Constitution of the Communist Party of China
Revised and adopted at the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on October 22, 2022
The Communist Party of China is the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the Chinese people, and the Chinese nation. It is the leadership core for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics and represents the developmental demands of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation for China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the greatest possible majority of the Chinese people. The Party’s highest ideal and ultimate goal is the realization of communism.
The Communist Party of China uses Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as its guides to action.
Marxism-Leninism reveals the laws governing the development of the history of human society. Its basic tenets are correct and have tremendous vitality. The highest ideal of communism pursued by Chinese Communists can be realized only when socialist society is fully developed and highly advanced. The development and improvement of the socialist system is a long historical process. By upholding the basic tenets of Marxism-Leninism and following the path suited to China’s specific conditions as chosen by the Chinese people, China’s socialist cause will ultimately be victorious.
With Comrade Mao Zedong as their chief representative, Chinese Communists developed Mao Zedong Thought by combining the basic tenets of Marxism-Leninism with the actual practice of the Chinese revolution. Mao Zedong Thought is the application and development of Marxism-Leninism in China; it is a body of theoretical principles and a summary of experiences, proven correct in practice, relating to China’s revolution and construction; and it is a crystallization of the collective wisdom of the Communist Party of China. Under the guidance of Mao Zedong Thought, the Communist Party of China led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in the long revolutionary struggle against imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism, securing victory in the new democratic revolution and founding the People’s Republic of China, a people’s democratic dictatorship. After the founding of the People’s Republic, the Communist Party of China successfully led the people in carrying out socialist transformation, completing the transition from New Democracy to socialism, establishing the basic socialist system, and developing a socialist economy, politics, and culture.
After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Chinese Communists, with Comrade Deng Xiaoping as their chief representative, analyzed both positive and negative experience gained since the founding of the People’s Republic, emancipated the mind, and sought truth from facts. They shifted the focus of the whole Party’s work onto economic development and introduced reform and opening up, thereby ushering in a new era of development in socialism; they gradually formulated the line, principles, and policies for building socialism with Chinese characteristics, brought clarity to basic questions on building, consolidating, and developing socialism in China, and thus established Deng Xiaoping Theory. Deng Xiaoping Theory is the product of combining Marxism-Leninism’s basic tenets with practice in contemporary China and the particular features of the era; it is a continuation and development of Mao Zedong Thought under new historical conditions; it represents a new stage for the development of Marxism in China; it is the Marxism of contemporary China and a crystallization of the collective wisdom of the Communist Party of China; and it guides the continuous progression of China’s socialist modernization.
After the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Chinese Communists, with Comrade Jiang Zemin as their chief representative, through developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in practice, deepened their understanding of what socialism is and how to build it, and what kind of party to build and how to build it, and gathered valuable new experience in governing the Party and the country, thus forming the Theory of Three Represents. The Theory of Three Represents, which is a continuation and development of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, reflects new demands that the developments and changes in today’s world and in China have placed on the Party and the government in their work. A powerful theoretical tool for strengthening and improving Party building and promoting the self-improvement and development of China’s socialism, it is a crystallization of the collective wisdom of the Communist Party of China and a guiding ideology that the Party must uphold in the long term. Always ensuring the Theory of Three Represents is practiced is the foundation of the Party’s own development, the cornerstone of governance by the Party, and the source of the Party’s strength.
After the Party’s 16th National Congress, Chinese Communists, with Comrade Hu Jintao as their chief representative, continued to take Deng Xiaoping Theory and the Theory of Three Represents as their guide. On the basis of the new demands of development they forged a deep understanding of and answered major questions, including what kind of development to pursue and how to pursue it in a new situation, thus forming the Scientific Outlook on Development, which puts people first and calls for comprehensive, balanced, and sustainable development. The Scientific Outlook on Development is a scientific theory that continues in congruence with Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, and the Theory of Three Represents, while advancing with the times. It fully embodies the Marxist worldview and methodology on development and represents a major achievement in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context. It is a crystallization of the collective wisdom of the Communist Party of China and a guiding ideology that must be upheld long term in developing socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Since the Party’s 18th National Congress, Chinese Communists, with Comrade Xi Jinping as their chief representative, integrating the basic tenets of Marxism with China’s specific realities and fine traditional culture, have provided sound answers to major questions of our times, such as what kind of socialism with Chinese characteristics the new era requires us to uphold and develop and how we should uphold and develop it, thus giving shape to Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The Thought is a continuation and development of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development. It is the Marxism of contemporary China and of the 21st century, embodying the best of Chinese culture and ethos of this era. It represents a crystallization of the practical experience and collective wisdom of the Party and the people, an important component of the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and a guide to action for the entire Party and all the Chinese people to strive for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and must be upheld long term and constantly developed. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, the Communist Party of China has led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in a concerted effort to carry out a great struggle, develop a great project, advance a great cause, and realize a great dream, ushering in a new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, fulfilling the First Centenary Goal, and embarking on the new journey to accomplish the Second Centenary Goal.
Ultimately, the fundamental reason for all of China’s achievements and progress since reform and opening up began is that the Party has forged a path, formed a theoretical system, established a system, and developed a culture for socialism with Chinese characteristics. All Party members must cherish deeply, uphold long term, and continue to develop this path, this theoretical system, this socialist system, and this culture, which the Party has developed through great hardship. All Party members must hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, have firm confidence in its path, theory, system, and culture, carry forward the fighting spirit and build up our fighting ability, implement the Party’s basic theory, basic line, and basic policy, and strive to fulfill the three historic tasks of advancing modernization, achieving China’s reunification, and safeguarding world peace and promoting common development, and realize the Second Centenary Goal and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.
Since its founding, the Communist Party of China has remained true to its original aspiration and founding mission of seeking happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. Through its endeavors over the past century, the Party has fundamentally transformed the future of the Chinese people, opened up the right path for achieving rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, demonstrated the strong vitality of Marxism, profoundly influenced the course of world history, and made itself a forerunner of the times. Based on long-term practice, the Party has gained valuable historical experience in the following respects: upholding the Party’s leadership, putting the people first, advancing theoretical innovation, staying independent, following the Chinese path, maintaining a global vision, breaking new ground, standing up for ourselves, promoting the united front, and remaining committed to self-reform. These points are a rich source of inspiration that the Party and the people have created together. We must cherish them, uphold them over the long term, and continue to enrich and develop them through practice.
China is currently in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come. This is a stage of history that cannot be bypassed as China, which used to be economically and culturally lagging, makes progress in socialist modernization; it will take over a century. China’s development of socialism must begin from China’s own circumstances, follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and comprehensively promote national rejuvenation through the path of Chinese modernization. At the present stage, the principal contradiction in Chinese society is that between the ever-growing needs of the people for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development. Owing to both domestic factors and international influences, a certain amount of class struggle will continue to exist for a long time to come, and under certain circumstances may even grow more pronounced, however, it is no longer the principal contradiction. In building socialism in China, the basic tasks are to further release and develop the productive forces and gradually achieve socialist modernization and, to this end, reform those elements and areas within the relations of production and the superstructure that are unsuited to the development of the productive forces. The Party must uphold and improve the basic economic systems including the system under which public ownership is the mainstay and diverse forms of ownership develop together, a system under which distribution according to work is the mainstay while multiple forms of distribution exist alongside it, and the socialist market economy. It must encourage some areas and some people to become well-off first, gradually realize the goal of common prosperity for all, and on the basis of developing production and social wealth, keep meeting the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life and promote people’s well-rounded development. Development is the Party’s top priority in governing and rejuvenating the country. The Party must commit to a people-centered philosophy of development. It should have an accurate understanding of this new stage of development, apply a new philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development, accelerate efforts to foster a new pattern of development that is focused on the domestic economy and features positive interplay between domestic and international economic flows, and pursue high-quality development. The general starting point and criteria for judging each item of the Party’s work are that it must benefit the development of the socialist productive forces, be conducive to increasing socialist China’s overall strength, and help to improve the people’s living standards. The Party must respect labor, knowledge, talent, and creativity and ensure that development is for the people and relies on the people, and that its fruits are shared among the people. In accordance with the Five-Sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Party must promote coordinated economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological advancement, and coordinate efforts to build a modern socialist country in all respects, comprehensively deepen reform, fully advance the law-based governance of China, and strengthen Party self-governance in every respect. On the new journey in the new era, the strategic objectives of economic and social development are to basically realize socialist modernization by 2035 and build China into a great modern socialist country by the middle of this century.
