双语:李克强总理记者会文字实录 PDF + 英语交传视频

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双语全文(PDF见文末)

记者会开始时,李克强说,很高兴同媒体的朋友们见面,感谢大家对中国两会报道所付出的辛劳。今年我们还是继续通过视频进行交流,请大家提问。
In his opening remarks, Premier Li Keqiang said that he was delighted to meet friends from the media and thanked the journalists for their hard work in covering China’s NPC and CPPCC Sessions. He noted that the press conference was again held via video link this year and then opened the floor for questions.

美国消费者新闻与商业频道记者:李总理,新冠肺炎疫情对许多工作完成的方式和地点都产生了影响,疫情暴发一年了,请问中国就业质量和收入有什么明显的变化,中方将采取什么具体的措施改善这种状况?特别是在人口老龄化背景下,对消费需求特别是国外品牌消费有什么影响?
CNBC: Premier Li, the coronavirus pandemic has affected the way in which many jobs are done and located. What changes has China seen in the last year for its jobs in terms of quality and salary? And what specific measures will China take especially as the population ages? How has this affected consumption especially for foreign brands?

李克强:就业对一个国家、对一个家庭可以说都是天大的事。去年在疫情肆虐的时候,很多街面上都见不到行人了,多数店铺都关了,当时我们最担心的就是出现大规模的失业。记得后来我到地方考察,看了不少店铺。在一个小店,店主跟我说,3个月没有营业了,因为政府减免税费,支持减免房租、水电费,稳岗补贴资金到位,我们没有裁员,挺过来了。我问员工的工资怎么办?他说当时只发生活费了。在场的20多位员工都说,店里管吃管住,不让我们下岗,还有什么说的。企业和员工都明白,只要保住了企业、稳住了岗位,一复工复市,生意就会旺起来。
Premier Li: Employment is of paramount importance for a family and a country. In the raging times of COVID-19 last year when bustling streets were deserted and shops were closed, our biggest concern was massive job losses.I recall a visit to a small shop during a local inspection tour. The shop owner told me that he was practically out of business for almost three months, but because of the government support in tax and fee cuts, exemptions of utility bills and rents, and wage subsidies, he managed to pull through and didn’t let any employee go. I asked him if he could still afford to pay his employees wages. He said he gave them some living allowances. There were some 20 employees on the spot. They all said they had nothing to complain about when they could still have something to cover their basic needs in such difficult times. Both the company and the employees were aware that as long as the company and jobs were there, once production was resumed, business would go up.

去年我们在制定宏观政策的时候,因为不确定因素太多,没有制定经济增长的预期目标。但是反复权衡,还是制定了就业目标,也就是城镇新增就业900万人以上。因为就业是民生之本,是发展之基,也是财富创造的源头活水。当时我们也提出,要努力实现全年经济正增长,实际上是相信只要能够实现900万人以上的城镇新增就业,就有经济的正增长,因为有就业就有收入,就可以带动消费、拉动经济。
Last year, we faced much uncertainty in formulating macro policies. In the end, we decided not to set a numerical target for GDP growth, and with long and hard thinking, we set the target of new urban jobs at no less than nine million. Employment is the foundation of people’s well-being and development. It is also a source of wealth. We said we would strive for a positive growth of China’s economy for the whole year, out of the belief that if we could add no less than nine million new urban jobs, we would be able to achieve positive growth of the economy. Employment helps to generate income, boost consumption and drive economic growth.

去年,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,经过全国上下共同努力,我们的市场主体表现出坚强的韧性,广大人民共克时艰,最后实现了城镇新增就业1186万人,全年经济增长2.3%,居民收入相应增长,都好于预期。
Last year, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, and thanks to joint efforts made by all sides, the market entities showed great resilience, and our people faced the difficulty in solidarity.For the whole year, we added 11.86 million new urban jobs. The economy expanded by 2.3 percent. There was continued increase in household income. All these performances were better than expectations.

今年我们的就业压力仍然很大,城镇新增劳动力约1400万人,其中高校毕业生909万人,创历史新高,还要保障退役军人就业,还要为两亿七八千万农民工提供打工的机会。所以今年我们在制定宏观政策的时候,依然坚持就业优先的政策,我们继续推动“六稳”、落实“六保”,还是把就业放在首位。去年出台的有关就业的政策举措,不仅没有调退,还有所增加,其他政策都要有利于就业。我们相信,通过经济稳定恢复增长,会带动更多的就业岗位,而更多的就业岗位会推动经济稳中向好。
This year, we still face mounting pressure in employment. Some 14 million new entrants will join the labor force, including another record high of college graduates totaling 9.09 million. We also need to meet the employment needs of ex-service members, and some 270 million to 280 million rural migrant workers. We will continue to give top priority to employment in the macro policies this year. Employment will remain at the top of the “six priorities” where stability is the key and the “six areas” where protections are needed. The pro-job policies introduced last year will be kept in place, and beefed up in some respects. Other policies should also be conducive to job creation. We believe that steady economic rebound will boost employment, and expansion in employment will in turn promote steady and sound growth of the economy.

