纽约时报双语笔记:在人群大量聚集的场合,你该如何避免陷入踩踏?

在人群大量聚集的场合,你该如何避免陷入踩踏?
What to Do if You Find Yourself in a Crowd Crush
DANI BLUM
2022年11月1日
纽约时报双语笔记:在人群大量聚集的场合,你该如何避免陷入踩踏?

笔记导读

stampede (人群的)蜂拥,狂奔;(动物的)惊逃,乱窜;If there is a stampede, a group of people or animals run in a wild, uncontrolled way. ◆ A stampede broke out when the doors opened. 门一开,人们蜂拥而出。

ticketed 须凭票入场的  ◆ The museum holds both free and ticketed events. 博物馆举办的活动既有免费入场的,也有凭票入场的。

tumultuous /tjʊ’mʌltjʊəs/ 事件,时期动乱的骚乱的,动荡的;A tumultuous event or period of time involves many exciting and confusing events or feelings. ◆ the tumultuous years of the English Civil War 英国内战的动乱年代

双语全文(官方翻译)

A crowd surge during a Halloween celebration in Seoul that killed at least 151 people became the latest in a number of recent crowd-crush-related tragedies. November will mark the one-year anniversary of the Astroworld festival in Houston, when 10 people died and hundreds were injured at a Travis Scott concert; earlier this month, more than 100 people died in a stampede at an Indonesian soccer match.

在首尔的万圣节庆祝活动中,人群拥挤造成至少151人死亡(截至11月1日,死亡人数已升至156人——编注),成为近期一系列人群推挤事故悲剧中的最新一起。11月将迎来休斯顿天文世界音乐节一周年纪念日,那天在特拉维斯·斯科特音乐会上有10人死亡,数百人受伤;本月早些时候,一场印尼足球比赛发生踩踏事故,造成100多人死亡。

Despite these high-profile instances, such “episodes are very rare,” said Clifford Stott, a professor of social psychology at Keele University in England and expert in crowd behavior. “The extent to which people are going to find themselves in the circumstances where this kind of event could develop is extremely low,” he added.

英国基尔大学社会心理学教授、人群行为专家克利福德·斯托特说,尽管这些例子引发了大量关注,但这样的“事件非常罕见”。他还说:“人们发现自己处于可能引发这种事故的情况下的可能性很低。”

Still, there are simple strategies that can help you stay safe in crowded settings, experts said. “It doesn’t matter how big you are, how strong you are,” said Paul Wertheimer, a crowd safety expert in Los Angeles. “If you get caught in a crush, everything is beyond your control.” Here’s what you need to know.

即使如此,专家说,仍有一些简单的策略可以帮助你在拥挤的环境中保持安全。“无论你个头大还是小,强壮与否,”洛杉矶的人群安全专家保罗·韦特海默说。“如果你陷入人群推挤中,一切都超出了你的控制范围。”以下是你需要知道的。

What to do before heading into a crowded event

去往人多的活动前该做些什么

Research the event — and make sure kids are prepared, too.

对活动做些研究——并确保孩子们也对活动有所了解。

Most organized, ticketed events will have a crowd safety plan in place, so those might be a safer option. Looser, open street celebrations usually have fewer precautions. Standing-room-only events, and those without assigned seating, tend to be the most dangerous, Mr. Wertheimer said.

大多数有组织的、凭票的活动都会有一个人群安全计划,所以这类活动可能是一个更安全的选择。较宽松、开放的街头庆祝活动通常采取的预防措施较少。韦特海默说,仅限站立的活动以及没有指定座位的活动往往是最危险的。

Parents should be aware of what type of event their child is going to, as well, said G. Keith Still, a visiting professor of crowd science at the University of Suffolk in England. Tell kids to find out where the exits are, and to stay alert for any potential dangers, like crowded aisles or stairways that are becoming jammed.

英国萨福克大学人群科学客座教授G·基思·斯蒂尔说,父母也应该知道他们的孩子将参加的活动是什么类型。告诉孩子们找到出口在哪里,并对任何潜在的危险保持警惕,比如拥挤的过道或被堵塞的楼梯。

Pay attention to how the event is organized when you first walk in.

当你刚到达活动地点时,留意活动的组织方式。

If the entrance to an event seems poorly organized — the security and ticket-checking process are confusing and tumultuous, for example — the rest of the event may be poorly set up for handling a crowd, Dr. Still said. “If that looks chaotic, I would be trying to avoid high-density crowds from that point onward,” he said. If the event is general admission, without assigned seats, you might want to find the least crowded pocket, he said, even if that means hanging in the back.

斯蒂尔博士说,如果一个活动的入口看起来组织不善——例如,安全和检票过程令人困惑和混乱——那么接下来的活动可能无法应对人群问题。他说:“如果入口看起来很混乱,我会从那时起尽量避开高密度人群。”他说,如果活动采用通用入场券,没有指定座位,你可能想找到最不拥挤的区域,即使这意味着站在后排。

Know where the exits are throughout the venue.