The basic line of the Communist Party of China in the primary stage of socialism is to lead all the people of China together in a self-reliant and pioneering effort, making economic development the central task, upholding the Four Cardinal Principles, and remaining committed to reform and opening up, so as to see China becomes a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful.
In leading the cause of socialism, the Communist Party of China must continue its commitment to economic development as the central task, and all other work must take an ancillary role and serve this center. The Party shall implement the strategy for invigorating China through science and education, the strategy on developing a quality work force, the innovation-driven development strategy, the rural vitalization strategy, the coordinated regional development strategy, the sustainable development strategy, and the military-civilian integration strategy. It shall give full play to the role of science and technology as primary productive forces, the role of talent as the primary resource, and the role of innovation as the primary force driving development, draw on advances in science and technology, improve the quality of the country’s workforce, and ensure higher-quality and more efficient, equitable, sustainable, and secure development of the economy.
The Four Cardinal Principles—to keep to the path of socialism, to uphold the people’s democratic dictatorship, to uphold the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and to uphold Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought—form the foundation for building the country. Throughout the whole course of socialist modernization, the Party must adhere to the Four Cardinal Principles and oppose bourgeois liberalization.
A continued commitment to reform and opening up is the path to a stronger China. Only through reform and opening up can we develop China, develop socialism, and develop Marxism. The Party must comprehensively deepen reform, improve and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and modernize China’s system and capacity for governance. The Party must fundamentally reform the economic structure that constrains the development of the productive forces and uphold and improve the socialist market economy; and in congruence with this it must undertake political structural reform and reform in other fields. The Party must uphold the fundamental national policy of making China open to the world and embrace and learn from all achievements of human society. In carrying out reform and opening up, the Party should be boldly explorative and brave in breaking new ground; the Party should improve the scientific nature of reform-related decision making, pursue reform in a more systematic, holistic, and coordinated way, and pioneer new approaches through practice.
The Communist Party of China shall lead the people in developing the socialist market economy. It shall be firm in consolidating and developing the public sector of the economy and shall remain steadfast in encouraging, supporting, and guiding the development of the non-public sector. It shall give play to the decisive role of market forces in resource allocation and ensure the government plays its role better, and establish a sound system for macroeconomic regulation. The Party shall work to balance urban and rural development, development among regions, economic and social development, relations between humankind and nature, and domestic development and openness to the world. It shall adjust the economic structure, transform the growth model, and advance supply-side structural reform. The Party shall promote the synchronized development of new industrialization, information technology application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization, and shall build a new socialist countryside, take a new path of industrialization with Chinese characteristics, and build China into a country of innovation and a global leader in science and technology.
The Communist Party of China shall lead the people in developing socialist democracy. It shall preserve the organic unity of Party leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance, follow the Chinese socialist path of political development and the path of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics, expand socialist democracy, develop a socialist rule of law system with Chinese characteristics, and build a socialist rule of law country, thereby consolidating the people’s democratic dictatorship and developing a socialist political civilization. It shall uphold and improve the people’s congress system, the Communist Party-led system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of public self-governance at the primary level. The Party shall develop a broader, fuller, and more robust whole-process people’s democracy, advance extensive, multilevel, and institutionalized development of consultative democracy, and act in earnest to protect the people’s right to manage state and social affairs and to manage economic and cultural matters. It shall respect and safeguard human rights. The Party shall encourage the free expression of views and work to establish sound systems and procedures for democratic elections, consultations, decision-making, administration, and oversight. It shall improve the socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics and strengthen the implementation of law, to bring all the work of the state under the rule of law.
The Communist Party of China shall lead the people in developing advanced socialist culture. It shall promote socialist cultural-ethical progress, ensure the practice of the rule of law in combination with the rule of virtue, and work to strengthen the thinking and morality as well as the knowledge of science and culture of the whole nation to provide powerful ideological guarantees, motivation, and intellectual support for reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, and develop a strong socialist culture in China. It shall strengthen the system of core socialist values, uphold Marxism as its guiding ideology, foster the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, promote a national spirit to which patriotism is central and a spirit of the times centered on reform and innovation, cultivate and practice core socialist values, and champion the socialist concept of honor and disgrace. It shall work to strengthen the people’s sense of national dignity, self-confidence, and self-reliance, protect against the corroding influence of decadent capitalist and feudal ideas, and eliminate all social ills, endeavoring to see that the people of China are people of high ideals and moral integrity and are cultured and disciplined. It must better educate its members of the great ideal of communism. The Party shall strive to develop educational, scientific, and cultural undertakings, promote the creative evolution and innovative development of fine traditional Chinese culture, carry forward our revolutionary culture, develop an advanced socialist culture, and enhance our country’s cultural soft power. The Party shall hold firmly the leading position in ideological work, constantly consolidate the guiding position of Marxism in the realm of ideology, and cement the common ideological foundation which underpins the concerted endeavor of the entire Party and all the Chinese people.
The Communist Party of China shall lead the people in building a harmonious socialist society. In accord with the overall demands of democracy and the rule of law, equity and justice, honesty and fraternity, vigor and vitality, stability and order, and harmony between humankind and nature, and in line with the principle of building together and sharing together such a society, the Party shall work to solve problems of the greatest, most immediate, and most practical concern to the people. In doing this, it shall focus on ensuring and improving living standards. It shall work to ensure the fruits of development are of greater and more equitable benefit to the people, help them gain an increasingly stronger sense of fulfillment, and strive to see that all people realize their potential, find their proper place in society, and live together in harmony. The Party shall strengthen and develop new approaches to social governance. It shall strictly distinguish between and properly handle contradictions between us and enemies and contradictions among the people, these two different types of contradiction. It shall strengthen comprehensive measures to maintain law and order, and work with firm resolve and in accordance with the law to combat criminal activities that endanger national security and national interests, or threaten social stability or economic development, and will bring criminals to justice, maintaining lasting social stability. The Party shall pursue a holistic approach to national security, promote development while ensuring security, and resolutely safeguard China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests.
The Communist Party of China shall lead the people in building a socialist ecological civilization. It shall strengthen the philosophy underlying ecological civilization that nature should be respected, adapted to, and protected; fully understand that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets; follow the fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment; uphold the principle of prioritizing resource conservation and environmental protection and letting nature restore itself; and take a positive path to development that ensures increased production, higher living standards, and healthy ecosystems. The Party shall strive to build a resource-conserving, environmentally friendly society, implement the strictest possible environmental protection systems, and work to shape spatial layouts, industrial structures, modes of production, and ways of life that are conducive to resource conservation and environmental protection, creating good working and living environments for the people, and ensuring sustainable development for the Chinese nation.
The Communist Party of China shall uphold its absolute leadership over the People’s Liberation Army and other people’s armed forces; implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military; strengthen the development of the People’s Liberation Army by enhancing its political loyalty, strengthening the military through reform, science and technology, personnel training, and running the military in accordance with the law; build people’s forces that obey the Party’s command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct; elevate our people’s armed forces to world-class standards; ensure that the People’s Liberation Army accomplishes its missions and tasks in the new era; and give full play to the role of the People’s Liberation Army in consolidating national defense, defending the motherland, and participating in socialist modernization.
The Communist Party of China shall preserve and develop socialist relations among ethnic groups based on equality, solidarity, mutual assistance, and harmony; work proactively to train and select officials from ethnic minorities; help ethnic minorities and areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities with economic, cultural, and social development; foster a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation; and ensure that all ethnic groups work together for common development and prosperity. The Party shall fully implement its basic policy on religion, and encourage religious believers to contribute to economic and social development.
