纽约时报双语:关于特朗普遭第二次弹劾,目前我们所知道的

关于特朗普遭第二次弹劾,目前我们所知道的
Why Remove Trump Now? A Guide to the Second Impeachment of a President
CATIE EDMONDSON
2021年1月14日
纽约时报双语:关于特朗普遭第二次弹劾,目前我们所知道的

WASHINGTON — The House on Wednesday impeached President Trump for a second time, a first in American history, charging him with “incitement of insurrection” one week after he egged on a mob of supporters that stormed the Capitol while Congress met to formalize President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr.’s victory.

华盛顿——周三,众议院以“煽动叛乱”为由第二次弹劾特朗普总统,这在美国历史上尚属首次。此前一周,特朗普怂恿一群支持者冲击国会大厦,当时国会正在开会确认候任总统小约瑟夫·R·拜登(Joseph R. Biden Jr.)的选举胜利。

Democrats have moved swiftly to impeach Mr. Trump after the assault, which unfolded after he told supporters at a rally near the National Mall to march on the Capitol in an effort to get Republicans to overturn his defeat. At least five people, including a Capitol Police officer, died during the siege and in the immediate aftermath.

特朗普在国家广场附近的一场集会上告诉支持者向着国会大厦游行,以便让共和党人推翻他的失败,随后发生了袭击事件。至少五人在围攻过程中及之后死亡,包括一名国会警察。袭击发生后,民主党迅速对特朗普启动弹劾程序。

The process is taking place with extraordinary speed and testing the bounds of the impeachment process, raising questions never contemplated before. Here’s what we know.

程序以非同寻常的速度进行,考验了弹劾程序本身的边界,引发了人们从未考虑过的问题。以下是我们所知道的情况。

Impeachment is one of the Constitution’s gravest penalties.

弹劾是宪法最严厉的惩罚之一。

Impeachment is one of the weightiest tools the Constitution gives Congress to hold government officials, including the president, accountable for misconduct and abuse of power.

弹劾是宪法赋予国会的最重要的工具之一,用以追究包括总统在内的政府官员的不当行为和滥用权力的责任。

Members of the House consider whether to impeach the president — the equivalent of an indictment in a criminal case — and members of the Senate consider whether to remove him, holding a trial in which senators act as the jury. The test, as set by the Constitution, is whether the president has committed “treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.”

众议院成员决定是否弹劾总统——相当于刑事案件中的起诉——参议院成员决定是否罢免总统,举行一场由参议员担任陪审团的审判。按照宪法的规定,裁定总统是否犯有“叛国罪、受贿罪或其他重大罪行和不当行为”。

The House vote requires only a simple majority of lawmakers to agree that the president has, in fact, committed high crimes and misdemeanors; the Senate vote requires a two-thirds majority.

众议院投票只需要简单多数议员同意总统实际上犯有重大罪行和不当行为;参议院的投票需要三分之二多数。

The charge against Trump is ‘incitement of insurrection.’

对特朗普的指控是“煽动叛乱”。

The article, drafted by Representatives David Cicilline of Rhode Island, Ted Lieu of California, Jamie Raskin of Maryland and Jerrold Nadler of New York, charged Mr. Trump with “incitement of insurrection,” saying he is guilty of “inciting violence against the government of the United States.”

弹劾书由罗德岛州众议员戴维·西西林(David Cicilline)、加利福尼亚州众议员刘云平(Ted Lieu)、马里兰州众议员杰米·拉斯金(Jamie Raskin)和纽约州众议员杰罗尔德·纳德勒(Jerrold Nadler)起草,指控特朗普“煽动叛乱”,称他“煽动针对美国政府的暴力”。

The article cited Mr. Trump’s weekslong campaign to falsely discredit the results of the November election, and it quotes directly from the speech he gave on the day of the siege in which he told his supporters to go to the Capitol. “If you don’t fight like hell,” he said, “you’re not going to have a country anymore.”

