America Has a Ruling Class
America’s most powerful people have a problem. They can’t admit that they’re powerful.
Take Andrew Cuomo. On a recent call with reporters, the embattled Mr. Cuomo insisted that he was “not part of the political club.” The assertion was confounding because Mr. Cuomo is in his third term as governor of New York — a position his father also held for three terms. Mr. Cuomo has also served as state attorney general and as secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Or think of Avril Haines, the director of national intelligence. After her appointment was announced, Ms. Haines declared, “I have never shied away from speaking truth to power.” That is a curious way of describing a meteoric career that includes stints at exclusive universities, a prestigious judicial clerkship and important jobs in foreign policy and intelligence before her appointment to a cabinet-level office overseeing a budget of more than $60 billion.
This sort of false advertising isn’t limited to Democrats. Senator Josh Hawley of Missouri, for instance, has embraced an image as a populist crusader against a distant “political class.” He does not emphasize his father’s career as a banker, his studies at Stanford and Yale Law School, or his work as clerk to prominent judges, including Chief Justice John Roberts. The merits of Mr. Hawley’s positions are open to debate. But his membership in the same elite that he rails against is not.
这种虚假宣传并不仅仅限于民主党人。例如，密苏里州参议员乔希·霍利(Josh Hawley)就一直给自己披上反对高高在上的“政治阶级”的民粹主义斗士外衣。他从不强调他父亲的银行家职业、自己曾就读斯坦福大学和耶鲁大学法学院，或曾为包括首席大法官约翰·罗伯茨(John Roberts)在内的赫赫有名的法官担任助理的工作。霍利的立场有什么可取之处有待商榷。但他属于他所抨击的精英阶层毫无疑问。
And it’s not only politicians. Business figures love to present themselves as “disrupters” of stagnant industries. But the origins of the idea are anything but rebellious. Popularized by a Harvard professor and promoted by a veritable industry of consultants, it has been embraced by some of the richest and most highly credentialed people in the world.
Examples could be multiplied, but these cases are enough to show that the problem of insiders pretending to be outsiders cuts across party, gender and field. The question is why.
Part of the explanation is strategic. An outsider pose is appealing because it allows powerful people to distance themselves from the consequences of their decisions. When things go well, they are happy to take credit. When they go badly, it’s useful to blame an incompetent, hostile establishment for thwarting their good intentions or visionary plans.
Another element is generational. Helen Andrews argues that baby boomers have never been comfortable with the economic, cultural and political dominance they achieved in the 1980s. “The rebels took over the establishment,” she writes, “only they wanted to keep preening like revolutionaries as they wielded power.” The tension between boomers’ countercultural youth and adult responsibilities is memorably depicted in films like “The Big Chill.”
另一个原因是代际因素。海伦·安德鲁斯(Helen Andrews)提出理由说，婴儿潮一代从未对他们在20世纪80年代达到的经济、文化和政治主导地位感到自在。“反叛者成了当权者，”她写道，“只是他们在行使权力时想继续把自己刻意打扮成革命者。”在《大寒》(The Big Chill)这样一些电影中，婴儿潮一代的反文化青年时期与他们成年后承担的责任之间的矛盾，得到了难忘的刻画。
Both strategic and generational factors help explain Al Gore, who claimed to represent “the people versus the powerful” in his 2000 campaign against George W. Bush. Compared with a Yale graduate, son of a former president and grandson of a senator, perhaps Mr. Gore — a Harvard graduate, incumbent vice president and son of a senator — did count as one of the common people. But Richard Nixon, an object of boomer hatred, inveighed against the status quo as bitterly as any hippie. Refusal to accept responsibility is not just a boomer quirk. Its roots lie deep in American culture.
这两个因素都有助于解释阿尔·戈尔(Al Gore)。在2000年与乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)竞选总统时，他称自己代表“人民对抗强权”。与一名耶鲁大学毕业生、前总统的儿子和参议员的孙子相比，或许身为哈佛大学毕业生、现任副总统、参议员儿子的戈尔也算是个普通人。但是，被婴儿潮一代恨之入骨的理查德·尼克松(Richard Nixon)，也曾像任何一个嬉皮士那样强烈地抨击现状。拒绝承担责任不仅是婴儿潮一代的怪异性格。这个问题存在于美国文化的深处。
Consider “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington,” the celebrated 1939 film directed by Frank Capra. The plot depicts an honest man who exposes the corruption of public officials and civic institutions at great personal risk. Jeff Smith’s conviction that true power lies elsewhere than in legal authority makes him a pariah in the clubby Senate of the movie. But he would have been right at home on cable news.
