纽约时报双语:著名汉学家施舟人逝世,享年86岁

著名汉学家施舟人逝世,享年86岁
Kristofer Schipper, Influential China Scholar, Dies at 86
张彦
2021年4月6日
纽约时报双语:著名汉学家施舟人逝世,享年86岁

Early in the afternoon on Thursday, in the southern Chinese city of Suzhou, more than 50 people gathered in a Taoist temple for a 10-hour ceremony to bid farewell to one of the most influential China scholars of recent times.

上周四午后不久,在中国南方城市苏州,50多人聚集在一座道观中举行了一场10小时的道场,以追悼近代最有影响力的中国学者之一。

But this wasn’t to honor a professor at one of China’s great universities; instead it was for Kristofer Schipper, a Dutch Sinologist whose work helped usher in a fundamental shift in how people think of Chinese religion and society.

但这并非为了纪念一位受聘于中国最好的大学的教授。它追悼的是荷兰汉学家施舟人(Kristofer Schipper),他的工作促使人们对中国宗教和社会的看法产生根本的转变。

Professor Schipper died at 86 on Feb. 18 in Amsterdam after developing a blood clot in his stomach, said a friend and former student, Vincent Goossaert.

施舟人教授的朋友、曾经的学生高万桑(Vincent Goossaert)说,他在胃部出现血块后于2月18日在阿姆斯特丹逝世,享年86岁。

Professor Schipper had made Taoism his life’s work, helping to elevate it from a widely disregarded faith to a religious tradition that is regularly included in global discussions of current issues like climate change.

施舟人把道教研究当作他毕生的工作,在他的努力下,道教从被普遍忽视的信仰提升到了一种宗教传统,经常被纳入有关气候变化等时事的全球讨论中。

More important, his ideas contributed to an understanding of how Chinese society has been organized through its history — by local autonomous groups often centered on temples rather than the emperor and his vaunted bureaucracy, as historians have traditionally tended to depict it.

更重要的是,他的观点有助于人们理解中国社会在过去的历史中是如何组织的——常常由当地自发团体以宗教场所为中心来组织,而不是像传统上历史学家趋于描绘的那样,由皇帝和他标榜的官僚机构。

An ordained Taoist priest, Professor Schipper combined firsthand knowledge of rural religious life with deep textual study of classical Chinese.

施舟人是一位受箓的道士。他将农村宗教生活的第一手资料和对古汉语的深入研究结合起来。

“He was able to show that there was a religion of the people of China that was deeply connected to local forms of self-organization and self-government,” said Kenneth Dean, head of Chinese Studies at the National University of Singapore. “It was part of a change in how people described Chinese society.”

“他能够证明中国人有宗教,它与当地自发地组织、治理的形式有着密切的联系,”新加坡国立大学中国研究负责人丁荷生(Kenneth Dean)说。“人们对中国社会的描述方式发生了变化,而这是其中的一部分。”

Professor Schipper is best known for his book “The Taoist Body” (1994), which was written for the general reader. It shows how many seemingly disparate elements of Chinese culture — martial arts, art, cuisine, rituals, holidays, medicine and much local religious life — are imbued with Taoist concepts. That helped broaden how Taoism is defined, from being known for a few philosophical texts and local religious practices to being seen as encompassing a huge swath of Chinese culture and society.

施舟人以其著作《道体论》(The Taoist Body, 1994)而著称。这本为普通读者而写的书说明了中国文化中许多看似完全不同的元素——武术、艺术、烹饪、仪式、节日、医药和许多当地的宗教生活——都充满了道教观念。这帮助拓宽了道教的定义范围,从曾经仅限于少数哲学著作和当地宗教仪式,到现在被视为涵盖了中国文化和社会的大部分范畴。

Among scholars, Professor Schipper’s most influential work was as co-editor, with Franciscus Verellen, of a monumental three-volume work, “The Taoist Canon: A Historical Companion to the Daozang.” Totaling 1,800 pages, it was the first time that the 1,500 core texts of Taoism were systemically arranged and described. The project lasted nearly 30 years and involved dozens of scholars from around the world — an effort that many say created the modern field of Taoist studies.

在学者眼中,施舟人最具影响力的著作是与傅飞岚(Franciscus Verellen)共同编辑的三卷巨著《道藏通考》(The Taoist Canon: A Historical Companion to the Daozang)。全书共1800页,首次系统地整理和描述了1500部道教核心经文。该项目历时近30年,吸引了来自世界各地的数十名学者,许多人认为这是现代道教研究的开山之作。

Kristofer Marinus Schipper, who was known as Rik, was born on Oct. 23 1934, in Schardam, a rural town north of Amsterdam. His father, Klaas Abe Schipper, was a Mennonite pastor, and his mother, Johanna (Kuiper) Schipper, was a devout believer. Their religious convictions inspired the couple to hide Jews during the German occupation of Holland in World War II.