今年我们确定新增城镇就业的目标是1100万人以上,希望在实际执行中还可以更高一点。我们也很明确,就业还是要让市场来唱主角,也就是继续通过保市场主体来保就业。一方面推动稳岗增岗,另一方面拓展就业渠道。去年疫情中就业方式也有新变化,像我们这几年发展的新动能,包括网购、快递等逆势快速增长,也带动了就业和传统产业发展。我们一方面要继续鼓励增加相对稳定的就业岗位,也要广开灵活就业的渠道。现在中国的灵活就业正在兴起,已经涉及到两亿多人。有的一人打几份工,很辛苦,所以我们应该给他社保补贴,特别是要用机制性的办法来解决可能出现的职业伤害问题,给他们提供基本的权益保障。这也有利于灵活就业市场更加健康、稳定地向前发展。
We have set the projected target of no less than 11 million new urban jobs for this year, and we hope to overfulfill it in actual implementation. In generating jobs, we will continue to enable the market to play a principal role. In other words, we will continue to promote employment by supporting market entities. We will stabilize and expand employment, and at the same time, open up new channels for job creation. During the pandemic last year, we saw some new changes in the means of employment. New drivers of growth that developed rapidly in China in recent years, including online shopping and express delivery services, showed a strong momentum of expansion despite COVID-19 impacts. They helped to boost employment and the growth of some traditional industries. We will continue to encourage the creation of stable jobs, and also promote flexible employment, which is now rapidly developing in China. About 200 million people are involved in flexible employment. Some people work several jobs, which is quite tough. The government will provide them with subsidies for social security, and introduce institutionalized methods to give them basic protections in terms of occupational injury to bolster the healthy and stable growth of flexible employment.

至于刚才记者朋友提到的老年人问题,中国老龄人口已经有两亿六千万,老龄产业也可以说是一个巨大的朝阳产业,它带来了多样化的需求。正因为中国市场多层次、多样化的需求,这样一个广大的市场也必然会给外国企业的产品、服务乃至于投资创造更多机会,因为我们的市场是开放的。
As for the elderly population you referred to in your question, there are some 260 million elderly people in China. Industries related to services for elderly people are big sunrise industries as there is diverse demand among the senior population. The Chinese market is multi-tiered with diverse consumer demand. This big, open market represents great opportunities for products, services and investments from foreign companies.

中国有14亿人口,劳动力资源可以说是最丰富的资源,中国人民又能够吃苦耐劳,只要有就业门路就会多挣。“民生在勤,勤则不匮”。我相信中国人民会用自己勤劳的双手,来逐步迈向共同富裕。
Our country has a 1.4 billion population. The labor force remains our most abundant resource. Our people are hardworking and resilient. Whenever there is an opportunity, they will seize it and put their talent to good use. A good life hinges on diligence. With diligence, one has no fear for shortages. I believe with the hard work of our people, we will be able to achieve common prosperity over time.

西班牙埃菲社记者:美方指责中方对上月到访武汉的世界卫生组织专家组缺乏透明度,专家组组长指出中方同事分享了大量工作细节,同时也表示专家组希望获得在2019年10月至12月之间与新冠肺炎疫情相似疾病病例的更多原始数据,中方是否愿提供这些数据,或者是否愿再次接待专家组访华?
Agencia EFE: The United States has blamed China for the so-called lack of transparency to the WHO mission in Wuhan last month. The chief of the team said the Chinese counterparts shared a lot of details with them but he said they would like to have access to more raw data about earlier cases of illness similar to COVID-19 between October 2019 and December 2019. Will China provide these data and be willing to receive another mission visit?

李克强:新冠肺炎疫情是一起突发的全球公共卫生事件,中方和各方一样都希望能够尽快查清病毒是从哪里来的,这样有利于切断传播的渠道,更好更有效地来防控疫情。但疫情溯源的确是一个复杂的科学问题,需要各国加强合作,持续研究。中方本着实事求是、公开透明、开放合作的原则和态度,同世卫组织保持沟通,也支持世卫组织专家在华开展溯源研究工作。下一步我们还愿意继续同世卫组织一道,推动科学溯源工作。
Premier Li: COVID-19 is a global public health contingency. Like other countries,China also hopes that we can get to the bottom of where the virus came from as early as possible. This will help us to stem the spread of the virus and make covid containment more effective. Tracing the origins of the virus is a complex science matter. It calls for closer cooperation among countries and continuous research. The Chinese side has acted in a fact-based manner and with an open, transparent and cooperative approach. China has maintained communication with the WHO and provided support to the WHO mission during its research work in China. We will continue to work with the WHO in taking work on this front forward.

当前疫情还在全球蔓延,当务之急不仅要溯源,还要做好各种防控工作,包括接种疫苗等。新冠病毒是人类共同的敌人,我们希望各方携起手来,因为在这样一个人类共同的敌人面前,没有哪个国家能够独善其身。我们也坚信人类有能力最终战胜这个病魔,我也希望明年我们能够面对面进行交流。
The virus is still spreading in many parts of the world. In addition to tracing its origins, our pressing task is to enhance COVID-19 response, including vaccine rollout. COVID-19 is a common enemy of humankind. We hope that all countries will come together to defeat this virus, for no country can do it alone. We have strong faith in the ability of humanity to prevail over the disease eventually. I also hope that next year we will be able to have the press conference face-to-face.

日本经济新闻记者:您在政府工作报告中提出2021年国内生产总值增长目标为6%以上,目前很多国际机构都认为中国2021年经济增长有可能达到8%左右。在“十四五”开局之年,除了固定资产投资规模加大,还存在着由于世界性的资金过剩导致房地产投资过热的风险,现在中国政府采取了宽松的财政和货币政策。请问总理,在这样的情况下今年是否存在宏观政策转为偏紧的可能性?据日本经济研究中心预测,中国的经济规模将于2028年超过美国,对此您有何看法?
NIKKEI: In delivering the Government Work Report, you said the Chinese government would set its GDP growth target for 2021 at above six percent. Many international institutions forecast that China’s economy may well grow at about eight percent this year. In the first year of the period covered by the 14th Five-Year Plan, in addition to expanding investment in fixed assets, we are also seeing a risk of an over-heated real estate sector due to excessive liquidity worldwide. Currently the Chinese government is pursuing accommodative fiscal and monetary policies. Mr. Premier, given the aforementioned factors, is there a possibility for China to tighten its macro policies this year? According to estimates by the Japan Center on Economic Research, the size of China’s economy will surpass that of the United States in 2028. What is your comment on that?

