纽约时报双语:关于总统就职日,你需要知道的七个关键问题

关于总统就职日,你需要知道的七个关键问题
Inauguration Day: What You Need to Know
AISHVARYA KAVI
2021年1月15日
纽约时报双语:关于总统就职日,你需要知道的七个关键问题

Joseph R. Biden Jr. will become president of the United States at noon on Jan. 20 in a scaled-back inauguration ceremony. While key elements will remain traditional, many events will be downsized and “reimagined” to better adapt the celebration to a nation battling the coronavirus. Here’s a guide to the event.

小约瑟夫·R·拜登(Joseph R. Biden Jr.)将于1月20日中午在一个缩减规模的就职典礼上成为美国总统。尽管关键元素仍将保持传统,但许多活动将被缩减和“重新设计”,以便更好地适应这个正在抗击新冠的国家。以下是典礼的指南。

What will the inauguration look like?

就职典礼将会是什么样?

Although many of the events will be virtual, Maju Varghese, the executive director of the Presidential Inaugural Committee, said the goal was an “inclusive and accessible celebration that brings Americans together and unifies our nation, especially during such a tough time for our country.”

尽管很多活动都在网上举行,但总统就职委员会执行主任马祖·瓦尔盖塞(Maju Varghese)说,目标是“一场包容性强、平易近人的庆祝活动,让美国人团结起来,让我们的国家团结起来,尤其是在我们国家如此艰难的时期”。

Mr. Biden will be sworn in by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. on the Capitol’s West Front sometime before noon. The new president is then expected to give his inaugural address and conduct a review of military troops, as is tradition.

中午之前,拜登将在首席大法官小约翰·G·罗伯茨(John G. Roberts Jr.)主持下,在国会大厦西面宣誓就职。随后,按照传统,新总统将发表就职演说并检阅军队。

But instead of a traditional parade before cheering spectators along Pennsylvania Avenue as the new president, vice president and their families make their way to the White House over a mile away, there will be an official escort with representatives from every branch of the military for one city block.

但是,当新任总统、副总统和他们的家人前往一英里外的白宫时,出现在宾夕法尼亚大道上欢呼的观众面前的,将不是传统的游行,而是一个城市街区的官方护卫队,由各军种的代表组成。

For remote viewers, the inaugural committee has planned what it is calling a virtual parade across the country featuring music, poets and dancers “paying homage to America’s heroes on the front lines of the pandemic.”

就职典礼委员会计划为全国范围的远程观众举行一场网上游行,包括音乐、诗人和舞蹈者,“向在疫情前线的美国英雄们致敬”。

At 5:30 p.m. Tuesday, the evening before Mr. Biden takes the oath, the committee will hold a lighting ceremony around the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool in remembrance of people in the United States who have lost their lives in the coronavirus pandemic.

周二下午5点30分,也就是拜登宣誓就职的前一晚,该委员会将在林肯纪念堂倒影池周围举行点灯仪式,纪念在新冠病毒大流行中丧生的美国人。

Wait, is Tom Hanks going to be there?

等等,汤姆·汉克斯(Tom Hanks)也会去吗?

Instead of the usual balls after the ceremony feting the new president, there will be a prime-time television event at 8:30 p.m. Wednesday evening hosted by Tom Hanks and featuring celebrities including Justin Timberlake, Demi Lovato, Ant Clemons and Jon Bon Jovi.

新总统就职典礼后,不是通常的舞会,而是在周三晚上8点30举办一场黄金时段电视活动,由汤姆·汉克斯主持,出席的明星包括贾斯汀·汀布莱克(Justin Timberlake)、黛米·洛瓦托(Demi Lovato)、安特·克莱蒙斯(Ant Clemons)和乔·邦·乔维(Jon Bon Jovi)。

Two major celebrities will participate in the swearing-in ceremony: Lady Gaga will sing the national anthem and Jennifer Lopez will give a musical performance.

两位明星将参加宣誓仪式:Lady Gaga将演唱国歌,詹妮弗·洛佩兹(Jennifer Lopez)将献唱。

Is there expected to be unrest?

预计会发生动乱吗?

For weeks, Washington has been preparing for the possibility of protesters. But the nation’s capital was kicked into high alert after a violent mob breached the Capitol building and forced lawmakers to halt the official counting of Electoral College votes to affirm Mr. Biden’s victory.

几周来,华盛顿一直在为可能出现的抗议者做准备。但在一群暴徒冲进国会大厦,迫使议员们停止正式清点选举人票以确认拜登获胜后,首都进入了高度戒备状态。

Mayor Muriel E. Bowser has warned that extremists who support Mr. Trump might continue to wreak havoc and she extended the city’s public emergency through Jan. 21.

市长穆丽尔·E·鲍泽(Muriel E. Bowser)警告,支持特朗普的极端分子可能会继续造成破坏,她将该市的公共紧急状态延长至1月21日。

The F.B.I. and Secret Service have ramped up security efforts around the inauguration. Experts have warned that some far-right extremist groups are already discussing an assault on Inauguration Day similar to the deadly attack on the Capitol.

联邦调查局和特勤局加强了就职典礼前后的安保。专家警告说,一些极右极端组织已开始讨论在就职日发动类似国会大厦致命袭击的行动。

Unrest on Inauguration Day is not unprecedented: During Mr. Trump’s inauguration in 2017, crowds in Washington damaged storefronts, threw rocks and bricks at police officers and lit a limousine on fire in protest of Mr. Trump’s election. The day ended in more than 200 arrests.

