean energy, build sufficient clean and safe toilets, improve living environments, and create green rural areas. A sound system to collect, transport and dispose of rural domestic sewage has been put in place.

A mechanism has been established to provide recompense for eco-protection of grasslands, forests and wetlands, and for damage caused by wild animals. From 2019 to 2020, RMB274 million was allocated in subsidies for selecting and recruiting 78,200 forest rangers, and RMB3.18 billion was granted as compensation and subsidies for forest protection, better ensuring people’s eco-environmental rights and interests.

Campaigns have continued to encourage food saving and oppose food waste. Both urban and rural residents are more aware of the need to save water and electricity. New energy electric vehicles have grown in number. Green living is becoming part of everyday life.

 

九、坚定维护国家统一和社会稳定
IX. Resolutely Safeguarding National Unity and Social Stability

国家统一和社会稳定是西藏各项事业发展的重要保障,是西藏各族人民幸福生活的坚实依托。长期以来,西方反华势力从未停止利用所谓“西藏问题”扰乱遏制中国,十四世达赖集团从未放弃过“西藏独立”的图谋,不断制造事端,危害西藏安定团结的大好局面。为了保障西藏各项事业的发展和人民的幸福生活,卓有成效地开展了维护社会和谐稳定的工作。
National unity and social stability are important guarantors of all the undertakings of Tibet, and a solid buttress ensuring a happy life for all ethnic groups in Tibet. Over the years, Western anti-China forces have used Tibet as a pretext to disrupt China and interfere with its development, and the 14th Dalai Lama and his supporters have continued to try to promote “Tibetan independence” by provoking incidents to jeopardize peace and stability in Tibet. The Chinese government has taken effective measures to maintain social stability and harmony in the region.

——西方反华势力图谋搞乱西藏遏制中国
– The Western anti-China forces’ attempts to create disorder in Tibet to contain China

长期以来,西方反华势力不断插手干涉中国西藏事务,企图破坏西藏社会稳定。早在西藏和平解放之前,美国政府即与西藏地方亲帝分裂势力建立联系。20世纪50年代中期,美国中央情报局在科罗拉多州训练从事暴力活动的“藏独”分子。西藏武装叛乱期间,美国中央情报局不仅派特工帮助十四世达赖逃亡,而且还空投大量武器装备,帮助重建叛乱武装。“四水六岗”则由美国中央情报局提供武器装备、教官,并直接指挥。20世纪80年代以来,在西藏发生的历次骚乱都有西方某些势力的插手。近年来,西方反华势力对西藏的干涉更是变本加厉。美国先后炮制了《2002年西藏政策法》《2018年对等进入西藏旅行法》《2020年西藏政策及支持法》等多部法案,图谋以所谓“西藏问题”干涉中国内政。
Over the years, Western anti-China forces have continued to interfere in China’s Tibetan affairs in an attempt to sabotage its social stability. Prior to liberation, the US government had already established contacts with pro-imperialist separatists in Tibet. In the mid-1950s, the CIA helped to train Tibetan separatists in Colorado to carry out violent activities. During the armed rebellion in Tibet in 1959, the CIA helped the 14th Dalai Lama flee and airdropped a large quantity of weaponry to support rebel forces. The CIA was also in direct command of a rebel organization named “Four Rivers and Six Ranges”,[ This refers to the four main rivers and six mountain ranges in Tibet and the Tibetan-inhabited areas of Sichuan Province in southwestern China. – Tr.] providing it with weapons and training instructors.[ The CIA’s Secret War in Tibet [Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, University Press of Kansas: 2002] reveals how America’s Central Intelligence Agency encouraged and eventually controlled Tibet’s revolt against China. – Ed.]

Since the 1980s, Western forces have played an active role in all the outbreaks of unrest that have taken place in Tibet. In recent years, Western anti-China forces have intensified such efforts. Using the “Tibetan issue” as the excuse, the US government has enacted the Tibetan Policy Act of 2002, the Reciprocal Access to Tibet Act of 2018, and the Tibetan Policy and Support Act of 2020, to interfere in China’s domestic affairs.