李克强:我注意到,我们提出6%以上的经济增长预期目标,确实引起了多方面的关注,有不少分析。有的认为是积极的,也有的认为低于预期。我们当然乐见经济向好,但是也清醒地看到,今年是在恢复性增长的基础上前行,有很多不可比的因素,而且世界经济复苏不确定性依然很大。我们说增长6%以上,6%不低了,现在我们的经济总量达到100万亿元,增长6%就是6万亿元,这要放到“十三五”之初,需要8%以上增速才能达到。而且我们说增长6%以上是开了口子的,实际过程中也可能会增长得更高一点。但是我们不是在定计划,是引导预期,希望把预期引导到巩固经济恢复增长基础,推动高质量发展,保持可持续性,尤其是和明年、后年的目标相衔接,不能造成大起大落,否则会扰乱市场的预期。一时走得快不一定走得稳,只有走得稳才能走得有力。我们还是希望中国这样一个巨大的经济体,经济能够行稳致远,保持长期向好。
Premier Li: I have taken note of the much attention paid to China’s above six percent of GDP growth target, and the much analysis about it. Some people believe it is positive whereas some say it is below expectation. We would certainly be happy to see robust growth, but we are also keenly aware that the economy has just recovered and there are many incomparable factors this year. What’s more, there is also great uncertainty in global economic recovery. A six percent GDP growth target is not a low target. China’s GDP has reached 100 trillion RMB yuan. A six percent growth rate means adding an output of six trillion RMB yuan, which is equivalent to the amount generated by an over eight percent growth rate at the start of the 13th Five-Year Plan period. Moreover, by setting the GDP growth target at above six percent, we have left possibilities open, which means in actual delivery, there may be even faster growth. A projected target is not something set in stone. It intends to guide expectations. We will further consolidate the foundation of economic recovery, promote high quality development and make our development truly sustainable. This target should also be aligned with what we can accomplish next year and the year after next. We must avert wild swings in economic performance which will de-anchor market expectations. A growth too fast will not be a steady one. We need a steady pace to sustain China’s development. What we hope for such a big economy as China’s is sustained and sound growth for the long term.

去年面对罕见的巨大冲击,我们及时果断采取措施,但也保持定力,没有搞“大水漫灌”。我们新增财政资金规模2万亿元,绝大部分都是用于市场主体和民生急需,主要是减税降费、保基本民生,而且采取了直达机制,就是把这些“救命钱”最快7天时间直达基层,来保证基层减税降费、稳岗等财力,很快就见到效果。如果我们当时重点考虑上大项目、搞大产业,这不是不需要,但这要经过论证还要考虑市场需求,时间恐怕得200天以上,就不是仅仅一周时间了。错过了时间,企业可能会大批倒闭。我记得去年在记者会上,也有记者提出中国政府采取的政策规模和力度是不是偏小了。我们是把“肥”施到根子上,政策打到点子上,所以起效快、有作用。现在看,这个规模、力度是合理的,准备的储备政策后来也没有用。
In the face of unprecedented severe shocks last year, we acted in a prompt, decisive and focused manner. We did not flood China’s economy with massive liquidity. The increased fiscal funds totaling two trillion yuan were mostly used to support market entities and people’s well-being by making tax and fee cuts and meeting basic living needs. We devised a new mechanism to directly allocate those funds to primary-level governments, so that such “lifeline support” can reach them in as short as seven days and local governments would have enough fiscal resources for tax and fee cuts and job retention. These measures worked effectively and efficiently. We did have another option of channeling the funds to big projects or emerging sectors, which we also need. But that would take a lot of time for feasibility study and market demand analysis, probably as many as 200 days before a project is launched. It is way longer than seven days. So we did not go for that option. Because it would be too late when the money could reach market entities; by that time, many companies would have gone bankrupt. I recall that at last year’s press conference, I was asked by a journalist whether the scale and intensity of our policy support was too modest. We believe that for fertilizer to work, it must go all the way to the root of plants. Hence we decided to act where policies were most needed and they proved to be effective and efficient. The scale and intensity were just right so we didn’t have to resort to policy instruments in reserve.

去年我们没有搞宽松政策,或者说所谓量化宽松,今年也就没有必要“急转弯”,还是要保持政策的连续性和可持续性,着力稳固经济,推动向好。保持经济运行在合理区间,还是要注重把“肥”施在根上,现在市场主体特别是中小微企业还在恢复元气中。由于经济恢复增长,我们要合理调整政策,但调整是适度的,有些阶段性政策退了,同时又用一些结构性减税降费政策来冲抵影响,保持保就业、保民生、保市场主体的力度不减。
We didn’t use quantitative easing last year. So this year there is no need for sudden shifts in our policies. We will maintain the consistency and sustainability of the policies with a focus on solidifying the positive momentum of economic rebound. In keeping major economic indicators within an appropriate range, we must continue to support market entities, especially those smaller firms who are just recovering from COVID-19-induced shocks, just as ensuring that fertilizer goes right to the root of plants. As economic rebound firms, we will make proper adjustments to some policies introduced last year. Some temporary measures may be unwound, but we will introduce new structural tax and fee cut policies to offset the impact of their drawdown. Our support for employment, people’s well-being, and market entities will remain undiminished.

怎样保持力度不减?资金规模固然很重要,但用好钱更重要,我们去年宏观调控积累的经验还可以继续用。比如在财政金融方面,简单地说,就是要“一减、一增、一稳中有降”。“一减”,就是减少中央政府本级支出,各级政府都要带头过紧日子;“一增”,就是扩大直达资金范围,让基层和市场主体感到政策支持力度不减,这样能够更快更有效地惠企利民;“一稳中有降”,就是在稳定杠杆率的同时,引导金融企业合理让利,使中小微企业融资更便利、融资成本稳中有降。当然,我们对各类风险隐患,也会及时防范化解。
How will we keep up the support intensity? The amount of fiscal funds does matter, but what matters more is how the money is used. We will draw upon the good experience gained from macroeconomic regulation last year. In terms of fiscal support, we will make further reductions in central government expenditures. Governments at all levels must live on a tight budget. We will increase the coverage of directly allocated fiscal funds to better support primary-level governments in helping market entities and people in need. In terms of financial support, while maintaining stability in overall leverage ratio, we will continue to encourage financial institutions to make reasonable interest concessions, so that financing will become more accessible and affordable for smaller firms. In the meantime, we will guard against and defuse various types of risks.