The Communist Party of China shall urge all workers, farmers, and intellectuals, and all other political parties, persons without party affiliation, and the patriotic forces of all ethnic groups in China to further develop and expand the broadest possible patriotic united front embracing all socialist workers, all those working for the socialist cause, all patriots who support socialism, all patriots who support the reunification of the motherland, and all patriots who are dedicated to the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party shall work continuously to strengthen the unity of all the Chinese people, including compatriots in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions and in Taiwan as well as overseas Chinese. It shall promote long-term prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao, resolutely oppose and deter separatists seeking “Taiwan independence,” and achieve the reunification of the motherland by fully, faithfully, and resolutely implementing the policy of One Country, Two Systems.
The Communist Party of China shall uphold an independent foreign policy of peace, follow a path of peaceful development, continue with the win-win opening up strategy, consider both domestic and international situations, and actively foster relations with other countries, endeavoring to develop a favorable international environment for China’s reform, opening up, and modernization. In international affairs, it shall hold dear humanity’s shared values of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy, and freedom, uphold justice while pursuing shared interests, safeguard China’s independence and sovereignty, oppose hegemonism and power politics, defend world peace, promote human progress, work to build a community with a shared future for mankind, and advance the building of an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity. It shall develop relations between China and other countries on the basis of the five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. The Party shall constantly work to develop good neighborly relations between China and its surrounding countries and work to strengthen unity and cooperation between China and other developing countries. It shall follow the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration, and pursue the Belt and Road Initiative. The Communist Party of China shall develop relations with the Communist parties and other political parties of other countries in accordance with the principles of independence, complete equality, mutual respect, and noninterference in each other’s internal affairs.
To lead the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to realize the Second Centenary Goal and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, the Communist Party of China must follow its basic line; uphold and strengthen the Party’s overall leadership; exercise self-supervision and strengthen self-governance in every respect; champion the Party’s great founding spirit comprised of the principles of upholding truth and ideals, staying true to the Party’s original aspiration and founding mission, fighting bravely without fear of sacrifice, and remaining loyal to the Party and faithful to the people; strengthen its long-term governance capacity, its advanced nature, and its purity; and, in the spirit of reform and innovation, make comprehensive moves to press ahead with the great new project of Party building. It must take enhancing its political building as the overarching principle and make comprehensive efforts to ensure that the Party’s political work is stressed, ideology is strengthened, organizations are consolidated, conduct is improved, and discipline is maintained, institutional development is always emphasized, and the fight against corruption keeps going, thus building the Party more effectively in all respects and using the Party’s own transformation to steer social transformation. It must uphold the principle that the Party builds itself in the interests of, and exercises governance for, the people, and see that its fine traditions and positive work style continue to thrive. It must constantly work to improve the way it exercises leadership and governance and strengthen its ability to resist corruption, prevent moral decline, and withstand risks. It must constantly strengthen its ability to purify, improve, reform, and excel itself. It must constantly strengthen its class foundation, expand its mass base, enhance its creativity, cohesion, and readiness to meet challenges, and build itself up as an ever-learning, service-oriented, and innovative Marxist governing party. The Party should thus be able to forever stand at the forefront of the times and become a strong core capable of leading all the people of China as they continue to advance along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In building itself, the Party must work with firm resolve to meet the following six fundamental requirements.
1. Adherence to the Party’s basic line. The whole Party must use Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and the Party’s basic line to achieve unity in thought and action, and must resolutely continue to do so in the long term. The Party must ensure that reform and opening up are carried out in unity with the Four Cardinal Principles, put its basic line into effect in all fields of endeavor, and combat all mistaken tendencies of the “Left” and Right, maintaining vigilance against Rightist tendencies, but primarily defending against “Leftist” tendencies. The entire Party must improve the capacity for political judgment, thinking, and implementation and become more self-motivated and resolute in implementing the Party’s theories, lines, principles, and policies.
2. Commitment to emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts, advancing with the times, and being realistic and pragmatic. The Party’s line of thinking is to proceed from reality in all it does, to integrate theory with practice, to seek truth from facts, and to verify and develop truths through practice. All Party members must uphold this line of thinking, actively exploring and boldly experimenting, breaking ground and making innovations, and working with creativity; never cease to study new situations, reflect on new experiences, and solve new problems; and enrich and develop Marxism through practice and advance the adaption of Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of our times.
3. Adherence to the Party’s organizational line for the new era. The Party must fully implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; focus on improving the organizational system to train high-caliber officials who are loyal to the Party, clean, and responsible and to bring together talented people from all fields who are patriotic and dedicated; and select officials on the basis of both moral integrity and ability, with greater weight given to integrity, and on the basis of merit, so as to provide a strong organizational guarantee for upholding and strengthening overall leadership of the Party and upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. The whole Party must work to improve the political and organizational functions of Party organizations, train and select the good officials that our Party and people need, cultivate a large team of personnel who are capable of shouldering the mission of the times and well prepared to carry on the socialist cause, and bring together the brightest minds from all over, thus ensuring organizationally that the Party’s basic theory, basic line, and basic policy are fully implemented and applied.
4. Dedication to wholeheartedly serving the people. Besides the interests of the working class and the broadest possible majority of the people, the Party has no special interests of its own. It shall, at all times, give top priority to the interests of the people, share weal and woe with them, and maintain the closest possible ties with them. It shall exercise power for the people, demonstrate concern for them, and work in their interests, never allowing any member to become disengaged from the people or to behave as if they are above them. The biggest political advantage the Party has is its close ties with the people while the biggest potential danger it faces as a governing party is becoming distanced from them. Party conduct and the Party’s ties with the people are of paramount importance to the Party. In its own work, the Party shall follow the mass line, seeing that everything is for the people and everything relies on the people, exercising the principle of “from the people, to the people,” and translating the correct ideas of the Party into the voluntary action of the people.
5. Resolve in upholding democratic centralism. Democratic centralism combines centralism built on the basis of democracy with democracy under centralized guidance. It is both the Party’s fundamental organizational principle and the application of the mass line in everyday Party activities. The Party must fully encourage intraparty democracy, respect the principal position of its members, safeguard their democratic rights, and give play to the initiative and creativity of Party organizations at every level and all Party members. Correct centralism must be practiced; all Party members must keep firmly in mind the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, uphold the leadership core, and keep in alignment, and firmly uphold the authority and centralized, unified leadership of the Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, so as to ensure the solidarity, unity, and concerted action of the whole Party and guarantee the prompt and effective implementation of the Party’s decisions. The Party shall strengthen and regulate political activities within itself; make intraparty political activities more politically oriented, up-to-date, principled, and effective; cultivate a positive and healthy intraparty political culture; and foster a sound political ecosystem featuring honesty and integrity within the Party. In its internal political activities, the Party shall conduct correctly criticism and self-criticism, engage in debate over matters of principle, and uphold truth and rectify mistakes. The Party shall work hard to create a lively political situation featuring both centralism and democracy, both discipline and freedom, and both unity of will and personal sense of ease.
6. Firmness in exercising strict self-supervision and self-governance. Ensuring full and rigorous Party self-governance is an unceasing endeavor and that self-reform is a journey to which there is no end. Under the new circumstances, the tests the Party faces in governance, reform and opening up, the market economy, and the external environment are protracted, complicated, and serious; the dangers of a lack of drive, incompetence, disengagement from the people, inaction, and corruption are more pointedly confronting the whole Party. The Party shall see that strict standards and measures are applied throughout the process and in all aspects of its self-supervision and self-governance. The Party shall ensure self-governance is carried out in accordance with regulations and both symptoms and root causes of problems are addressed. The Party must constantly improve the system of Party regulations, give top priority to ensuring compliance with Party discipline, help its members become more organization conscious and have a stronger sense of discipline, and work to see that every member is equal before Party discipline. The Party shall ensure the principal and oversight responsibilities for full and rigorous Party self-governance are assumed; oversight of leading Party organs and of Party members in leadership positions, particularly those holding principal leadership positions, is strengthened; and the internal oversight system is constantly improved. The Party shall step up efforts to improve conduct, build integrity, and combat corruption; apply a zero-tolerance policy on corruption; and make integrated efforts to ensure that officials do not have the audacity, opportunity, or desire to become corrupt.