施舟人全名克里斯托弗·马里努斯·席佩尔(Kristofer Marinus Schipper),1934年10月23日出生于阿姆斯特丹以北的乡野小镇查尔丹。他的父亲克拉斯·埃博·席佩尔(Klaas Abe Schipper)是一名门诺派牧师,母亲乔安娜·席佩尔(Johanna Schipper,婚前姓柯伊伯[Kuiper])则是该教的虔诚信徒。宗教信仰促使这对夫妇在二战德国占领荷兰期间帮助犹太人躲藏。

His father was detained and interrogated twice, each time for several months. His mother fled to Amsterdam, taking young Rik and several Jewish children to hide in safe homes.

他父亲两次被拘留和审问,每次长达几个月。他的母亲带着年幼的他和几个犹太孩子逃到阿姆斯特丹的避难寓所中。

The family survived the war, but his father’s health suffered, and he died in 1949 at 42. (For their efforts on behalf of persecuted Jews, the couple were later declared “Righteous Among the Nations” by Israel’s Yad Vashem Holocaust remembrance center.)

一家人在战争中幸存下来,但父亲的健康受到影响,于1949年去世,享年42岁。(由于他们为受迫害的犹太人所做的努力,这对夫妇后来被以色列犹太大屠杀纪念馆[Yad Vashem]宣布为“国际义人”。)

The wartime experience had a profound effect on Professor Schipper.

战时经历对施舟人产生了深远的影响。

“This really shaped his worldview, both his hatred of nationalism and his deeply humanistic preference for local democracy instead of great national narratives,” said Professor Goossaert, who teaches religious studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris. “That’s how he read Taoism.”

“这深深地塑造了他的世界观,包括对民族主义的仇恨,以及一种深沉的人文主义倾向,偏好地方性的民主而非宏大的民族叙事,”在巴黎高等研究应用学院(École Pratique des Hautes Études)教授宗教学的高万桑说。“这就是他对道教的理解。”

Professor Schipper came to that realization slowly. He moved to Paris to study with the French Sinologist Max Kaltenmark, one of a series of French scholars who took Taoism seriously. Most academics, however, focused on the more traditional philological study of deciphering often-obscure Taoist texts.

施舟人达到这一领悟的过程是漫长的。他移居巴黎,师从汉学家康德谟(Max Kaltenmark),他是一系列重视道教研究的法国学者之一。但是,大多数学者侧重于较为传统的文献学,以求破译常常晦涩难懂的道家著作。

In 1962, Professor Schipper went to Taiwan to study at the Academia Sinica and, according to a story he liked to tell his students, was told that Taoism did not exist as a religion.

1962年,施舟人前往台湾的中央研究院学习。根据他常给学生讲的一段经历,在那里,他被告知道教不是一种宗教。

Yet in towns and villages he encountered Taoist temples where priests were using texts from the Taoist canon in ceremonies. They had little formal education but had learned classical Chinese from their masters, often their fathers; they belonged to a school of Taoism that was passed down patrilineally. Some of the priests had lineages reaching back 1,000 years, evidence that the religion of antiquity and the present were linked.

然而,在城镇和村庄中,他见到了道观,里面的道士在法事上使用道教典籍中的经文。他们没有受过多少正统教育,而是从他们的师父——通常是他们的父亲——那里学习的古文;他们属于道教中一支父系传承的派别。一些道士的族谱可以追溯到1000年前,这证明了古代宗教与现在的宗教的关联。

Professor Schipper realized that he had to be a participant observer and began studying with a Taoist master, Chen Rongsheng, in the southern Taiwanese city of Tainan. He was ordained a priest of the Way of Orthodox Unity, or Zhengyidao, school.

施舟人意识到,他必须亲身参与其中,于是开始在台湾南部城市台南市师从道家大师陈荣盛。他受箓成为了正一派的一名道士。

After eight years, he returned to Paris with a cache of ritual manuals that his teachers had given him. An ardent Parisian, he acquired French citizenship and took a position at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, where he began systematically researching the Taoist canon.

八年后,他带着他的老师给他的一系列法事手册回到巴黎。他热爱巴黎,获得了法国国籍,并在巴黎高等研究应用学院就职,在那里他开始系统地研究道教经典。

Professor Schipper was perhaps most influential through his students. An estimated 15 of them became professors of religious studies, but many dozens more went to Paris to be near him. He brought them into his orbit, invited them to live at his home, gave them full use of his library, lent one of them his best suit for his first job interview, and performed Taoist ceremonies when their children were born or when they got married.

施舟人最大的影响力也许是通过他的学生。他大约有15名学生成为宗教研究教授,还有更多的人慕名前去巴黎。他将他们带入自己的世界,邀请他们居住在自己的家中,允许他们充分使用他的图书馆,其中一个学生第一次工作面试时,他还把自己的西装借给他,并在他们的孩子出生或在他们结婚时做道教法事。

Mostly, he sent his acolytes off to work on mammoth projects, like listing and documenting all the temples in Beijing, a 10-volume project that a decade later is only half complete.