中国发展的根本目的是要让中国人民过上好日子,中国还是一个发展中国家,实现现代化还有很长的路要走。我们会立足于着力办好自己的事。中国的发展对世界和平稳定、繁荣发展都是重要贡献。
The fundamental purpose of China’s development is to enable the Chinese people to lead a better life. Our country is still a developing one and there is still a long way to go before we can achieve modernization. We will continue to focus on running our own affairs well. China’s development will be a major contribution to world peace, stability, development and prosperity.

中国新闻社记者:总理您好。前两年住院费用的异地报销问题得到了解决,极大便利了异地就医。但是很多人外出打工,也有不少老年人是异地养老,他们门诊的看病开药还需要回原籍报销,非常不方便,所以请问门诊费用的报销何时能得到解决?
China News Service: Mr. Premier, in the past couple of years, we realized the inter-provincial on-the-spot reimbursement of hospitalization bills through individual accounts of basic medical insurance, making access to medical services away from one’s hometown much easier. However, that is not yet the case for expenses incurred by seeing a doctor or taking prescription drugs for the many living and working in cities away from their home places, including the elderly people. This means they have to pay the bills upfront and travel back to their hometowns to have the bills settled. When can we realize the inter-provincial on-the-spot reimbursement of outpatient bills?

李克强:我在中国政府网的实名留言中,也看到了这类问题。的确,在一些学校门口,大家看到很多老人在接送孩子,这些老人不少是异地养老的,或者就是来帮子女带孩子的。他们中有人经常为异地报销医疗费奔波烦恼,这个问题应该下决心逐步解决。今年我们要扩大门诊费用跨省直接报销的范围,到明年年底前每个县都要确定一个定点的医疗机构,能够直接报销包括门诊费在内的医疗费用,不能再让这些老人为此烦心。这件事,还有类似的事,看似不大,政府工作人员多费些心,就可以让老人、让家庭多一点舒心。
Premier Li: This is an issue that has been raised by many people in their real-name-based posts on the Chinese government’s portal website. When we pass school gates, it is often elderly people that we see who are sending children to school or picking them up. I suppose many of them are out-of-towners who are just in the city to help with caring for their grandchildren. They often face the hassle of traveling back to their hometowns to reimburse their medical expenses. The government is determined to have this problem resolved over time. By the end of this year, we will further expand the coverage of inter-provincial on-the-spot reimbursement of outpatient bills. By the end of next year, every county will have one designated medical institution which will be able to settle on-the-spot inter-provincially outpatient bills and other medical expenses. We should free elderly people from such trouble. Like other similar issues, this may not seem to be a very big thing. Yet if government officials care more and do more on these fronts, they will make life much easier for the elderly people and their families.

凤凰卫视记者:过去一年香港因为疫情饱受打击,未来两年又将进入选举年,此时全国人大会议就完善香港的选举制度作出了决定,人大常委会将就香港选举的相关法律进行修改。外界对于“一国两制”如何继续实践充满关注。您认为“一国两制”在香港将来要如何行稳致远?
Phoenix TV: In the past year, COVID-19 dealt a heavy blow to Hong Kong. In the next couple of years, Hong Kong will enter into an important period of elections. At this year’s NPC session, a decision was adopted to improve the electoral system of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR). The Standing Committee of the NPC will amend relevant law. There is extensive attention on the future implementation of One Country, Two Systems. How to ensure the steady implementation of One Country, Two Systems in the Hong Kong SAR?

李克强:我们明确提出,要继续全面准确地贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治港”、高度自治方针,严格依照宪法和基本法办事,落实好特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制,全力支持特区政府和行政长官依法施政。
Premier Li: We have made it clear that we will continue to fully and faithfully implement the principle of One Country, Two Systems, under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy. We will continue to act in strict accordance with the Constitution and the Basic Law, fully implement the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for safeguarding national security in the Hong Kong SAR, and fully support the SAR government and its Chief Executive in administration according to law.

刚才你问到全国人大就完善香港选举制度作出决定,决定很明确,就是要坚持和完善“一国两制”的制度体系,始终坚持“爱国者治港”,也是为了确保“一国两制”行稳致远。
As for the NPC decision on improving the electoral system of the Hong Kong SAR you asked about, the purpose of the decision is clear-cut: it is to uphold and improve the system and institutions of One Country, Two Systems, uphold the principle of “patriots administering Hong Kong”, and ensure steady implementation of One Country, Two Systems.

去年香港受到了多重冲击,我们希望香港各界能够携起手来尽早战胜疫情,实现经济恢复性增长,改善民生,保持香港长期繁荣稳定。中央政府会继续全力给予支持。
Last year, Hong Kong suffered multiple disruptions. We hope people from all walks of life in the Hong Kong SAR will work together to defeat the virus at an early date, revive economic growth, improve people’s living standards and maintain Hong Kong’s long-term prosperity and stability. The Central Government will continue to give Hong Kong full support.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:国家提出建设科技强国,但是目前在一些重点领域和关键技术上我们还存在短板,甚至出现了“卡脖子”的情况。与此同时,我们还看到了一些急功近利的现象,比如在一些地区,一些高新产业项目的大规模投入出现了烂尾。请问您如何看待这样的情况?未来政府在推动科技创新方面还会有哪些新的举措?
CCTV: China said it will make the country strong in science and technology. Yet our capability in some key areas still falls short, and certain critical technologies are still dependent on foreign supply. Some research seems to be oriented at quick success, and some high-tech projects in some regions with heavy investment have failed to deliver. How do you see such a situation? And what measures will the government take to spur innovation in science and technology?