Leadership of the Communist Party of China is the most essential attribute of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the greatest strength of this system. The Party is the highest force for political leadership. It exercises overall leadership over all areas of endeavor in every part of the country. The Party must adapt to the demands of reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, remain committed to practicing scientific, democratic, and law-based governance, and strengthen and improve its leadership. The Party must, acting on the principle of guiding the overall situation and coordinating the work of all sides, assume the role of leadership core among all other organizations at the corresponding levels. The Party must concentrate on leading economic development, organize and coordinate the strengths of all by uniting hearts and actions to focus work on economic development, and promote all-around economic and social development. The Party must practice democratic and scientific decision-making; formulate and implement the correct lines, principles, and policies; carry out its organizational, publicity, and educational work to proper effect; and give play to the exemplary and vanguard role of all Party members. The Party must act within the scope of the country’s Constitution and the law. It must ensure that the legislative, judicial, administrative, and supervisory organs of the state, economic and cultural organizations, and people’s organizations work actively on their own initiative, independently, responsibly, and cooperatively. The Party must strengthen its leadership over trade unions, the Communist Youth League, women’s federations, and other people’s group organizations, ensure they preserve and strengthen their political consciousness, advanced nature, and orientation toward the people, and give full play to their roles. The Party must adapt to developments and changing circumstances, improving its leadership system and style of leadership and strengthening its capacity for governance. Party members must cooperate closely with people outside the Party, endeavoring together to build socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Chapter I. Membership
Article 1: Any forward-thinking Chinese worker, farmer, member of the armed forces, intellectual, or person from any other social strata who has reached the age of eighteen and who accepts the Party’s program and Constitution and is willing to join and work actively in one of the Party’s organizations, carry out the Party’s resolutions, and pay regular membership dues may apply for membership to the Communist Party of China.
Article 2: Members of the Communist Party of China are vanguard fighters of the Chinese working class who possess Communist consciousness.
Members of the Communist Party of China must wholeheartedly serve the people, be ready to make any personal sacrifice, and dedicate their lives to realizing communism.
Members of the Communist Party of China shall be forever ordinary members of the working people. No Communist Party member shall pursue any personal gain or privilege beyond the individual interests and the powers attached to their job afforded through laws and policies.
Article 3: Party members must fulfill the following obligations:
1) Conscientiously study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, study the Party’s lines, principles, policies, and resolutions, acquire a fundamental knowledge of the Party, study the history of the Party, improve their general, scientific, legal, and professional knowledge, and work diligently to strengthen their ability to serve the people.
2) Strengthen consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership; stay confident in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and uphold Comrade Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and uphold the Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. Implement the Party’s basic line, principles, and policies, take the lead in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, encourage the people to work hard for economic development and social progress, and play an exemplary and vanguard role in production, work, study, and social activities.
3) Adhere to the principle that the interests of the Party and the people come before all else, subordinating personal interests to the interests of the Party and the people, being the first to bear hardships and the last to enjoy comforts, working selflessly for the public interest, and making a significant contribution.
4) Consciously observe Party discipline, with utmost emphasis placed on the Party’s political discipline and rules, set a fine example in abiding by the laws and regulations of the state, strictly protect Party and state secrets, execute Party decisions, comply with Party decisions on job allocation, and readily fulfill the Party’s tasks.
5) Uphold Party solidarity and unity, practice loyalty and honesty toward the Party, ensure their actions are true to their words, firmly oppose all factional and clique activities, and oppose feigning compliance and other double-dealing behavior and scheming of any kind.
6) Engage in genuine criticism and self-criticism, have the courage to reveal and correct statements and actions violating the Party’s principles and shortcomings and mistakes in work, and resolutely combat corruption and other forms of misconduct.
7) Maintain close ties with the people, share the ideas of the Party with them, consult with them as issues arise, keep the Party up to date on their views and demands, and defend their legitimate interests.
8) Promote new socialist customs and practices; lead the way in practicing core socialist values and the socialist concept of honor and disgrace; champion Communist ethics; advocate traditional virtues of the Chinese nation; and, the moment any difficulty or danger arises, step forward and fight bravely without fearing sacrifice to defend the interests of the country and the people.
Article 4: Party members shall enjoy the right to:
1) Attend relevant Party meetings, read relevant Party documents, and benefit from Party education and training.
2) Participate in discussion on questions concerning Party policy at Party meetings and in Party newspapers and periodicals.
3) Make suggestions and proposals regarding the work of the Party.
4) Offer well-founded criticism at Party meetings of any Party organization or any member; responsibly expose or report to the Party any disciplinary or legal violation by any Party organization or member; demand disciplinary action be brought against a member known to have violated discipline or the law; and call for the dismissal or replacement of any incompetent cadre.
5) Participate in voting and stand for election.
6) Be present and plead their case at discussions held by Party organizations to decide on disciplinary action to be taken against them or to appraise their work and behavior; other Party members may also bear witness or argue on their behalf.
7) Make a statement of reservation and present their views to a Party organization at a higher level, up to and including the Central Committee, in case of disagreement with a Party resolution or policy, on the condition that they resolutely implement the resolution or policy in question while it is in force.
8) Submit a request, appeal, or accusation to a higher-level Party organization, up to and including the Central Committee, and request that the organization concerned issues an accountable reply.
No Party organization at any level, including the Central Committee, has the right to deprive a Party member of the aforementioned rights.
Article 5: New Party members must be admitted through a Party branch, for which political integrity must be upheld as the primary criterion and the principle of individual admission must be adhered to.
An applicant for Party membership must complete an application form and be recommended by two full Party members. The application must be accepted at a general meeting of the Party branch concerned and be approved by the Party organization at the next level up, and the applicant must undergo observation for a probationary period before being granted full membership.
In recommending an applicant, a Party member must endeavor to understand the applicant’s thinking, character, personal record, and performance at work and explain to the applicant the program and Constitution of the Party, the criteria for membership, and the rights and obligations of members, and must accordingly report responsibly to the Party organization.
The Party branch committee shall, in relation to the applicant for Party membership, solicit the opinions of relevant persons within and outside the Party, carry out thorough checks, and, on believing the applicant to meet Party criteria, submit the application to a general meeting for discussion.
Before approving the admission of an applicant for membership, the Party organization at the next level up must appoint Party members to talk with the applicant in order to get to know him or her better and help deepen his or her understanding of the Party.
In exceptional circumstances, the Party Central Committee or the committee of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the central government may admit a new Party member directly.
Article 6: A probationary Party member must take an oath of admission before the Party flag. The oath reads: It is my will to join the Communist Party of China, uphold the Party’s program, observe the provisions of the Party Constitution, fulfill the obligations of a Party member, carry out the Party’s decisions, strictly observe Party discipline, protect Party secrets, be loyal to the Party, work hard, fight for communism for the rest of my life, always be prepared to sacrifice my all for the Party and the people, and never betray the Party.
Article 7: The probationary period of a probationary member is one year. Party organizations should act in earnest to guide and observe probationary members.
The obligations of a probationary member are the same as those of a full member. With the exception of the right to vote and stand for election, the rights of a probationary member are the same as those of a full member.
Upon completion of the probationary period of a probationary member, the Party branch should promptly discuss whether he or she may be accepted as a full member. A probationary member who conscientiously performs his or her obligations and meets the criteria for full membership shall have their status changed to full member at the end of the probationary period; in the event that continued observation and education are deemed necessary, the probationary period may be extended, but by no more than one year; in the event that a probationary member has failed to perform his or her obligations or to meet the criteria for full membership, his or her probationary membership shall be revoked. Any decision to grant a probationary member full membership, extend a probationary period, or revoke a probationary membership must be discussed and passed at a general meeting of the Party branch and approved by the Party organization at the next level up.
The probationary period of a probationary member shall begin on the day the general meeting of the Party branch passes the decision to accept him or her as a probationary member. Length of Party membership shall be counted from the day he or she is granted full membership, having completed the probationary period.
Article 8: Every Party member, irrespective of position, must join a branch, group, or other given unit of the Party; participate in the regular activities of the Party organization; and accept the oversight of the people both within and outside the Party. Party members in positions of leadership must attend meetings of Party members in leadership positions held by their respective Party committees or leading Party members groups. There shall be no special Party members exempted from participation in the regular activities of the Party organization or from the oversight of the people within and outside the Party.
Article 9: Party members have the freedom to withdraw from the Party. In the event a Party member requests a withdrawal, the Party branch concerned shall, after discussion at a general meeting, announce the removal of his or her name from the Party roll and report the withdrawal to the Party organization at the next level up to be put on record.