弹劾书引用了特朗普数周以来诋毁11月选举结果的宣传活动,并直接引用了他在围攻事件当天的演讲,他在演讲中告诉支持者去国会大厦。“如果你不拼命战斗,”他说,“你将不再拥有这个国家。”

Proponents say impeachment is worthwhile even though Trump has only days left in office.

弹劾的支持者表示,尽管特朗普的任期只剩几天,弹劾还是值得的。

While the House moved with remarkable speed to impeach Mr. Trump, the Senate trial to determine whether to remove him cannot begin until Jan. 19, his final full day in office. That means any conviction would almost certainly not be completed until after he leaves the White House.

虽然众议院以惊人的速度弹劾特朗普,但参议院决定是否罢免他的审判要到1月19日才会开始,那是特朗普在任的最后一天。几乎可以肯定的是,这意味着任何定罪要在他离开白宫后才能完成。

Democrats have argued that Mr. Trump’s offense — using his power as the nation’s leader and commander in chief to incite an insurrection against the legislative branch — is so grave that it must be addressed, even with just a few days remaining in his term. To let it go unpunished, Democrats argued, would set a dangerous precedent of impunity for future presidents.

民主党人认为,特朗普利用他作为国家领导人和三军统帅的权力煽动反对立法部门的叛乱,罪行非常严重,必须予以处理,即使他的任期只剩几天。民主党人认为,如果放任的话,将为未来的总统树立一个有罪不罚的危险先例。

“Is there little time left?” Representative Steny H. Hoyer, Democrat of Maryland and the majority leader, said during the debate. “Yes. But it is never too late to do the right thing.”

“时间不多了吗?”马里兰州民主党众议员、多数党领袖斯坦尼·H·霍耶(Steny H. Hoyer)在辩论中说。“是的。但做正确的事,什么时候都不算晚。”

Republicans, many of whom voted to overturn the election results, have claimed that going through the impeachment process so late in Mr. Trump’s term will foster unnecessary division and that the country should move on from last week’s siege.

共和党人声称,在特朗普的任期已经到了这么晚的时候再走弹劾程序,会助长不必要的分裂,国家应该从上周的围攻事件中走出来,继续前进。他们当中很多人投票推翻选举结果。

The biggest consequence for Trump could be disqualifying him from holding office again.

对特朗普而言,最严重的后果可能是剥夺他再次担任公职的资格。

Conviction in an impeachment trial would not automatically disqualify Mr. Trump from future public office. But if the Senate were to convict him, the Constitution allows a subsequent vote to bar an official from holding “any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States.”

在弹劾审判中被定罪不会自动取消特朗普在未来担任公职的资格。但是如果参议院要对他定罪,那么宪法允许随后进行投票以剥夺官员担任“合众国属下有荣誉、有责任或有薪金的任何职务的资格”。

That vote would require only a simple majority of senators. Such a step could be an appealing prospect not just to Democrats, but also to many Republicans who either have set their sights on the presidency themselves or are convinced that it is the only thing that will purge Mr. Trump from their party. Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, the Republican leader, is said to hold the latter view.

该投票只需要参议员的简单多数即可。这前景不仅对民主党人具有吸引力,而且对许多共和党人来说也具有吸引力——他们要么想自己坐上总统的位子,要么坚信这是唯一可以将特朗普从党内清除的办法。共和党领袖肯塔基州参议员麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)据说持后一种观点。

There is no precedent, however, for disqualifying a president from future office, and the issue could end up before the Supreme Court.

但是,还没有剥夺总统任未来公职资格的先例,这个问题可能会面临最高法院的裁决。

The Senate trial most won’t start until after Biden becomes president.

参议院的审判不会在拜登担任总统之前开始。

Democrats who control the House can choose when to send their article of impeachment to the Senate, at which point that chamber would have to immediately move to begin the trial. But because the Senate is not scheduled to hold a regular session until Jan. 19, even if the House immediately transmitted the charge to the other side of the Capitol, an agreement between Senate Republican and Democratic leaders would be needed to take it up before then.