 

——十四世达赖集团阴谋从事分裂祖国活动
– The 14th Dalai group and their attempts to divide China

1959年,西藏反动上层发动全面武装叛乱、失败逃往印度后,公开主张以暴力手段实现“西藏独立”。随后,在美国支持下重组“四水六岗”,在尼泊尔木斯塘建立武装基地,长期在中尼边境进行骚扰活动。1962年,在外部势力支持下,组建以流亡藏人为主的“印藏边境特种部队”,不断袭扰中国边防军队和边境地区的平民。
In 1959, after the failure of their armed rebellion, the reactionaries of Tibet’s ruling class fled to India. They subsequently began to campaign for “Tibetan independence” by force. Later, with the support of the US, they reorganized the “Four Rivers and Six Ranges” rebel organization, and set up a military base in Mustang, a county in Nepal, to engage in long-term attacks across the China-Nepal borders. In 1962, with support from external powers, they built a para-commando force composed of mainly Tibetan exiles to harass Chinese border troops and civilians along the China-India border.

 

20世纪70年代末以来,国际形势发生深刻变化,十四世达赖集团迫于形势压力,开始变换策略,一方面连续制造骚乱暴力事件向中央政府施压,1987年、1988年、1989年多次策划煽动暴力事件,2008年策划实施拉萨“3·14”打砸抢烧暴力事件,并在北京奥运会筹办期间在国际上制造一系列干扰破坏活动,引起国际社会极大愤慨。2011年以来,十四世达赖集团煽动蛊惑境内藏族僧俗信众自焚,并在网上发布《自焚指导书》,造成一段时间中国部分地区接连发生自焚事件。另一方面宣扬“非暴力”,提出所谓“中间道路”欺骗世人,1987年在美国国会人权核心小组会议提出“西藏和平五点计划”,1988年在法国斯特拉斯堡提出解决所谓“西藏问题”的“七点新建议”,2008年提出《为全体藏人获得真正自治的备忘录》。
From the late 1970s, under pressure from significant shifts in the international landscape, the 14th Dalai Lama and his supporters began to alter their tactics.

On the one hand, they continued to provoke incidents of violence to keep up pressure on the central government. For example, in 1987, 1988 and 1989 they planned and instigated multiple violent incidents. In 2008, they planned and executed violent riots in Lhasa on March 14 and launched a number of international incidents designed to sabotage the preparations for the Beijing Olympic Games. Since 2011, the 14th Dalai Lama and his supporters have incited Tibetan lamas and lay followers inside China to engage in acts of self-immolation, and released a Self-Immolation Guide on the internet, giving rise to a surge of self-immolation incidents in some parts of China.

On the other hand, they proclaimed a commitment to “non-violence” and the “middle way”. At the Congressional Human Rights Caucus in 1987 in Washington DC, the 14th Dalai Lama proposed a Five-Point Peace Plan and in 1988, in Strasbourg in France, he put forward the Strasbourg Proposal. In 2008, the Dalai group presented the Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People.

所谓“中间道路”,其核心内容是:不承认西藏自古是中国一部分,宣称“西藏历史上是一个完全独立的国家”;图谋建立历史上从不存在的所谓“大藏区”,要将西藏、四川、云南、甘肃、青海等藏族及其他民族聚居区合并建立所谓统一的行政区;要求实行不受中央约束的“高度自治”,不承认中央政府的领导和西藏现行的社会政治制度,宣称建立“自治政府”,“除外交和国防,其他所有事务都由藏人(即达赖集团)负责,并负有全权”;反对中央在西藏驻军,提出中国军队“全部撤出去”,把西藏变成“国际和平区”;无视青藏高原自古多民族杂居共处事实,要求驱赶在青藏高原世代居住的其他民族。“中间道路”既不符合中国的历史、现实、宪法、法律、基本制度,也不符合西藏的历史、现实和民族关系,更有违包括藏族人民在内的全中国人民的根本利益。
The claims of the “middle way” can be summarized as follows:

• It denies the fact that Tibet has been an integral part of China since ancient times; instead it claims that Tibet was “an independent state”.

• It seeks to establish a “Greater Tibet” that has never existed at any time in history, claiming that Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, Qinghai and other areas inhabited by compact communities of both Tibetans and people of other ethnic minorities should be incorporated into a unified administrative region.

• It demands “a high degree of autonomy” that is not subject to any constraint whatsoever from the central government, and denies the leadership of the central government and Tibet’s present social and political systems; it proposes to establish an “autonomous government” under which “Tibetans (in truth the Dalai group) take full charge of all affairs other than diplomacy and national defense”.