In the event that a Party member is found to lack revolutionary will or to be failing to fulfill Party-member obligations or the criteria for Party membership, the member’s Party branch shall require him or her to undergo education and rectify the situation within a stipulated time frame. If there is no change following attempts at education, he or she shall be urged to withdraw from the Party. In the event that a member is to be urged to withdraw from the Party, the matter shall be discussed and decided on at a general meeting of the Party branch concerned and submitted to the Party organization at the next level up for approval. Should a Party member urged to withdraw be adamant that he or she will not do so, the case shall be submitted to a general meeting of the Party branch concerned for discussion to decide on the removal of their name from the Party roll, after which the decision shall be submitted to the Party organization at the next level up for approval.
A Party member who, without good reason, fails to take part in the regular activities of his or her Party organization, pay membership dues, or carry out work assigned by the Party for six consecutive months shall be regarded as having given up his or her membership. The Party branch concerned should, through a general meeting, decide on the removal of their name from the Party roll and report it to the Party organization at the next level up for approval.
Chapter II. The Party’s Organizational System
Article 10: The Party is an integral body organized under its own program and Constitution and on the basis of democratic centralism. The Party’s basic principles of democratic centralism are as follows:
1) Individual Party members defer to Party organizations, the minority defers to the majority, lower-level Party organizations defer to higher-level Party organizations, and all organizations and members of the Party defer to the National Congress and the Central Committee of the Party.
2) Leading bodies of the Party at all levels, with the exception of their dispatched representative organs and the leading Party members groups in non-Party organizations, are generated by election.
3) The highest leading bodies of the Party are the National Congress and the Central Committee which it elects. The Party’s local leading bodies are the Party congresses at each level and the Party committees which they elect. Party committees are responsible and shall report their work to the Party congress at the same level.
4) Higher-level Party organizations shall listen regularly to the views of lower-level organizations and rank-and-file Party members, and respond quickly to the problems they raise. Lower-level Party organizations shall report on their work to and request instructions from higher-level Party organizations; at the same time, they shall handle, independently and responsibly, matters within their jurisdiction. Higher- and lower-level Party organizations shall exchange information and support and oversee each other. Party organizations at all levels shall practice transparency in Party affairs in accordance with regulations, helping Party members to be better informed of internal Party affairs and enabling them greater opportunity to participate.
5) Party committees at all levels shall function on the principle of combining collective leadership with individual responsibility based on the division of work. Decisions on all major issues shall be made through discussion by the Party committee concerned in accordance with the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, pre-meeting contemplation, and meeting-based decision making. Members of Party committees shall act in earnest to fulfill their respective obligations in accordance with the collective decisions made and the division of work.
6) The Party proscribes all forms of personality cult. It shall be ensured that the activities of Party leaders are subject to oversight by the Party and the people, while at the same time upholding the standing of all leaders who represent the interests of the Party and the people.
Article 11: The election of delegates to Party congresses and members of Party committees, at all levels, shall reflect the will of the voters. Elections shall be held by secret ballot. Lists of candidates shall be fully deliberated and discussed by Party organizations and voters. The method of nominating a greater number of candidates than the number of persons to be elected may be adopted to directly carry out a formal election, or this method may first be used in a preliminary election to generate a list of candidates for the formal election that is to follow. Voters have the right to inquire about candidates, request a change in candidates, decline to vote for any of the candidates, or choose to vote for someone who is not a candidate. No organization or individual shall in any way compel a voter to vote or not vote for a candidate.
If the Party Constitution is thought to have been violated in any way during the election of a delegate to a local Party congress at any level or to a Party congress at the primary level, after investigation and verification, the Party committee at the next level up shall issue a decision to declare the election invalid and take appropriate measures, and report this decision to the Party committee at the next level up to be checked and approved before it is formally announced and implemented.
A tenure system shall be adopted for delegates to Party congresses at all levels.
Article 12: The Central Committee and local committees at all levels shall, when necessary, convene a conference of delegates to discuss and make decisions on a major problem that requires prompt resolution. The number of delegates to attend and the procedures for generating the list of delegates shall be determined by the Party committee convening the conference.
Article 13: Every instance of a new Party organization being formed or an existing Party organization being dissolved must be decided on by a Party organization at a higher level.
When the congress of a local Party organization at any level or the congress of a primary-level Party organization is not in session, the Party organization at the next level up may, when it deems necessary, transfer or designate the persons responsible for the lower-level Party organization.
The Party’s Central Committee and local committees at every level may dispatch representative organs.
Article 14: The Party’s Central Committee and committees of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government shall implement the discipline inspection system, and shall, within their term of office, carry out inspections of the Party organizations of all localities, departments, enterprises, and public institutions under their jurisdiction.
The leading Party members groups or Party committees of the departments and offices under the Party Central Committee and the State Council shall carry out inspections in response to the needs of their work.
City (including prefecture and league) and county (including county-level city, district, and banner) Party committees shall establish a discipline inspection system.
Article 15: When making a decision on an important issue affecting a lower-level organization, a leading body of the Party at any level shall, under normal circumstances, solicit the opinions of the lower-level organization. It shall be ensured that the lower-level organization is able to exercise its functions and powers as usual. Except in exceptional circumstances, no higher-level leading body shall interfere in any matter that ought to be handled by a lower-level organization.
Article 16: Only the Central Committee of the Party has the power to make decisions on major national policies. The Party organization of a department or locality may make suggestions to the Central Committee with regard to such policies, but shall not make any decision or express their views outside the Party without authorization.
Lower-level Party organizations must resolutely implement the decisions of higher-level Party organizations. In the event that a lower-level organization believes a decision of a higher-level organization to be unsuitable for the specific circumstances of its locality or department, it may request that the decision be revised. If the higher-level organization decides to maintain its original decision, the lower-level organization must carry out the decision and refrain from publicly voicing any differences of opinion, but reserves the right to report the matter to a Party organization at the next level up.
Newspapers, periodicals, and other media used in publicity run by Party organizations at all levels must feature information on the lines, principles, policies, and resolutions of the Party.
Article 17: In discussing and making decisions on a matter, Party organizations must uphold the principle of the minority respecting the majority. When a decision is being made on a major issue, a vote shall be held. Serious consideration should be given to the differing views of a minority. In case of disagreement on a major issue where the numbers in support of each view are closely matched, except in an emergency when action must be taken according to the majority view, the decision should be delayed and further investigation, research, and exchange of opinions should be undertaken before another vote is held. In exceptional circumstances, the disagreement may also be reported to the Party organization at the next level up and a verdict requested.
In the event that an individual Party member is to express a view on a major issue on behalf of his or her Party organization that goes beyond the scope of the organization’s existing decisions, the content must be referred to that organization for prior discussion and a decision, or referred to the Party organization at the next level up for instruction. No Party member, whatever his or her position, may act alone in making a decision on a major issue. In case of emergency, when a decision by an individual is unavoidable, the matter must be reported to his or her Party organization immediately after the event. No leader may make decisions arbitrarily or place him or herself above his or her Party organization.
Article 18: Organizations of the Party at the central, local, and primary levels must all give serious attention to Party building; regularly discuss and examine the Party’s promotional, educational, and organizational work, discipline inspection, its work with the people, and its work related to the united front; and carefully study current thinking and political trends both within and outside the Party.
Chapter III. Central Party Organizations
Article 19: The National Congress of the Party shall be held once every five years and convened by the Central Committee. In the event that the Central Committee deems it necessary or more than one third of provincial-level Party organizations put forward a request, a National Congress may be convened early. Except in unusual circumstances, it may not be postponed.
The number of delegates to the National Congress and the procedures governing their election shall be determined by the Central Committee.
Article 20: The functions and powers of the National Congress of the Party are as follows:
1) to hear and examine the reports of the Central Committee;
2) to examine the reports of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection;
3) to discuss and make decisions on major issues concerning the Party;
4) to revise the Constitution of the Party;
5) to elect the Central Committee; and
6) to elect the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
Article 21: The functions and powers of the National Conference of the Party are to discuss and make decisions on major issues and to replace members and elect additional members of the Central Committee and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. The number of Central Committee members and alternate members to be replaced or newly elected shall not exceed one fifth of the respective totals of full and alternate members elected to the Central Committee by the National Congress of the Party.