就职日发生骚乱并非史无前例:在2017年特朗普就职典礼期间,华盛顿的人群破坏店面,向警察投掷石块和砖块,并点燃一辆豪华轿车,以抗议特朗普当选。当天有200多人被捕。

Will President Trump attend?

特朗普总统会出席吗?

President Trump announced Friday that he would not attend Mr. Biden’s inauguration.

特朗普总统周五宣布,他不会参加拜登的就职典礼。

Mr. Biden called that decision “one of the few things he and I have ever agreed on.”

拜登称这一决定是“他和我仅有的几件达成一致的事之一”。

Still, it is a major break with tradition for a president to skip the ceremonial heart of the country’s democracy: the peaceful transfer of power.

尽管如此,对于一位总统来说,跳过该国民主的礼仪核心:权力的和平交接,仍然是对传统的一次重大背离。

Vice President Mike Pence will attend, an aide said Saturday, after Mr. Biden made clear on Friday that he was welcome.

副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)的一名助手周六表示彭斯将出席,此前拜登周五明确表示欢迎他出席。

Only three presidents have missed their successor’s swearing-in: John Adams in 1801, his son John Quincy Adams in 1829 and Andrew Johnson, a Democrat who sat out the 1869 inauguration after he was replaced in favor of a Republican, Ulysses S. Grant.

只有三位总统错过了继任者的就职典礼:1801年的约翰·亚当斯(John Adams);1829年,他的儿子约翰·昆西·亚当斯(John Quincy Adams);以及民主党人安德鲁·约翰逊(Andrew Johnson),他被共和党人尤利西斯-格兰特取代,于是缺席了后者1869年的就职典礼。

Who will be there?

谁会去?

George W. Bush, has confirmed he would travel to Washington for Inauguration Day, along with Laura Bush, the former first lady. Barack Obama and Bill Clinton are also expected to attend, along with former first ladies Michelle Obama and Hillary Clinton. Jimmy Carter, who at 96 is the oldest living former president, announced that he and his wife would not attend. It will be the first presidential inauguration Mr. Carter has missed since he was sworn in.

乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)已经证实,他将和前第一夫人劳拉·布什(Laura Bush)一起前往华盛顿参加就职典礼。预计贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obam)和比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton),以及前第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马(Michelle Obama)和希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)也将出席。96岁的吉米·卡特(Jimmy Carter)是在世的前总统中最年长的一位,他宣布他和妻子不会出席。这将是卡特宣誓就职以来首次缺席总统就职典礼。

Can I attend?

我可以参加吗?

No. Traditionally, the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies would distribute hundreds of thousands of tickets to the swearing-in ceremony for members of Congress to invite constituents, but this year tickets are not available to members of the public. Planners are urging people to stay home and participate in virtual inaugural events to prevent large crowds that could easily spread the coronavirus.

不行。传统上,国会就职典礼联合委员会(Joint Congressional Committee on就职典礼)会向国会议员分发数十万张就职典礼的入场券,让他们邀请选民参加,但今年的入场券不向公众开放。策划人员敦促人们待在家里,在网上观看就职活动,以防止大量人群聚集传播新冠病毒。

Events will be live streamed by the Presidential Inaugural Committee and by The New York Times.

活动将由总统就职委员会和《纽约时报》进行网络直播。

Why is a presidential inauguration so important?

为什么总统就职典礼这么重要?

The 20th Amendment to the Constitution requires that the term of each elected president and vice president begin at noon Jan. 20 of the year after the election. Every president has taken the oath of office, and they cannot assume their positions without doing so.

宪法第20条修正案要求,每一位候任总统和副总统的任期从选举后的1月20日中午开始。每一位总统都需宣誓就职,未经宣誓不得就职。

Symbolically, it marks the peaceful transfer of power from the current president to the next. Inauguration Day will be all the more important this year, as Mr. Biden ascends to the presidency at a time when political division has threatened the nation’s democratic institutions and his predecessor has gone to extreme lengths to stay in power.

从象征意义上讲,它标志着权力从现任总统和平地移交给下一任总统。今年的就职日将更加重要,因为拜登升任总统之际,政治分歧已经威胁到美国的民主制度,而他的前任为了保住权力不惜铤而走险。

The inauguration is also a notable fund-raising opportunity for the incoming president. Though traditional events like balls have been canceled, Mr. Biden’s inaugural committee is offering special “V.I.P. participation” to corporations and well-heeled individuals who can use the opportunity to curry favor with the new administration.

就职典礼对即将上任的总统来说也是一个重要的筹款机会。虽然舞会等传统活动已被取消,但拜登的就职典礼委员会为企业和富豪提供了特别的“贵宾参与”机会,他们可以借此机会讨好新政府。

Excess donations cannot be transferred to federal campaigns or party committees. Past inaugural committees have given unspent funds to charities for disaster relief as well as groups that decorate and maintain the White House and the vice president’s residence.

多余的捐款不能转移到联邦竞选活动或政党委员会。以往的就职委员会都会将未使用的资金捐给救灾慈善机构,以及负责装饰和维护白宫和副总统官邸的团体。

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