• It opposes the central government’s right to garrison troops in Tibet. Despite its superficial agreement that the central government holds the authority over national defense, it demands that the central government “withdraw all Chinese troops” to turn Tibet into an “international zone of peace”.

• In total disregard of the fact that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has been a multiethnic region since ancient times, it demands that other ethnic groups be driven out of regions where they have lived for generations.

The “middle way” does not tally with China’s history, national reality, state Constitution, laws and basic systems. Neither does it conform to Tibet’s history, reality and ethnic relations. Moreover, it runs counter to the fundamental interests of all the people of China, including the Tibetans.

 

——坚决维护国家安全和西藏稳定
– Resolutely safeguarding national security and Tibet’s stability

西藏和平解放以来的实践证明,没有国家的安全,西藏各族人民的根本利益就难以得到维护,没有稳定的社会环境,经济、文化、生态等各项事业就难以得到发展,人民的安定幸福生活就难以得到保障。长期以来,西方反华势力及其支持的十四世达赖集团一直是影响西藏社会团结进步的消极因素。十四世达赖叛逃后,中央政府始终是仁至义尽、给予出路,其全国人大常委会副委员长职务一直保留到1964年。改革开放后,中央政府为十四世达赖改正错误指明出路,提出“爱国一家,爱国不分先后”,邀请他派人回国探亲参观。1979年至2002年,中央政府13次接待十四世达赖的私人代表,2002年至2010年,又10次同意他们回国。然而十四世达赖屡屡辜负中央期望,始终没有从根本上放弃其政治主张。
All experience since liberation has proved that without national security, the fundamental interests of the ethnic groups of Tibet cannot be protected. Without a stable social environment, there will be no economic, cultural or eco-environmental development, nor can the people’s right to a stable and happy life be guaranteed. Over the years, the 14th Dalai Lama and his followers, supported by Western anti-China forces, have contributed nothing positive to the social solidarity and progress of Tibet.

Since the 14th Dalai Lama fled abroad in 1959, the central government has exercised great restraint and done its best to provide solutions, for example preserving his position as a vice-chairman of the NPC Standing Committee until 1964. After reform and opening up, the central government offered the 14th Dalai Lama an opportunity to accept the policy that “all patriots belong to one big family, whether they embrace patriotism earlier or later,” and invited him to send representatives to return home for a visit. The central government received 13 visits by private representatives of the 14th Dalai Lama between 1979 and 2002, and granted approval to ten visits from 2002 to 2010. But to the disappointment of the central government, the Dalai Lama has refused to relinquish his political demands.

对于西方反华势力干涉中国内政的图谋和十四世达赖集团的分裂活动,包括西藏人民在内的全中国人民坚定维护祖国统一、维护国家主权,同任何分裂势力、反华势力进行坚决斗争。西藏高举宪法法律旗帜,坚决抵制十四世达赖集团的渗透破坏活动,深入持久开展民族团结进步创建,不断铸牢中华民族共同体意识,坚持我国宗教中国化方向,引导藏传佛教与社会主义社会相适应,形成了维护稳定的铜墙铁壁。
All the people of China, including the Tibetans, will resolutely safeguard national unity, protect national sovereignty, and fight all separatists and anti-China forces, particularly Western anti-China forces. Steadfast under the twin banners of the Constitution and the law, Tibet has firmly resisted infiltration and sabotage by the 14th Dalai Lama and his supporters, continued to build the region into a place of ethnic solidarity and progress, strengthened the keen sense of identity of the Chinese nation, stayed committed to managing religion in the Chinese context, and guided Tibetan Buddhism to adapt to socialist society and become a bastion of stability in the region.