Article 22: The Central Committee of the Party is elected for a term of five years. In the event that a National Congress is convened early or postponed, the term shall be shortened or extended accordingly. The length of Party membership of Central Committee members or alternate members must be a minimum of five years. The number of members and alternate members of a Central Committee shall be determined by the National Congress. Empty seats on the Central Committee shall be filled by alternate members in order of the number of votes they were elected by.
Plenary sessions of the Central Committee are convened by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and are to be convened at least once annually. The Political Bureau shall report on its work at the plenary sessions and accept their oversight.
When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee shall carry out its resolutions, direct all Party work, and represent the Communist Party of China in external relations.
Article 23: The Political Bureau, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party are elected at the plenary session of the Central Committee. The General Secretary of the Central Committee must be generated from among the members of the Political Bureau’s Standing Committee.
Between plenary sessions of the Central Committee, the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee shall exercise the functions and powers of the Central Committee.
The Secretariat of the Central Committee is the working body of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and its Standing Committee. Members of the Secretariat are nominated by the Political Bureau’s Standing Committee and must be approved at a plenary session of the Central Committee.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee is responsible for convening meetings of the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee and shall preside over the work of the Secretariat.
Members of the Central Military Commission of the Party are decided on by the Central Committee; Chairperson of the Central Military Commission assumes overall responsibility over the work of the Commission.
Central leading bodies and leaders elected by a Central Committee shall, when the next National Congress is in session, continue to preside over the day-to-day work of the Party until new central leading bodies and leaders have been elected by its successive Central Committee.
Article 24: Party organizations in the Chinese People’s Liberation Army shall carry out their work in accordance with the instructions of the Central Committee. The Central Military Commission is responsible for Party work and political work in the armed forces, and shall prescribe the organizational system and organs of the Party in the armed forces.
Chapter IV. Local Party Organizations
Article 25: The Party congress of a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the central government, city divided into districts, autonomous prefecture, county (banner), autonomous county, city not divided into districts, or municipal district is to be held once every five years.
Each local Party congress is convened by the local Party committee at the corresponding level. In exceptional circumstances, and with the approval of the Party committee at the next level up, a local Party congress may be brought forward or postponed.
At every level, the number of delegates to a local Party congress and the procedures governing their election shall be determined by the local Party committee at the corresponding level and reported for approval to the Party committee at the next level up.
Article 26: The functions and powers of a local Party congress, at every level, are as follows:
1) to hear and examine the reports of the local Party committee at the corresponding level;
2) to examine the reports of the local commission for discipline inspection at the corresponding level;
3) to discuss and adopt resolutions on major issues within the scope of its local area; and
4) to elect the local Party committee and commission for discipline inspection at the corresponding level.
Article 27: The Party committee of a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the central government, city divided into districts, or autonomous prefecture is elected for a term of five years. The length of Party membership of a member or alternate member of such a committee must be a minimum of five years.
The Party committee of a county (banner), autonomous county, city not divided into districts, or municipal district is elected for a term of five years. The length of Party membership of a member or alternate member of such a committee must be a minimum of three years.
In the event that a local Party congress, at any level, is brought forward or postponed, the term of the committee elected by the previous congress shall be shortened or extended accordingly.
At every level the number of members and alternate members of a local Party committee shall be determined by the corresponding Party committee at the next level up. At every level empty seats on a local Party committee shall be filled by alternate members of that committee in order of the number of votes they were elected by.
Local Party committees at every level shall convene a plenary session at least biannually.
Local Party committees at every level shall, when their local Party congress is not in session, carry out the directives of the Party organization at the next level up and the resolutions of the Party congress at the corresponding level, direct work in their own local area, and report on their work at regular intervals to the Party committee at the next level up.
Article 28: Local Party committees at every level shall, at their plenary sessions, elect standing committees, secretaries, and deputy secretaries, and report to the next higher-level Party committee for approval. Local Party committee standing committees at every level shall exercise the functions and powers of the local Party committee when it is not in plenary session. The standing committee shall continue to preside over day-to-day work during the next session of the local Party congress until a new standing committee has been elected.
Local Party committee standing committees at every level shall regularly report on their work at the plenary sessions of their Party committees and accept their oversight.
Article 29: A prefectural Party committee, or the equivalent organization, is a representative organ dispatched by the Party committee of a province or autonomous region to a prefecture covering a number of counties, autonomous counties, and/or cities. It shall lead work in its given prefecture as authorized by the Party committee of the province or autonomous region.
Chapter V. Primary-Level Party Organizations
Article 30: A primary-level Party organization shall be formed in any enterprise, villagers’ committee, government organ, school, hospital, research institute, subdistrict and community, social organization, company of the People’s Liberation Army, and any other primary-level work unit where there are three or more full Party members.
Primary-level Party organizations shall, according to the requirements of their work and Party member numbers, and with the approval of higher-level Party organizations, establish primary-level Party committees, general Party branch committees, or Party branch committees. A primary-level Party committee is elected through a general meeting or a meeting of delegates and a general Party branch committee or a Party branch committee is elected through a general meeting, and in nominating candidates for these committees, the opinions of both Party and non-Party members shall be widely solicited.
Article 31: A primary-level Party committee, a general Party branch committee or a Party branch committee is elected for a term of three to five years. Results of elections for the secretaries and deputy secretaries of primary-level Party committees, general Party branch committees, and Party branch committees shall be reported to higher-level Party organizations for approval.
Article 32: Primary-level Party organizations play a key role for the Party in the basic units of social organization; they are the foundation for all the Party’s work and for its capacity to take on challenges. Their main tasks are:
1) to communicate to the public and carry out the Party’s lines, principles and policies, the resolutions of the Party Central Committee and other higher-level Party organizations, and their own resolutions; to give full play to the exemplary and vanguard role of Party members, to excel in their work, and to unite and organize Party officials and non-party officials as well as Party members and non-party members to fulfill the tasks of their work units.
2) to organize Party members to conscientiously study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; regularize and institutionalize the requirement for all Party members to study the Party Constitution, Party regulations, the Party’s history, and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s major policy addresses and to meet Party standards; study the Party’s lines, principles, policies, and resolutions; acquire a fundamental knowledge of the Party; and improve their general, scientific, legal, and professional knowledge.
3) to guide, manage, oversee, and serve Party members, improve their caliber, deepen their commitment to the ideals and convictions, strengthen their Party spirit, and ensure they participate regularly in Party organization activities; to carry out criticism and self-criticism activities, and maintain and implement Party discipline; to see that members conscientiously fulfill their obligations, and protect against infringements on their rights; and to improve migrant Party member management.
4) to maintain close ties with the people, regularly seek to understand their criticisms and opinions of Party members and the Party’s work, safeguard their legitimate rights and interests, and effectively carry out work related to their political thinking.
5) to give full play to the initiative and creativity of Party members and the people, to discover, nurture, and recommend people with outstanding talent from among them, and to encourage them to contribute their skills and intelligence to reform, opening up, and socialist modernization.
6) to guide and train active applicants for Party membership, to attend to routine work related to member recruitment, and to attach great importance to recruiting Party members from among those in the forefront of production and work and from among the younger generations.
7) to ensure that Party officials and all other personnel strictly observe state laws and regulations and the state’s financial and economic statutes and regulations on personnel, and that they do not infringe on the interests of the state, collectives, or the people.
8) to encourage Party members and the people to consciously resist unacceptable practices and resolutely fight against all violations of Party discipline or state law.
Article 33: Primary-level Party committees in subdistricts, townships, and towns and Party organizations in villages and communities shall provide overall leadership over all primary-level organizations and over work in all areas in their localities to enhance community-level social governance, and support and ensure the exercise of functions and powers by administrative, economic, and people’s self-governed organizations there.