李克强:多年来,我国在科技创新领域有一些重大突破,在应用创新领域发展得也很快,但是在基础研究领域的确存在着不足。要建设科技强国,提升科技创新能力,必须打牢基础研究和应用基础研究这个根基。打多深的基,才能盖多高的楼。不能急功近利,要一步一个脚印地走。
Premier Li: Our country has achieved major breakthroughs in scientific and technological innovations over the years, and application-oriented innovation has been developing fast. But it is also true that our basic research is inadequate. To make our country strong in science and technology and enhance the ability to make innovations, we must solidify the foundation, which is basic research and application-oriented basic research, as the height of a building is determined by the depth of its foundation. We must reject any temptation for quick success, and take solid steps one at a time.

目前我国全社会研发投入占GDP的比重还不高,尤其是基础研究投入只占到研发投入的6%,而发达国家通常是15%到25%。我们下一步要加大基础研究的投入,还要继续改革科技体制,让科研人员有自主权,很重要的是要让科研人员有经费使用的自主权,不能让科研人员把宝贵的精力花在填表、评比等事务上,还是要让他们心无旁骛去搞研究,厚积才能薄发。讲到这里,我想对青年学生们说几句话,不管你们将来从事什么职业、有什么样的志向,一定要注意加强基础知识学习,打牢基本功和培育创新能力是并行不悖的。树高千尺,营养还在根部。把基础打牢了,将来就可以触类旁通,行行都可以写出精彩。
Our R&D spending as a percentage of GDP is still modest, especially in terms of basic research. It only accounts for six percent of total R&D spending whereas the number in developed countries ranges between 15 to 25 percent. We will continue to increase input in basic research. We will also carry out institutional reforms regarding science and technology. One very important aspect of granting scientists and researchers greater autonomy is for them to have a bigger say in deciding how research funds will be used. These people should not have to spend their valuable time and energy on doing paperwork or competing for awards. They should be able to stay fully concentrated on doing research, and they will be able to accomplish something big when they are well-grounded in their areas of specialty. Here I would also like to say a few words to young students. No matter what job you want to do, or what dream you have for your life in the future, be sure to lay a solid foundation in essential knowledge and skills. Laying such a foundation and boosting your capacity for innovation are mutually reinforcing. The nutrients for a giant tree come from its root. Laying a solid foundation in knowledge and skills will open many doors and help you lead a fulfilling life.

创新还是要依靠市场的力量。企业是创新的主体。“十四五”期间政府会继续加大科技投入,同时要更多地依靠社会力量来加大研发投入,所以我们要增加“全社会”这个口径下的研发投入。这就需要采用一些机制。比如今年我们采取对制造业研发费用投入加计扣除100%的措施,这实际上是一项税收优惠,就是想通过市场化普惠制的办法,使企业投资研发有动力。当然,研发要靠人才,中国的人才资源是丰富的。我们一方面要让领军拔尖人才脱颖而出,另一方面也要看到普通人也有上上智。这些年我们推动“双创”,形成“众创”局面,推动了应用创新,也给整体创新带来了更大空间。
We must rely on market forces in driving innovations. Companies are the most important force. During the 14th Five-Year Plan period, the government will continue to scale up inputs, and we also need to rely more on private actors in boosting their R&D spending. Hence our R&D spending increase needs to come from all stakeholders. This would require institutional arrangement in policy support. This year we will introduce the tax incentive of raising the extra tax deduction on the R&D expenses of manufacturing firms to 100 percent. This is a market-oriented and inclusive tax break measure aiming to keep companies driven to scale up inputs in research and development. We have a wealth of talent in China who are critical for R&D. In addition to enabling leading professionals to succeed, we should also recognize that there could be extraordinary wisdom among ordinary people. That is why in recent years we have been encouraging business startups and innovations among the general public. And this initiative has created enormous space for application-oriented innovation and overall innovation.

我们说科技要自立自强,科学家要发奋努力,这和国际合作、同行交流是并行不悖的。科学探索和发明发现是需要合作的,需要共同努力。封闭不会有前途,断链对谁都没有好处。中国愿意在保护知识产权的基础上,同各国加强科技领域的合作,共同促进人类文明进步。
China’s effort to strengthen itself in science and technology needs the efforts of Chinese scientists. Yet it is also compatible with promoting international cooperation and exchanges among global scientists. Scientific explorations, discoveries and inventions call for cooperation and joint efforts. Isolation will lead nowhere and severance of industrial or supply chains will do no one good. Based on protecting intellectual property, China is ready to enhance cooperation with all other countries in science and technology to jointly promote progress of human civilization.

美国有线电视新闻网记者:美中两国关系在过去几年跌入建交以来的低谷,中方高层官员多次表示这是由于特朗普政府实施极端错误的反华政策造成的,他们也希望,美国拜登政府可以拨乱反正。但是许多来自华盛顿的声音表示中方的判断和立场忽视了重要的两点:一个就是双边关系恶化是双方的原因,而不是中方常说的责任完全在美方;还有一点就是在对华态度以及重大政策上,无论是疫情溯源还是香港、新疆等问题,美国的民主和共和两党其实有着高度的共识。请问您对这种来自美国的观点有何回应?尤其是在美中两国将于下周在阿拉斯加举行拜登上台之后的首次高级别会谈之际,中方会不会调整或者改变相关政策立场,推动双边关系的重启和修复?
CNN: Mr. Premier, US-China relations hit a low point in the past several years since the establishment of diplomatic ties. In their recent statements, Chinese officials cited the highly erroneous anti-China policies of the Trump administration as the reason for that. Their message to the new US administration under President Biden is to right the wrongs. But many people in Washington, D.C. believe that two important points are overlooked in China’s position and judgement. That is, both sides are responsible for the worsening of the bilateral relationship, not as what China said, the responsibility lies solely with the US side. The other is, there is a high bipartisan consensus in Washington, D.C. in the attitude and major policy toward China, including on the origins of the coronavirus, Hong Kong and Xinjiang. How would you respond to this? Moreover, as the two countries are about to hold the first high-level consultations since the beginning of the Biden administration in Alaska next week, is China also prepared to adjust or alter its position and policy on related issues to reset and improve its relations with the United States?