十、新时代新征程
X. Embarking on a New Journey in the New Era

改革开放以来,党中央先后召开7次西藏工作座谈会,对西藏工作作出重大决策部署。进入新时代,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视西藏工作,习近平总书记亲自为西藏工作把舵定向、谋篇布局,提出“治国必治边、治边先稳藏”的战略思想,作出“加强民族团结、建设美丽西藏”的重要指示,亲自主持召开中央第六次、第七次西藏工作座谈会,明确新形势下西藏工作的指导思想和目标任务,确定了中央政府支持西藏的一大批重点建设项目,制定了惠及西藏各族人民的一系列特殊优惠政策。在中国共产党坚强领导下,西藏各族干部群众团结一心、艰苦奋斗,解决了许多长期想解决而没有解决的难题,办成了许多过去想办而没有办成的大事,各项事业取得全方位进步、历史性成就。
Since 1978 when China started reform and opening up, the CPC Central Committee has held seven national meetings on Tibet, making major decisions and plans for the region. Entering the new era following the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core has attached great importance to the development of Tibet, and General Secretary Xi Jinping has set the direction and made overall plans. He proposed an important strategy – “to govern the country well we must first govern the frontiers well, and to govern the frontiers well we must first ensure stability in Tibet” – and issued instructions to strengthen ethnic unity, and build a beautiful Tibet. He presided over the sixth and seventh national meetings on Tibet, defining guiding principles, objectives, and tasks in the new era. It was decided at the meetings that the central government would support a large number of key construction projects in Tibet, and a series of special preferential policies were enacted benefiting all ethnic groups in Tibet. Under the strong leadership of the CPC, the officials and people in Tibet have worked diligently with one heart and one mind to resolve many long-standing and troublesome problems, and achieved many notable successes that were unimaginable in the past. All-round progress has been made in all endeavors.

新时代的西藏,全区社会大局和谐稳定、经济持续快速发展、贫困县全部脱贫摘帽、人民生活水平全面提高、生态安全屏障切实筑牢、民族团结日益巩固、宗教与社会主义社会日趋适应、边疆巩固边境安全,呈现出一派生机勃勃的繁荣景象。
In the new era, Tibet is enjoying rapid and sustained growth thanks to social harmony and stability. All those counties formerly classified as poor have risen out of poverty, and the people are leading better lives in every respect. Environmental safeguards in the region have been strengthened. Ethnic unity has been enhanced, religion has found its place in a socialist society, and the borders are secure. Everywhere Tibet is thriving and prospering.

 

——坚持新时代党的治藏方略
– Laying down the guidelines for governing Tibet in the new era

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,当今中国正处在中华民族伟大复兴的关键时刻,西藏工作面临的形势和任务发生深刻变化。中国共产党深化对西藏工作的规律性认识,总结领导人民治藏稳藏兴藏的成功经验,提出新时代党的治藏方略,即必须坚持中国共产党领导、中国特色社会主义制度、民族区域自治制度,必须坚持治国必治边、治边先稳藏的战略思想,必须把维护祖国统一、加强民族团结作为西藏工作的着眼点和着力点,必须坚持依法治藏、富民兴藏、长期建藏、凝聚人心、夯实基础的重要原则,必须统筹国内国际两个大局,必须把改善民生、凝聚人心作为经济社会发展的出发点和落脚点,必须促进各民族交往交流交融,必须坚持我国宗教中国化方向、依法管理宗教事务,必须坚持生态保护第一,必须加强党的建设特别是政治建设。这一方略科学回答了一系列方向性、全局性、战略性问题,是对党治藏稳藏兴藏成功经验的总结提炼和创新发展,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想关于西藏工作的集中体现,为进一步做好西藏工作提供了根本遵循。
The world today is undergoing change of a scale unseen in a century. China is at a critical juncture for realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and there have been profound changes to the work required and the tasks to be accomplished in Tibet. Based on a keen understanding of the situation, the CPC has summarized its successes in leading the people of Tibet to stability and prosperity, and proposed the guidelines for governing Tibet in the new era. The guidelines are:

• We must uphold CPC leadership, socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the system of regional ethnic autonomy.

• We must uphold Xi Jinping’s strategy on governing the frontiers and ensuring stability in Tibet.

• We must focus on safeguarding national unification and strengthening ethnic unity in the work in Tibet.

• We must govern Tibet in accordance with the law, bring prosperity to Tibet and its residents, unite the people in one heart, and lay a solid foundation for its long-term growth.

• We must take into consideration both the domestic and the international situation.

• We must focus on improving people’s lives and strengthening unity in socioeconomic development.

• We must facilitate ethnic exchanges, communication and integration.

• We must develop religions in a Chinese context, and handle religious affairs in accordance with the law.

• We must prioritize eco-environmental protection.

• We must strengthen the Party, especially in its political convictions.