The leading Party members groups or Party committees of state-owned enterprises shall play a leadership role, set the right direction, keep in mind the big picture, ensure the implementation of Party policies and principles, and discuss and decide on major issues of their enterprise in accordance with regulations. Primary-level Party organizations in state-owned or collective enterprises should focus their work on the operations of their enterprise. Primary-level Party organizations shall guarantee and oversee the implementation of the principles and policies of the Party and the state within their own enterprise and shall support the board of shareholders, board of directors, board of supervisors, and manager (or factory director) in exercising their functions and powers in accordance with the law. They shall wholeheartedly rely on the workers and office staff and support the work of workers’ representative congresses; and they shall participate in making decisions on major issues in the enterprise. They shall strengthen their own organizational development and lead work on political thinking, efforts toward cultural-ethical progress, work related to the united front, and work on trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, women’s organizations, and other people’s group organizations.
Primary-level Party organizations in non-public sector entities shall implement the Party’s principles and policies, guide and oversee their enterprises’ observance of state laws and regulations, exercise leadership over trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, and other people’s group organizations, promote unity and cohesion among workers and office staff, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of all parties, and promote the healthy development of their enterprises.
Primary-level Party organizations in social organizations shall communicate to the public and carry out the Party’s lines, principles, and policies, exercise leadership over trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, and other people’s group organizations, guide and manage their Party members, lead and serve the people, and advance the cause of the Party.
Primary-level Party organizations shall play a key role in public institutions under the charge of administrative leaders. Primary-level Party organizations in public institutions under the charge of administrative leaders led by a Party committee shall discuss and make decisions on major issues and, at the same time, ensure that the administrative leaders are able to fully exercise their functions and powers.
Primary-level Party organizations in offices of the Party or the state at every level shall assist chief administrators in fulfilling their tasks and improving their work; they shall guide, manage, and oversee all Party members, including chief administrators, but shall not direct the work of their work units.
Article 34: Party branches are the basic organizations of the Party; they are responsible for directly guiding, managing, and overseeing Party members and for organizing, communicating with, uniting, and serving the people.
Chapter VI. Party Officials
Article 35: Party officials are the backbone of the Party’s cause and public servants of the people, and shall be loyal to the Party, clean, and responsible. The Party shall select officials on the basis of both their moral integrity and their professional competence—giving greater priority to the former—and on the basis of their merits and not their origins; it shall select officials who put the Party’s cause first and who are impartial and upright; it shall oppose favoritism; and it shall endeavor to develop a contingent of officials that is more revolutionary, younger, better educated, and more professional.
The Party attaches great weight to the education, training, selection, assessment, and oversight of its officials, and considers the training and selection of outstanding young officials to be of particular importance. The Party shall work actively to achieve progress in reforming the cadre system.
The Party attaches great importance to the training and promotion of female officials and ethnic minority officials.
Article 36: Party officials at every level must hold firm convictions, be committed to serving the people, be hardworking and pragmatic, take on responsibility, and be clean and honest. They must set a good example in carrying out their obligations as Party members as prescribed in Article 3 of this Constitution and must meet the following basic requirements:
1) Have the necessary understanding of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development to be able to perform their duties; take the lead in applying Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; endeavor to use Marxist positions, viewpoints, and methods in analyzing and solving practical problems; demand of themselves commitment to study, political integrity, and rectitude; and be able to stand the test of any hardship or difficulty.
2) Have firm conviction in the high ideal of communism and in socialism with Chinese characteristics, resolutely implement the Party’s basic line, principles, and policies, demonstrate determination in pursuing reform and opening up, devote themselves to the cause of modernization, work hard in building socialism, foster the right view on performance evaluation, and make solid achievements that stand up in practice, in the eyes of the people, and over the course of time.
3) Maintain a commitment to the emancipation of the mind, seeking truth from facts, advancing with the times, and breaking new ground and innovating; carry out investigations and research diligently, enabling Party principles and policies to be combined with circumstances in their localities or departments and ensuring work is done to excellent effect; be truthful, do practical work, and seek tangible results.
4) Be dedicated to the revolutionary cause and have a strong sense of political responsibility, have practical experience, and have the organizational ability, general education, and specialized knowledge necessary to excel in leading posts.
5) Exercise the power vested in them by the people as it should be exercised, be principled, handle matters in accordance with the law, practice honesty and integrity, work diligently for the people, lead by example, work hard and live plainly, maintain close ties with the people, uphold the Party’s mass line, consciously accept the criticism and oversight of the Party and the people, strengthen their moral self-cultivation, espouse the Party spirit and high ethical standards, be a role model, exercise self-respect, self-reflection, self-caution, and self-motivation, combat the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, and oppose privilege-seeking mindsets and practices and any act of abusing power for personal gain.
6) Uphold the Party’s democratic centralism, work in a democratic way, keep in mind the bigger picture, and be good at uniting and working with other comrades, including those whose views differ from their own.
Article 37: Party officials should be able to cooperate well with non-Party officials, respect them, and be open-minded in learning from them.
Party organizations at all levels must be good at discovering, and recommending for leadership positions, talented non-Party members with practical learning, and ensure that they enjoy authority commensurate with their positions and can fully play their roles.
Article 38: Party members in leadership positions at every level, whether elected through democratic procedures or appointed by a leading body, do not hold posts for life and can be transferred from or relieved of their posts.
Officials whose age and health make them unfit to continue working should retire according to state regulations.
Chapter VII. Party Discipline
Article 39: Party discipline refers to the codes of conduct that must be observed by Party organizations at every level and by all Party members. It is a guarantee for safeguarding Party unity and solidarity and for ensuring that the tasks of the Party are accomplished. Party organizations must strictly observe and maintain Party discipline. Communist Party members must consciously accept the constraints of Party discipline.
Article 40: Party discipline mainly consists of political and organizational discipline and discipline regarding integrity, the public, work, and life.
For members who have violated Party discipline, Party organizations shall reprimand and educate them, order them to conduct self-examination, admonish them, or take disciplinary action against them, depending on the nature and seriousness of their mistakes, in keeping with the principle of learning from mistakes to prevent recurrence, treating the illness to save the patient, exercising strict discipline enforcement, holding every violator accountable, and discovering problems early and correcting them when they are nascent. The four forms of oversight and discipline enforcement shall be exercised, ensuring that those who have committed minor misconduct are made to “redden and sweat”; that penalties and organizational adjustments to official positions are employed as important means of Party self-supervision and self-governance; and that those who have committed serious disciplinary and/or criminal violations are expelled from the Party.
It is strictly forbidden within the Party to take any measure in contravention of the Party Constitution or state laws in dealing with a member, or to retaliate against or frame another person. Offending organizations and individuals must be held accountable according to Party discipline and state laws.
Article 41: There are five forms of disciplinary action for Party members: warning, severe warning, removal from a position within the Party, probation within the Party, and expulsion from the Party.
Party members shall not be placed on probation within the Party for a period of more than two years. A Party member under probation shall have no right to vote or stand for election. A Party member who has undergone a period of disciplinary probation and genuinely rectified his or her mistake(s) shall have his or her rights as a Party member restored. A Party member who refuses to show remorse shall be expelled from the Party.
Expulsion is the ultimate form of disciplinary action within the Party. In deciding on or approving an expulsion, Party organizations at every level shall look into all documentation and opinions related to the case with circumspection.
Article 42: Any disciplinary action to be taken against a Party member must be discussed and decided on at a general meeting of Party branch, and reported to the primary-level Party committee for approval. In the event that the issues involved are important or complicated, or if a member is to be expelled from the Party, the case shall be reported to a Party commission for discipline inspection for examination and approval at the county level or above depending on the specific circumstances of the case. In exceptional circumstances, a Party committee or a commission for discipline inspection at or above the county level has the authority to decide directly on the disciplinary action to be taken against a Party member.
Any decision to give a member or alternate member of the Central Committee a warning or severe warning shall be examined by the Standing Committee of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and then submitted to the Central Committee for approval. Any decision to give a member or alternate member of a local Party committee at any level a warning or severe warning shall be submitted to the commission for discipline inspection at the next level up for approval and reported to the Party committee at the same level as the commission to be put on record.
Any decision to discipline a member or alternate member of the Central Committee or a local committee at any level by removal from his or her position within the Party, disciplinary probation, or expulsion from the Party must be approved by a two-thirds majority vote at a plenary meeting of the Party committee to which the member or alternate member in question belongs. When the plenary meeting is not in session, the decision may be taken first by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee or the standing committee of a local Party committee while awaiting confirmation at the plenary meeting of the Party committee. The use of such actions in disciplining a member or alternate member of a local Party committee at any level is subject to examination by the standing committee of the commission for discipline inspection at the next level up and shall then be submitted by the commission for discipline inspection to the Party committee at the same level as the commission for approval.
