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纽约时报双语:打破月经耻感,中国校园兴起卫生巾互助盒运动

打破月经耻感,中国校园兴起卫生巾互助盒运动
‘Stand by Her’: In China, a Movement Hands Out Free Sanitary Pads in Schools
TIFFANY MAY, AMY CHANG CHIEN
2020年11月11日
纽约时报双语:打破月经耻感,中国校园兴起卫生巾互助盒运动

HONG KONG — It started when a single box of free sanitary pads appeared in a middle school classroom in October.

香港——事情始于10月,一间中学教室里出现了一盒免费的卫生巾。

Then a plastic container with pads was attached to the walls of four bathrooms in a university in Shanghai.

随后,在上海一所大学里,四个厕所的墙上安上了装有卫生巾的塑料盒。

By Monday, boxes and bags of individually wrapped pads had popped up outside bathrooms in at least 338 schools and colleges across China.

截至周一,在中国至少338所中学和高校的厕所外,出现了单独包装的盒装和袋装卫生巾。

Each carried a version of the same instructions: “Take one, then put one back later. Stop period shaming.”

每一包都有一条相同的说明:“取一放一。停止月经羞辱。”

The pads were part of a broader effort to increase access to a product that not all students can afford, and to strip away the shame surrounding a natural bodily function that has long been stigmatized, according to organizers of a grass-roots campaign called Stand by Her.

据“予她同行”(Stand by Her)这一草根运动的组织者说,放置卫生巾是一项更广泛努力的一部分,目的是让更多学生获得并非所有人都负担得起的经期用品,并消除这一长期被污名化的自然身体机能带来的羞耻。

Founded by Jiang Jinjing, a women’s rights advocate, the campaign aims to push the subject of period poverty — what the United Nations describes as the financial struggle low-income women and girls face to afford menstrual products — to the forefront of the national conversation. Ms. Jiang, who gained prominence in March after mobilizing deliveries of sanitary pads to hospitals in Wuhan, China, during the coronavirus outbreak, began the campaign to fight period poverty this year.

该运动由女权倡导者江金静(音)发起,旨在将月经贫困问题——即联合国所说的低收入妇女和女童在购买经期用品时面临的财务困难——推到全国讨论的前沿。在3月中国武汉暴发新冠疫情期间,江金静因动员将卫生巾送往医院而声名鹊起,今年,她发起了对抗月经贫困的行动。

In an interview published in September by the online Shanghai magazine Sixth Tone, Ms. Jiang said she used to believe that menstrual products were inaccessible only in impoverished rural Chinese provinces, but soon realized that the phenomenon was widespread.

在上海网络杂志《第六声》(Sixth Tone)9月发表的一篇采访中,江金静说她以前以为只有在中国贫困的农村省份才难以买到经期用品,但很快发现这种现象很普遍。

“This is so-called women’s poverty,” said Ms. Jiang, who is more widely known by her pen name, Liang Yu. “When we talk about poverty, women’s needs become automatically invisible.” She has declined a request for comment.

“这就是所谓的女性贫困,”江金静说,她的笔名梁钰更广为人知。“当我们谈论贫困时,女性的需求总被自动忽视。”她拒绝了本文的置评请求。

Her group raised $126,000 in a crowdfunding campaign in October to send pads to 2,000 teenagers in rural areas and to provide information about periods and sex education. A middle-school teacher took inspiration from Ms. Jiang’s efforts and placed a box with free sanitary pads in her classroom, telling her students to take one and replace it later.

去年10月,她的团队在一次众筹活动中筹集了12.6万美元,向2000名农村地区的少女送去了卫生巾,并提供月经和性教育方面的知识。一名中学教师被江金静的行动所激励,在教室里放了一个装有免费卫生巾的盒子,告诉她的学生可以拿一片后再放进去一片。

Ms. Jiang posted photographs sent by the unidentified teacher on Weibo, a Chinese social media platform. She encouraged others to follow suit, and the campaign surrounding what she called “mutual aid boxes” took off.

江金静在中国社交媒体平台微博上发出了这位匿名教师给她的照片。她鼓励其他人效仿,她所谓的“卫生巾互助盒”活动就这么开始了。

Boxes with pads began appearing at the entrances of women’s bathrooms in schools and colleges across the country. Students at the East China University of Political Science and Law in Shanghai attached boxes outside four women’s bathrooms on campus.

装有卫生巾的互助盒开始出现在全国各地的中学和高校的女厕门口。上海的华东政法大学的学生在校园四间女厕外放置了互助盒。

Fiona Fei, a 23-year-old graduate student at Guangxi University in southern China, was inspired to hang zippered bags with pads around campus bathrooms in October.

23岁的菲奥娜·费(音)是位于中国南方广西大学的研究生,10月,受到启发的她将装有卫生巾的拉链袋挂在了校园厕所里。

She said in a phone interview on Monday that patriarchal thinking and incomplete biology lessons in schools had taught girls to view their bodily functions as indecent.