知道场地各处的出口在哪里。

You should be aware of the closest exit to where you are seated or standing, Mr. Wertheimer said, and as you move throughout the venue, check out the exits near the concession stand or bathroom, as a crowd surge can happen unexpectedly anywhere.

韦特海默说,你应该留意离你坐着或站着的地方最近的出口,当你在整个场地走动时,留意靠近场地商店或洗手间的出口,因为任何地方都可能出现人群激增的情况。

“Your head should be on a swivel,” scanning your surroundings for signs that a crowd is becoming too congested, or that an exit is out of reach, said Dr. George Chiampas, director of Northwestern Medicine’s Disaster Management and Community Emergency Preparedness Initiative.

西北医疗集团灾难管理和社区应急准备计划主任乔治·钱帕斯博士说:“你应该不停地四处张望,”留意周围环境是否有迹象表明人群变得过于拥挤,或者出口离得太远。

How do I know if things are getting dangerous?

我如何知道事情是否变得危险?

Watch out for warning signs that a crowd is becoming dangerously dense. If you’re getting pushed against those around you, that might be a sign that the event is becoming unsafe, Mr. Wertheimer said. You should also look around and see if there are any crowd safety managers or security personnel monitoring the situation; if none are around, that may also indicate that the situation is unsafe.

要注意人群正在变得危险密集的警告信号。韦特海默说,被推搡可能是活动变得不安全的迹象。你还应该环顾四周,看看是否有人群安全管理人员或安保人员监控情况;如果周围没有人,这也可能表明情况不安全。

“When you feel there’s congestion — when you feel your personal space is being crowded, that’s a sign that maybe you should move to a different area and not wait for it to get worse,” said Gil Fried, a crowd management expert and professor at the University of West Florida. For instance, as fun as it is to watch a concert near the front of the stage, the back is likely to be less crowded and safer.

“当你感到人群挤成一团时——即你觉得你的个人空间很拥挤时,这个迹象说明你最好移动到另一个地方,而不是等情况变得更糟,”西佛罗里达大学人群管理专家兼教授吉尔·弗里德说。例如,虽然在靠近舞台的前排观看演唱会是一件快乐的事,但后排可能不会那么拥挤,也更安全。

What to do if a crowd crush occurs

如果发生人群推挤怎么办

Stand like a boxer.

像拳击手那样站立。

You want to keep your arms in front of your chest, to create more space between you and the person in front of you, Mr. Wertheimer said. Stand like a boxer, with one foot in front of the other so that you are more steady and can better absorb pressure from people pushing against you, he advised. You also want to keep your knees flexible, so that your body is not rigid and you’re able to move.

韦特海默说,你要将手臂放在胸前,以便在你和面前的人之间创造更多空间。他建议,像拳击手一样站立,一只脚放在另一只脚前面,这样你就更稳定,可以更好地吸收来自推你的人的压力。你还要保持膝盖灵活,这样你的身体就不会僵硬并且可以移动。

If you drop something, don’t try to pick it up.

如果你掉了东西,不要试图捡起来。

Even if your phone falls to the ground, don’t bend over and reach for it, Mr. Wertheimer said — you may not be able to get back up.

韦特海默说,即使你的手机掉在地上,也不要弯腰去拿它——你可能无法再爬起来。

Don’t scream.

不要尖叫。

You want to save your oxygen, and yelling, even for help, is likely futile in a big crowd, Mr. Wertheimer said. And since air in a crowd crush tends to be hot and muggy, lift your head up for more access to fresh air.

韦特海默说,你想节省氧气,而且在一大群人中大喊大叫——即使是寻求帮助——也可能是徒劳的。以及,由于人群拥挤的空气往往又热又闷,抬起头可以获得更多新鲜空气。

If you fall, lie on your side.

如果跌倒,要侧卧。

You want to stay on your feet, but if you fall down, try to lie on your left side to protect your heart and lungs, Mr. Wertheimer said. If you’re on your stomach or back and people fall on top of you, there’s a risk that your chest could compress, he said.

韦特海默说,你要站稳,但如果你摔倒了,试着左侧卧以保护你的心脏和肺部。他说,如果你俯卧或仰卧,有人摔倒在你身上,你的胸部就有可能受压。

Exit through the edge of the crowd.

从人群的边缘退出。

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises working your way diagonally to the edge of the crowd when there’s a lull in movement. And don’t resist the force of the crowd, the agency advised.

疾病控制和预防中心建议,当人群移动停滞不前时,你可以斜着走到人群边缘。但该机构建议,不要与人群的力量对抗。

While crowd surges are rare, a seemingly safe situation can rapidly transition into an unsafe one. The best strategy is to walk into an event with a plan for the worst-case scenario, the experts said, and then to remain aware of your surroundings.

虽然人群激增很少见,但看似安全的环境可能会迅速变得不安全。专家说,最好的策略是,带着应对最坏情况的计划参与活动,并保持对周围环境的觉知。

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