通常,他会派他的追随者进行庞大项目的工作,例如列出并记录北京的所有的庙宇道观,这是一个长达十卷的项目,十年才完成一半。

His ideas on the centrality of religion in Chinese history spread in the academy through his students. Two of them, Professor Goossaert and David A. Palmer, wrote an award-winning book that showed how traditional Chinese religion had been central to how Chinese society was organized, with temples functioning as a cross between cathedral and city hall.

他关于宗教在中国历史上的中心地位的观点,通过他的学生在学界得到传播。其中两人——高万桑和宗树人(David A. Palmer)——撰写了一部屡获殊荣的书,展示了传统的中国宗教如何成为中国社会组织方式的核心,而宗教场所则成了兼具教堂和市政厅功能的地方。

The key role that religion played in organizing society helped explain why Chinese reformers from the late-19th century onward had attacked traditional religious practices as part of an antiquated system that they felt was holding the country back. Their movement ushered in a wave of temple destruction that eliminated an estimated 90 percent of China’s religious infrastructure.

宗教在组织社会中发挥的关键作用,有助于解释为什么19世纪末以来的中国改革派要攻击传统的宗教习俗,并将其视为过时的制度的一部分,他们认为这阻碍了国家的发展。他们的运动引发了一波捣毁宗教场所的风潮,估计摧毁了中国90%的宗教基础设施。

“Rik’s great contribution was to make us aware that the living religious tradition of rural China could be traced back hundreds or thousands of years,” said Michael Szonyi, head of the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard University. “And this meant that Taoism isn’t ‘feudal superstition’ but China’s indigenous religious tradition.”

“施舟人的巨大贡献是使我们意识到中国农村的宗教传统可以追溯到几百年或上千年前,”哈佛大学费正清中国研究中心(Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies)负责人宋怡明(Michael Szonyi)表示。“这意味着道教不是‘封建迷信’,而是中国的原生宗教传统。”

Professor Schipper is survived by his wife, Yuan Bingling and their daughter Maya, as well as two daughters from a previous marriage, Esther and Johanna.

施舟人的遗属有他的妻子袁冰凌和他们的女儿施心韵,以及上一段婚姻的两个女儿埃丝特(Esther)和乔安娜(Johanna)。

After retiring in 2003, he moved to the Chinese city of Fuzhou, where he established a library. He was highly influential in China, where his ideas spread.

2003年退休后,他移居中国城市福州,在那里建立了一所图书馆。他的观点在中国传播,成为那里的一名极具影响力的人物。

“He said Chinese society was organized around many, many small temples,” said Ju Xi, an anthropology professor at Beijing Normal University, who counted Professor Schipper as a mentor. “So we have to understand how these temples organized people; then we can understand Chinese society.”

“他说,中国社会是围绕很多很多小型宗教场所组织的,”视施舟人为恩师的北京师范大学人类学教授鞠熙说。“因此,我们必须了解这些宗教场所是如何组织人们的;这样我们就可以了解中国社会。”

Professor Ju said she was shocked when, a few years ago, Professor Schipper told her his latest plan: to methodically list all the written material about all 108 holy Taoist locations in China and conduct exhaustive interviews with people inhabiting them — a project so vast that it could never be completed in his lifetime.

鞠熙说,几年前,施舟人告诉她他的最新计划时,她感到震惊:系统地列出中国关于所有108个道家仙境的文字材料,并对居住在其中的人们进行详尽的采访——这个项目如此巨大,以至于不可能在他有生之年完成。

“Four days before he died, he phoned me for more than an hour and was still talking about how to research these holy sites,” Professor Ju said. “He was still thinking of China.”

“在他去世前四天,他给我打了一个多小时的电话,还在讲如何对这些仙境进行研究,”鞠熙说。“他还在想着中国。”

The feeling was mutual. A temple among the 108 holy sites, Mount Huotong, held a funeral ceremony for him; the Suzhou temple held another one.

这种感觉是相互的。108个仙境之一的霍童山的一座道观,为他举行了迁神昇虚道场。苏州的一座道观也举行了一场。

Tao Jin, an architect and Taoist believer, commissioned a local artist to paint Mr. Schipper in his Taoist robes. The painting was placed on the altar, and in a long ceremony priests blessed Professor Schipper in the afterlife.

建筑师、道教信徒陶金委托当地一位画家画下施舟人着道袍的肖像。这幅画被摆在祭坛上,道士在一个漫长的仪式中为施舟人的来世祈福。

“He understood that Chinese religion is a living tradition,” Mr. Tao said. “So you need to understand it by talking to living people.”

“他了解中国宗教是一种生生不息的传统,”陶金说。“所以你要通过与活着的人来交谈来理解它。”

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