她在周一接受电话采访时说,父权思想和学校里不完整的生物课让女孩们认为自己的这种身体机能是不雅的。

“A lot of people around me feel shame,” she said, “and so we want to break through this shame together.”

“身边有很多人都是有这种羞耻感的,”她说,“我们就帮助别人一起打破这种羞耻感。”

The inability to afford menstrual products is common in many countries, and that inaccessibility is often compounded by social mores that view menstruation as a taboo topic.

在许多国家,买不起经期用品的现象很普遍,而且把月经视为禁忌话题的社会习俗更是经常令这种情况雪上加霜。

Women and girls in Nepal have been banished from their homes to huts during their period. At least one or two women die in the huts each year from exposure, animal bites or smoke inhalation after building fires to stay warm.

尼泊尔的妇女和女孩在月经期间会被赶出家门,住在棚屋里。每年至少有一两名女性在棚屋死于寒冷、动物咬伤或吸入生火取暖后的废气。

A study published in July by the Maple Women’s Psychological Counseling Center in Beijing found that nearly 70 percent of respondents said that they tried to hide the sanitary pads they carry around, and more than 61 percent used euphemisms for their period.

7月,北京红枫妇女心理咨询服务中心发布的一项研究发现,近70%的受访者表示她们会把随身携带的卫生巾藏起来,超过61%的人用委婉语谈论经期。

Though the Stand by Her campaign in China has received support on social media, it has also been criticized and mocked. Some said the boxes with pads should be placed inside bathrooms to give people more privacy. In one widely reported incident, boxes seeking donations for tissue paper were placed outside men’s bathrooms at China University of Political Science and Law in Beijing with crude references to masturbation.

尽管中国的“予她同行”运动在社交媒体上得到了支持,但也遭到了批评和嘲笑。一些人说,装卫生巾的盒子应该放在卫生间里才能给人更多隐私。发生在北京的中国政法大学的一件事得到了广泛报道,有人把用于收集募捐纸巾的盒子放在男厕外,粗鲁地对手淫进行暗示。

But the campaign has also found male supporters.

但这场运动也有男性支持者。

Conor Yu, a 22-year-old graduate student at Shanghai International Studies University, said that he never learned about menstruation in school but was influenced by feminist friends to pay attention. He set up boxes outside women’s bathrooms on campus and asked permission to put up informational posters in the library, but that request was denied.

22岁的上海外国语大学研究生康纳·于(音)说他在学校里从未学过月经知识,只是受女权主义朋友的影响才去关注。他在校园的女厕外放置了一些自助盒,并请求允许在图书馆张贴海报告示,但被拒绝了。

The subject of periods has become less taboo in China in recent years.

近年来,月经话题在中国的禁忌已经变少了。

In 2016, the Olympic swimmer Fu Yuanhui shattered barriers with a poolside interview in which she revealed that she had gotten her period before the race.

2016年,奥运泳将傅园慧在泳池边接受采访时透露,她在比赛前来了月经。

This summer, period poverty came under renewed scrutiny in China because cheap, unbranded pads that were not individually wrapped were put up for sale by an unidentified seller on an e-commerce platform. Some people questioned why anyone might buy such potentially unsanitary pads. Two online buyers suggested they had purchased the supplies because they could not afford more expensive products.

今年夏天,一位身份不明的卖家在一个电商平台上出售没有独立包装的廉价无品牌卫生巾,月经贫困在中国重新受到了关注。有些人质疑为什么有人会买这种可能不卫生的卫生巾。两名网上买家表示,她们购买这种货是因为买不起更贵的产品。

In October, a 17-year-old girl in Chengdu raised nearly $200,000 in an online campaign to send pads to two high schools in Liangshan, a region in the southwestern province of Sichuan that has one of the highest poverty rates in the country.

10月,成都一名17岁女孩在一个向凉山两所高中寄送卫生巾的网络活动中筹集了近20万美元,凉山位于四川省西南部,是中国贫困率最高的地区之一。

Ms. Jiang, the founder of Stand by Her, said in a post online: “The process of having loud and frequent discussions will remove the stigma from menstruation. This will liberate thousands of women who are ashamed of it.”

“予她同行”的发起者江金静在网上的一篇帖子中说:“如此频繁、大声量且这么多人参与讨论,这个过程就正在给月经去除羞耻,不知不觉中就解放了成千上万因为月经自我羞愧的女性。”

She noted that “pads” and “periods,” once taboo words, were being more commonly discussed in the country.

她指出,曾是禁忌词汇的“卫生巾”和“月经”如今在中国得到了更多讨论。

“This already is a huge breakthrough and milestone,” she said.

“这件事本身就已经是一个非常大的突破和里程碑了,”她说。

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