控制众议院的民主党人可以选择何时将弹劾书送交参议院,届时参议院必须立即采取行动开始审判。但是由于参议院在1月19日前没有事先安排的例会,即使众议院立即将指控交予参议院,仍需要参议院的共和党和民主党领导人在那之前达成一致以开展工作。

Mr. McConnell said on Wednesday that he would not agree to do so, meaning that the article could not be taken up until the day before Mr. Biden is sworn in. Since time is needed for the Senate to set the rules for an impeachment trial, that means the proceeding probably would not start until after Mr. Biden was president, and Democrats had operational control of the Senate.

麦康奈尔周三表示不同意这样做,这意味着在拜登宣誓就职之前不能开始处理弹劾书。因为参议院需要时间来制定弹劾审判的规则,这意味着程序可能要等到拜登担任总统之后才开始,而届时参议院的运转也将由民主党控制。

“Given the rules, procedures, and Senate precedents that govern presidential impeachment trials, there is simply no chance that a fair or serious trial could conclude before President-elect Biden is sworn in next week,” Mr. McConnell said. “In light of this reality, I believe it will best serve our nation if Congress and the executive branch spend the next seven days completely focused on facilitating a safe inauguration and an orderly transfer of power to the incoming Biden administration.”

“鉴于总统弹劾审判的规则、程序和参议院先例,在候任总统拜登下周宣誓前,是没有机会完成一场公正或严肃的审判的,”麦康奈尔说。“鉴于这种现实,我认为,如果国会和行政部门用接下来的七天专注于促进总统就职典礼的安全以及将权力有序地移交给即将上任的拜登政府,那将符合我国的最大利益。”

The trial could consume the Senate during Biden’s first days in office.

在拜登任职的最初几天,该审判可能会消耗参议院的全部时间。

Once the Senate receives the impeachment charge, it must immediately take up the issue, as articles of impeachment carry the highest privilege. Under rules in place for decades, impeachment is the only issue the Senate can consider while a trial is underway; it cannot simultaneously consider other legislative business.

一旦参议院收到弹劾指控,必须马上处理该问题,因为弹劾条款享有最高优先级。根据几十年来的既有规定,在弹劾审判期间参议院唯一可以考虑的只有弹劾的问题。它不能同时考虑其他立法事务。

But Mr. Biden has asked Mr. McConnell whether it would be possible to alter that rule, allowing the Senate to conduct Mr. Trump’s impeachment trial on a parallel track to consideration of his cabinet nominees, splitting its days between the two. Mr. McConnell told Mr. Biden he would consult with the Senate parliamentarian on whether that would be possible.

但是拜登已经询问麦康奈尔是否有可能改变这一规则,从而允许参议院在执行特朗普的弹劾审判的同时,进行对他的内阁提名人的确认程序,将两个程序的时间平分。麦康奈尔告诉拜登,他会与参议院议员就是否可行进行协商。

If such a bifurcated process were not possible, House Democrats might choose to hold back the article to allow Mr. Biden time to win confirmation of his team before a trial got underway.

如果不能同时进行,众议院民主党人可能会选择暂缓弹劾条款,使拜登有时间在审判开始之前赢得参议院对他的团队的确认。

The Senate could hold a trial for Mr. Trump even after he has left office, though there is no precedent for a president being tried after his term is over. Other government officials who were impeached have been tried after they departed.

参议院甚至可以在特朗普卸任后对他进行审判,尽管没有在总统任期结束后对总统进行审判的先例。有其他被弹劾的政府官员在离任后受到审判。

Only two presidents other than Mr. Trump have been impeached — Andrew Johnson in 1868 and Bill Clinton in 1998 — and both were ultimately acquitted and completed their terms in office.

除特朗普外,只有两名总统曾被弹劾——1868年的安德鲁·约翰逊和1998年的比尔·克林顿——最终都被宣判无罪,并完成了任期。

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