李克强:过去几年中美关系的确遭遇了严重的困难,给两国和世界都带来了不利的影响。中美作为世界上最大的发展中国家和最大的发达国家,合则两利、斗则俱伤。中美建交40多年了,风风雨雨,能越过坎坷向前走,还是因为符合世界发展趋势,符合两国的根本利益。我们希望双方按照习近平主席最近和拜登总统通话的精神,尊重彼此的核心利益和重大关切,互不干涉内政和内部事务,秉持不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的原则,推动两国关系向着健康稳定的方向发展。这既符合两国人民的利益,也是国际社会的期待。
Premier Li: In the past several years, China-US relations encountered great difficulties, which has adversely affected both countries and the world. As the world’s largest developing and developed countries, China and the United States both stand to gain from cooperation and lose from confrontation. In the past forty-plus years of diplomatic ties, China-US relations have gone through some twists and turns, but kept moving forward by overcoming obstacles. This is in keeping with the trend of world development and the fundamental interests of both countries. We hope that the two countries will act in the spirit of the phone conversation between President Xi Jinping and President Joe Biden, respect each other’s core interests and major concerns, refrain from interfering in each other’s internal affairs and work for sustained and healthy development of China-US relations in line with the principle of no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. That is in the interest of people of both countries. It is also what the international community hopes to see.

中美两国历史文化、发展阶段、社会制度不同,彼此相处难免会有矛盾、有分歧,有的时候甚至比较尖锐,关键是如何对待。中美两国人民是有智慧、有能力的,双方还是要相互尊重、平等相待地进行对话沟通。我们希望中美有多领域、多层次的对话,即便一时达不成共识,也可以交换意见、增信释疑,这有利于管控和化解分歧。
China and the United States are different in historical background, cultural heritage, stage of development and social system. Some differences and disagreements are hardly avoidable, and some could be quite acute. But what matters most is how these differences and disagreements are handled. The Chinese and American peoples have the wisdom and capability. The two sides need to have dialogue and exchanges based on mutual respect and equality. We hope to see dialogue in multiple areas and at various levels. Even if we cannot work things out anytime soon, such exchange of views will help boost trust and dispel misgivings. It will also help us better manage and mitigate our differences.

中美两国有着广泛的共同利益,有许多可以合作的领域。在去年多重冲击的背景下,中美两国的贸易规模仍然达到4.1万亿元,增长8.8%。我们还是应当把更多精力放在共同点上,去扩大共同利益。中美两国作为联合国安理会常任理事国,对于维护世界和平稳定、促进世界繁荣发展,都有重要责任。应该推动中美关系越过坎坷往前看,向着总体稳定的方向走。
China and the United States have common interests. There are many areas where the two countries can cooperate. Last year, China-US trade bucked the trend and reached 4.1 trillion yuan, up by 8.8 percent over the previous year. The two countries need to put more energy on their common ground and expand converging interests. As permanent members of the UN Security Council, the two countries shoulder important responsibility for maintaining world peace and stability and promoting global prosperity and progress. We need to be future-oriented and overcome obstacles to move China-US relations in a direction of overall stability.

新华社记者:您一直强调要重视激发市场主体活力,发挥市场主体在经济发展中的重要作用。现在有一些市场主体反映,在生产经营、公平竞争、市场环境等方面还有一些困难和障碍。请问今年政府将出台哪些改革措施来助企纾困,让他们焕发新的生机?
Xinhua News Agency: You have repeatedly stressed the importance of energizing market entities and leveraging their key role in driving economic development. At present, we are seeing that some market entities are still faced with difficulties or obstacles in terms of their production and operations, in fair competition and the market environment. What reform measures will the government take this year to alleviate their difficulties and revitalize those market entities?

李克强:去年我们推进改革,很突出的一点就是制定和实施宏观政策时,围绕市场主体的需求来考虑,助力市场主体脱困、激发活力,撑起中国经济的基本盘。中国改革开放40多年来,我们发展社会主义市场经济,不断培育和发展市场主体。市场主体培育起来,就可以充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。“十三五”期间的五年,我们的市场主体增加了6000多万户。去年在疫情冲击下,后期快速恢复增长,现在市场主体总数已经达到一亿三千多万户,而且去年个体工商户又新增1000多万户,从8000多万户增加到9000多万户,带动两亿多人就业。市场主体的活力激发、活跃度提高,这是政府推进改革的努力方向。
Premier Li: The centerpiece of our reform last year was to align our macro policies with the needs of market entities to provide them with relief and energize them in bid to consolidate the fundamentals of China’s economy. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, we have been developing a socialist market economy to boost market entities so that the market can play its decisive role in allocating resources and the government can better play its role. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, over 60 million new market entities were registered. Last year, especially in its latter half, with the economic rebound, we saw another upsurge in the number of new market entities. Now there are some 130 million market entities in China. Last year, the number of self-employed individuals increased by over 10 million, rising from 80 million to the current 90 million, providing 200 million job opportunities. So the important purpose of China’s reform agenda is to energize market entities.