The expulsion from the Party of a member or alternate member of the Central Committee who has committed a serious criminal violation shall be decided upon by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee; the expulsion of a member or alternate member of a local Party committee at any level who has committed a serious criminal violation shall be decided upon by the standing committee of the Party committee at the corresponding level.
Article 43: When a Party organization is deciding on disciplinary action against a Party member, it should investigate and verify the facts as objectively as possible. The Party member in question must be shown the disciplinary decision and the facts it is based on, and be given the chance to offer an explanation and speak in his or her own defense. If the member does not accept the decision, he or she may appeal, and the Party organization concerned must promptly manage or forward the appeal, and must not withhold or suppress it. Those who persist with mistaken views or unjustifiable claims shall be subject to reprimand and education.
Article 44: Should a Party organization fail to uphold Party discipline, it must be held accountable.
In the event that a Party organization seriously violates Party discipline and is unable to rectify the mistake on its own, the Party committee at the next level up should, after establishing and verifying the facts, make a decision to reorganize or dissolve the organization based on the seriousness of the case, report this decision to the Party committee at the next level up for examination and approval, and then formally announce and execute the decision.
Chapter VIII. Party Organs for Discipline Inspection
Article 45: The Party’s Central Commission for Discipline Inspection shall function under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Party. Local commissions for discipline inspection at every level and primary-level commissions for discipline inspection shall all function under the dual leadership of the Party committee at the corresponding level and the commission for discipline inspection at the next level up. A commission for discipline inspection shall strengthen its leadership over the lower-level commissions for discipline inspection.
The Party’s commissions for discipline inspection at every level shall serve a term of the same duration as Party committees at the corresponding level.
The Party’s Central Commission for Discipline Inspection shall elect, at a plenary session, its standing committee, secretary, and deputy secretaries, and shall report the election results to the Central Committee for approval. Local commissions for discipline inspection at every level shall elect their standing committees, secretaries, and deputy secretaries at their plenary sessions. Election results must go through the Party committee at the corresponding level and be reported to the Party committee at the next level up for approval. Whether a primary-level Party committee should set up a commission for discipline inspection or simply appoint a discipline inspection commissioner is to be determined by the Party organization at the next level up in light of the specific circumstances. Committees of general Party branches and Party branches shall have in place discipline inspection commissioners.
The Party’s central and local commissions for discipline inspection shall dispatch discipline inspection teams to all the Party and state organs at the corresponding level and to state-owned enterprises and public institutions as required by relevant regulations. The leaders of such discipline inspection teams shall attend relevant meetings of the leading Party organizations in the work units under inspection. The leading Party organizations in the work units concerned must support their work.
Article 46: The Party’s commissions for discipline inspection at every level are bodies specifically charged with the responsibility of conducting internal oversight, whose main tasks are: to defend the Constitution and other regulations of the Party, to monitor the implementation of the lines, principles, policies, and resolutions of the Party, to assist their respective Party committees in ensuring strict Party self-governance in every respect, improving Party conduct, and organizing and coordinating efforts to combat corruption, and to improve Party and state oversight systems.
The duties of the Party’s commissions for discipline inspection at every level are to exercise oversight, enforce discipline, and ensure accountability. They shall work to keep Party members educated about their duty to observe Party discipline and shall make decisions about maintaining Party discipline; they shall oversee the performance of duty and exercise of power by Party organizations and Party members in leadership positions, accept and handle complaints and reports made by both Party members and the general public, hold cautionary talks, and carry out oral or written inquiries; they shall examine and deal with important or complicated cases of violations of the Constitution or other regulations of the Party by Party organizations or members and decide on or rescind disciplinary action against the Party members involved; they shall pursue accountability or propose enforcing accountability; they shall deal with complaints and appeals made by Party members; and they shall safeguard the rights of Party members.
Commissions for discipline inspection at every level shall report to the Party committee at the corresponding level on problems encountered in handling and the outcomes of particularly important or complicated cases. Local commissions for discipline inspection at every level and primary-level commissions for discipline inspection shall, at the same time, also submit reports to commissions for discipline inspection at the next level up.
If a commission for discipline inspection at any level discovers a violation of Party discipline by a member of the Party committee at the corresponding level, it may take preliminary steps to verify the facts and, if it is necessary to file a case, should simultaneously report the matter to the Party committee at the corresponding level and the commission for discipline inspection at the next level up; if a member of the standing committee of the Party committee is involved, the case shall be reported to and subject to preliminary verification by the commission for discipline inspection at the next level up and, if it is necessary to investigate the case, the commission for discipline inspection in question should then report it to the Party committee at the corresponding level for approval.
Article 47: Higher-level commissions for discipline inspection have the power to examine the work of lower-level commissions and to approve or revise their decisions on a case. If the decision to be revised has already been ratified by the Party committee at the corresponding level, the revision must be approved by the Party committee at the next level up.
If a local commission for discipline inspection at any level or a primary-level commission for discipline inspection disagrees with a decision made during the handling of a case by the Party committee at the corresponding level, it may request that the commission at the next level up re-examines the case; should a local or primary-level commission discover a discipline violation by the Party committee at the corresponding level or by any of its members, and if the Party committee fails to address or addresses incorrectly that violation, the commission has the right to appeal to a higher-level commission and request assistance in dealing with the matter.
Chapter IX. Leading Party Members Groups
Article 48: A leading Party members group may be formed in the leading body of central or local state organs, people’s organizations, economic or cultural institutions, or other non-Party organizations. Such a group shall play the leading role. Its main tasks are: to ensure that the Party’s lines, principles, and policies are implemented; to strengthen leadership over Party building within its work unit and fulfill its responsibility for exercising strict Party self-governance in every respect; to discuss and make decisions on matters of major significance within its work unit, to manage officials to proper effect; to discuss and decide on important issues including adjusting the setup of primary-level Party organizations, admitting new Party members, and disciplining Party members; to encourage non-Party officials and the people in fulfilling the tasks entrusted to them by the Party and the state; and to exercise leadership over the work of the Party organizations of the work unit and those directly under it.
Article 49: The composition of a leading Party members group is decided on by the Party organization that approves its establishment. A leading Party members group shall appoint a secretary and, when necessary, deputy secretaries.
A leading Party members group must accept the leadership of the Party organization that approves its establishment.
Article 50: Party committees may be set up in state departments which exercise centralized leadership over the work units beneath them and in leading organs of relevant work units. The Central Committee of the Party shall stipulate the specific procedures for their establishment and define their functions, powers, and tasks.
Chapter X. Relationship between the Party and the Communist Youth League of China
Article 51: The Communist Youth League of China is a people’s group organization of forward-thinking young people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China; it is a school for vast numbers of young people to learn through practice about socialism with Chinese characteristics and about communism; it is an aide to and reserve force of the Party. The Central Committee of the Communist Youth League functions under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Party. Local chapters of the Communist Youth League come under the leadership of the relevant Party committee at the corresponding level and of the higher-level organization of the League itself.
Article 52: Party committees at every level must strengthen their leadership over Communist Youth League organizations and pay attention to the selection and training of League officials. The Party must give firm support to the Communist Youth League as it carries out its work in a vibrant and creative way which suits the characteristics and needs of young people, and give full play to the League’s spearhead role and its role as a bridge linking the Party with younger generations.
Those secretaries of League committees at or below the county level or in enterprises and public institutions who are Party members may attend the meetings of Party committees or of the standing committees of Party committees at their corresponding level as non-voting participants.
Chapter XI. Party Emblem and Flag
Article 53: The emblem of the Communist Party of China is composed of a hammer and sickle.
Article 54: The flag of the Communist Party of China is a red flag emblazoned with a golden Party emblem.
Article 55: The Party emblem and the Party flag are the symbol and sign of the Communist Party of China. Party organizations at every level and all Party members shall protect the sanctity of the Party emblem and the Party flag. Party emblems and flags should be made and used according to regulations.
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