想想1939年由弗兰克·卡普拉(Frank Capra)执导的著名电影《史密斯先生到华盛顿》(Mr. Smith Goes to Washington)吧。影片情节描述的是一个老实人冒着巨大的个人风险，揭露政府官员和市政部门腐败的故事。杰夫·史密斯(Jeff Smith)坚信，真正的力量存在于其他地方，而不是法律权威，这让他在电影中俱乐部般的参议院眼里是贱民。但在如今的有线电视新闻中，他肯定会很自在。
The film was effective because it dramatized even older myths. Smith is likened to Honest Abe, the humble rail-splitter who overturned the slave power by announcing the axiomatic truth of human equality. The reality, though, is that Abraham Lincoln was a railroad lawyer and party activist who demonstrated extraordinary ability in back-room dealing and bureaucratic oversight. He was a successful president because he was part of the political club — or at least knew how to join it.
In some ways, Americans’ identification with idealistic rebels is an advantage. There are good reasons to be skeptical of career politicians and entrenched elites. Even when they don’t have all the answers, outsiders can draw attention to unrecognized problems.
That skepticism becomes dangerous, though, when it pits an unconventional affect and good intentions against the practical demands of governing. The defining task of politics isn’t to speak truth to power. It’s to use power to achieve shared goals.
In his 1919 lecture “Politics as a Vocation,” the sociologist Max Weber argued that commitment to moral principles must be combined with an “ethic of responsibility” that aims to deliver results through negotiation, compromise, institutional know-how. Our cult of the outsider makes this balance impossible.
社会学家马克斯·韦伯(Max Weber)在其1919年的演讲《政治作为一种志业》(Politics as a Vocation)中指出，对道德原则的承诺，必须与旨在通过谈判、妥协和制度技能产生结果的“责任伦理”相结合。我们对局外人的崇拜让这种结合变得不可能。
It is hard to change deeply rooted cultural tendencies. But there are strategies that might help us reconcile the performance of disruption with the demands of responsibility.
First, we should stop confusing consumer preferences with power. Popular culture relies on the outdated clichés of starched linens and vaguely British accents to indicate privilege. This anachronism encourages public figures to signal their outsider status with aesthetic posturing. On the left, that often means the vaguely bohemian manner cultivated by Ms. Haines, who once operated a bookstore that hosted readings of erotic literature. On the right, it tends to involve exaggerated machismo and embrace of working-class signifiers.
But none of this has anything to do with power. We should judge public figures by the arguments they make and the results they deliver, not whether they eat caviar, kale or capocollo.
Next, we need to learn from historical figures who embraced Weber’s “ethic of responsibility.” Challenges to the so-called great man theory of history redirect attention from those who made decisions to those who experienced their consequences. The problem is that reading history only “from the bottom up” deprives us of models for navigating dilemmas of vision and responsibility, intention and outcome. We honor and study consequential historical figures because they were flawed human beings who made incredibly hard decisions. Canceling their stories and monuments prevents us from understanding why they succeeded — and failed.
Finally, we need to be honest: America has a de facto ruling class. Since World War II, membership in that class has opened to those with meritocratic credentials. But that should not conceal the truth that it remains heavily influenced by birth. Even if their ancestors were not in The Social Register, Mr. Cuomo, Ms. Haines and Mr. Hawley were born to families whose advantages helped propel their careers. Admitting the fact of noblesse might help encourage the ideal of oblige.
But there’s a limit to what can be accomplished by exhortation. Ultimately, the change must come from the powerful themselves. Just once, I’d like to hear a mayor, governor or president say: “Yes, I’m in charge — and I’ve been trying to get here for my entire life. I want you to judge me by how I’ve used that position, not by who I am.”