These guidelines, embodying Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, provide answers to a series of questions on the future direction and strategy in governing Tibet and are to be followed in all work related to Tibet.

 

——开启现代化建设新征程
– Embarking on a new journey toward modernization

西藏和平解放70周年,恰逢“十四五”规划开局之年,是我国全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标之后,乘势而上开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程的第一年。今后一个时期,国家将坚持稳中求进工作总基调,把握新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,以改革创新为根本动力,以满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要为根本目的,坚持系统观念,统筹发展和安全,坚持新时代党的治藏方略,抓好稳定、发展、生态、强边四件大事,努力建设团结富裕文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化新西藏。到2035年,西藏新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业农村现代化基本实现,基本公共服务均等化基本实现,各族群众共同富裕取得实质性进展。
The 70th anniversary of Tibet’s peaceful liberation coincides with the first year of the 14th Five-year Plan period. It is also the year in which China embarks on the great journey toward all-round modernization, after having attained the First Centenary Goal and achieved moderate prosperity in all respects. In the foreseeable future, China will remain committed to the principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, implement the new development philosophy, and create a new development model. Driven by reform and innovation, it will strive to meet the people’s growing expectation of a better life, and make plans to coordinate development and security. It will also ensure that the four main tasks embodied in the guidelines for governing Tibet – ensuring stability, facilitating development, protecting the eco-environment, and strengthening the frontiers – will be implemented. This will ensure success in building a prosperous, harmonious and beautiful new socialist Tibet underpinned by unity, civility and modernization. By 2035, new industrialization, IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization will have been realized in Tibet. The people will enjoy equal access to basic public services, and substantial progress will have been made in seeking common prosperity for all ethnic groups.

 

结束语
Conclusion

浩荡雄风藏万卷,磅礴大气独凛然。70年在历史长河中犹如白驹过隙,中国共产党团结带领西藏各族人民创造了彪炳千秋、利泽万代、亘古未有的历史功绩。短短几十年,跨越上千年,西藏从黑暗走向光明、从落后走向进步、从贫穷走向富裕、从专制走向民主、从封闭走向开放,西藏社会的面貌日新月异,西藏人民的生活蒸蒸日上。
Justice prevails when the mighty wind sweeps all evils away. Seventy years have flashed by in the long course of history. During these seven decades, the CPC has united and led the ethnic peoples of Tibet to achieve historic change and unprecedented success. A thousand years of darkness have dissipated in decades, and Tibet has broken free from its backward, autocratic, isolated past to embrace prosperity, democracy, and an open future. In a fast-changing society with a thriving economy, the Tibetan people lead better, happier lives.

70年的实践充分证明,只有坚持维护祖国统一、领土完整,才能保障西藏各族人民的根本利益;只有坚持中国共产党领导、中国特色社会主义制度、民族区域自治制度,才能为西藏长治久安和繁荣发展提供根本保证;只有坚持改革开放,才能推动西藏经济社会全面进步;只有坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,才能满足西藏各族群众对美好生活的向往;只有坚持新时代党的治藏方略,才能建设团结富裕文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化新西藏。
These seventy years have fully demonstrated that the Tibetan people’s fundamental interests can only be protected in a unified country with territorial integrity. Only by upholding CPC leadership, socialism with Chinese characteristics, and regional ethnic autonomy can there be long-term peace, stability and development in Tibet. Only by pursuing reform and opening up can Tibet build its economy and society. Only by seeking people-centered development can Tibet better meet its people’s hopes for a better life. Only by following the Party’s guidelines for governing Tibet in a new era can the region transform into a modern and beautiful new socialist Tibet characterized by unity, prosperity, civility, and harmony.

当前,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,西藏各族人民正按照习近平总书记擘画的宏伟蓝图,全面贯彻中央第七次西藏工作座谈会精神,团结一心、锐意进取,为谱写中华民族伟大复兴中国梦西藏篇章而努力奋斗。西藏的明天必将更加辉煌灿烂,西藏人民的生活必将更加幸福美好。
Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all the ethnic peoples in Tibet are following General Secretary Xi’s overall strategy and implementing the decisions made at the Seventh National Meeting on Tibet. More united than ever, they are pressing forward and contributing to the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. In Tibet’s brighter future, the people of Tibet can be confident of enjoying better and more fulfilled lives.

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