今年我们政策的制定和实施,还是要继续围着市场主体转,这就需要继续推进“放管服”改革,让市场主体不仅生存,而且活跃。去年我们说留得青山,就赢得未来,今年说留得市场主体的青山常在,就能够生机盎然,使中国经济的活力和韧性充分体现。所以转变政府职能很重要的是要把市场主体应有的权限给他们,让他们去发挥。对于审批环节,我们要继续减环节、减材料、减费用、减时限。一方面为市场主体减负,另一方面为他们松绑,放开手脚去竞争。
We will continue to keep our policies well-aligned with the needs of market entities. This year, we will continue to reform government functions to better help market entities survive and thrive. Last year, we said we would help keep market entities afloat. This year we will work to sustain and revitalize the market actors, as their survival and thrival is critical for the vitality and resilience of China’s economy. An important part of the reform of government functions is to allow market entities to make their own decisions wherever necessary. We will continue to streamline administrative review processes in terms of procedures, documents, fees and time needed to lessen the burdens on market entities and free up more space for them to compete freely on the market.

当然,要竞争就应当是公平的竞争,就必须有监管。管出公平、管出公正,这样才能让市场主体显示真正的创造力。所以我们放管并重,创新监管方式,加强事中事后监管,这都是改革。我们支持“互联网+”、物联网这些新业态,但是对于坑蒙拐骗、造假失信,或者利用新业态的旗号去搞诈骗、非法集资的,就要坚决打击,因为把市场搅乱了,没有公平,竞争就不可能持续,就不可能展现更强的活力。
Competition needs to happen on a level-playing field. We will improve our regulation to ensure fairness on the market so that market entities can better show their creativity and innovation. We will streamline administration and also enhance supervision and regulation. That includes developing new regulatory approaches and enhancing compliance oversight. Those are all part of the reform package. We will continue to support the Internet Plus model and the Internet of Things as new forms of industry and business. We will combat such malpractices as cheating of marketplace, counterfeiting, acts of bad faith, fraud, and illegal fund-raising in the name of new forms of industry, because these malpractices disrupt market order and undermine fairness. Without fairness, neither competition nor market vitality would be possible.

政府还要进一步优化政务服务,为企业重质量、守诚信、精工细作去提高产品和服务竞争力来营造环境。对于政务服务中那些涉及企业、人民群众经常要办的事项,要努力做到网上办、掌上办、一次办,让市场主体有更强的活力,社会有创造力。
The government will deliver better services and foster an enabling environment for all companies who put quality first, act in good faith and concentrate on making their products and services more competitive. As for those high-demand government services, we will work hard to make them accessible on-line through smart phones on a one-stop basis to better energize market entities and boost social creativity.

台湾无线卫星电视台记者:今年年初,台湾方面表示希望跟大陆能够在后疫情时代恢复交流。与此同时,两岸关系目前并没有看到和缓的迹象,请问大陆方面对此怎么看,未来又如何因应?
TVBS of Taiwan: Early this year, Taiwan expressed hope for resumed cross-Strait exchanges with the mainland in the post-COVID era. However, so far, we have yet to see signs of an easing situation across the Taiwan Strait. What is the view of the mainland on the current situation? And what does the mainland intend to do in the future?

李克强:我们对台的大政方针是一贯的,也是非常明确的,就是坚持一个中国原则和“九二共识”。在此前提下,我们欢迎台湾任何政党、团体同我们交往,也欢迎台湾各党派团体人士就两岸关系和民族未来与我们开展对话。
Premier Li: Our principle and policy towards Taiwan have been consistent and clear-cut. We remain committed to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. On that basis, we welcome exchanges with any political party or group from Taiwan, and we welcome dialogue with any party, group or personage of Taiwan on cross-Strait relations and future of the nation.

我们坚持推进两岸关系和平发展和祖国统一,反对任何形式的“台独”分裂活动,也反对外部势力的干涉。
We will continue to promote peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and China’s reunification. We are opposed to any form of separatist activities seeking “Taiwan independence” and foreign interference in cross-Strait affairs.

我们一直秉持“两岸一家亲”的理念。这几年出台了很多惠及台企台胞的政策,不少台湾企业和同胞从中受益。我们会继续让台湾同胞分享大陆的发展机遇,继续推动两岸融合发展。
We always believe that people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait belong to one and the same family. That is why in recent years, we have introduced a series of policies that benefit Taiwan companies and compatriots, and many have benefited from such policy measures. We will continue to enable Taiwan compatriots to share in the development opportunities on the mainland and promote integrated development across the Taiwan Strait.

人民日报社记者:受疫情等因素影响,民生领域一些难题凸显,如就医、子女教育、养老托幼等成为我国经济社会发展的短板,也影响了人民群众的获得感和幸福感。请问政府打算从哪些方面着手来解决这些难题?
People’s Daily: The COVID-19 pandemic has made some difficulties related to people’s lives more acute, including in the areas of medical services, education, elderly and child care. This has been an area of weakness in our country’s economic and social development, and our people have not felt as many gains or as much happiness as they deserve. What measures will the government take to tackle these problems?

李克强:今年政府总支出比去年略有增加,盘子不小,所以要更多地向量大面广的民生领域倾斜,特别是义务教育和基本医疗。如果下半年经济持续向好,那么会下更大的力度把财政支出包括债务支出投向这些领域。这对拉动当年GDP增长可能不明显,但是对于长远发展、惠民生有支撑作用。我们要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,这是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要内容,人民的政府就应当以民之所望为施政所向。
Premier Li: With a modest increase over the previous year, total fiscal spending for this year is of no small amount, and will be weighted towards the wide range of areas related to people’s lives, especially compulsory education and basic medical care. If the economy keeps the positive momentum in the second half of the year, we intend to channel a greater share of budgetary expenditures and funds raised by issuing government bonds to these areas. Such inputs may not make a big difference in driving GDP growth for the current year, but they are critical for laying a solid foundation for China’s long-term development and bettering people’s lives. We must continue to implement the development thinking of putting people at the center, which is an important component of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. Our government is a people’s government. It must respond to the people’s needs.

教育和健康关系到每个家庭、国家与民族的未来。我在两会参加代表团审议时,一位中学校长说,现在县乡中学还缺乏优质的教师资源,教师的待遇不高,学历也很难提高。我们今年要下决心,加大对县乡教师培训的投入,让他们能够在职便利地提高学历,职称评定要采取倾斜政策。对于在城市的农民工子弟,只要拿到居住证,一定要让他们有受教育的机会。决不能因为家境、区域不同,让孩子输在起跑线上。机会公平中,教育公平是最大的公平。
Education and health concerns the future of every family and every nation. While I was attending the deliberation of a provincial delegation during the two sessions this year, the headmaster of a secondary school told me that in county and township secondary schools, quality teachers are in short supply. Their pay packages are inadequate and it is difficult for them to further their education. This year we will scale up on-the-job training for teachers in counties and townships to help them further their education. Preferential arrangement will be made for their professional title assessment. Children of rural migrant workers in cities with urban residency permits must be given an opportunity for education. No child should be put at a disadvantage because of his/her family background or where he/she comes from. Educational fairness is most important in ensuring equal access to opportunities.

健康是幸福的基础,也是生产力。现在县乡基层的医疗机构和力量还比较薄弱,很多人有病往大城市大医院跑。今年我们要多措并举加大对县乡医院、卫生院的投入,对于扩大门诊医保报销范围和常见病药品报销范围、降低药品和高值医用耗材价格等,都要采取一些让群众切实感受得到的措施。也就是说,要让群众看病多一点便利,治病少一点负担。这也有利于巩固脱贫攻坚成果,防止因病返贫致贫。
Good health is the foundation of happiness. It is also in itself a productive force. Our medical institutions in counties and townships are still weak, hence people have to go to big hospitals in big cities for medical treatment. This year we will increase funding support for medical institutions, including health clinics, in counties and townships, through multiple channels. The government will also take a series of concrete steps, including expanding the coverage of reimbursement of outpatient bills and medical expenses for common disease drugs, and lowering the prices of drugs and high-priced consumables. The purpose is to help make access to medical services easier and lessen the financial burden on patients. This will also help consolidate the gains we have made in ending abject poverty, so that people won’t go back into poverty because of falling ill.

在养老托幼方面,政府还要通过引导社会力量来兴办社区服务业,尽可能在税收等方面给予优惠支持,给家庭在养老托幼方面不仅减轻一点负担,也多一点温暖。总之,民生方面的事很多,我们要在发展中持续改善民生。我们现在实施的是广覆盖、保基本的社会保障制度。保基本,要在经济发展中持续提高水平,但也要突出重点。对于事关人人、事关国家和民族未来的义务教育和基本医疗,各级政府一定要扛在肩上。
In terms of elderly and child care, we will rely more on private actors in running community-based services in these areas. They will receive tax breaks and other preferential policies from the government, so that each and every family will have less burden in terms of elderly and child care and feel the warmth of government support. In a word, there are still many areas where a lot needs to be done to improve people’s lives and we need to tackle these problems in the course of development. Our country’s social security system intends to meet people’s basic needs with a broad-based coverage. While strengthening social protection through development, we must also keep our focus on the top priorities. Compulsory education and basic medical care are things that concern each and every individual as well as the future of our country and nation. Governments at all levels must fully live up to their responsibilities in these fields.

新加坡联合早报记者:中国提出加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局。请问这是不是中国在美国等西方国家“围堵”下被迫采取的某种战略收缩?另外,在中国发展国内大循环、构建超大规模的国内市场的时候会带来怎样的变化?留给外资的空间未来会不会越来越小?
Lianhe Zaobao: China said it will foster a new development paradigm with domestic circulation as the mainstay and domestic and international calculations reinforcing each other. I wonder if this is a kind of strategic retreat that China feels compelled to make due to the encirclement by the United States and other Western countries. As China develops domestic circulation and builds a supersized domestic market, what changes will that effect? Will it mean a dwindling space for foreign investment?

李克强:中国提出要立足新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局,以国内大循环为主体,国内国际双循环相互促进,这既是要做大国内市场,也是要扩大开放。中国经济已经深度融入世界经济,可以说你中有我、我中有你,关起门来是没有出路的。中国会不断地、主动地扩大开放,这是中国自身利益的需要,也有利于世界。中国把内需市场做大,带动自身发展,也会给外资、外国产品和服务带来巨大的机会。我在参加代表团审议的时候,一位企业家说,抓住内循环就是要开拓国内市场,抓住双循环就是要开拓国际市场,两个市场还可以打通。他说得很朴实,但言简意赅。
Premier Li: China will have a keen grasp of the new development stage, implement the new development philosophy, and move faster to foster a new development paradigm with domestic circulation as the mainstay and domestic and international circulations reinforcing each other. This is to boost our domestic market and open China wider to the world. The Chinese economy has become deeply integrated into the global economy. Shutting its door to the world will lead nowhere. We will continue to take the initiative to open wider. This is what we need to do and it is also beneficial for the whole world. Rising domestic demand in China will drive its own development and present great opportunity for foreign investment, products and services. While I was attending the deliberation of a provincial delegation, an entrepreneur said that if one gets the domestic circulation, it will help him leverage the domestic market; by getting dual circulation, one will be in a good position to leverage the international markets, and the two markets can be linked up. He made the case in a simple and succinct way.

开放还需要各国共同努力,相向而行。经过8年的努力,去年东盟10国、中、日、韩、澳、新15国谈成了RCEP协定,这是世界上最大的自贸区,是不同社会制度、文化习俗,不同发展阶段国家共同建设的。这说明,只要相互尊重、平等相待,可以谈出共识,找到共同利益,扩大各国人民的福祉,而且有助于地区产业链、供应链的稳定,会给世界经济增添动力。中国是世界产业链、供应链的重要组成部分,我们不仅要发挥自身的作用,而且要履行自身的责任,维护以世贸组织规则为基础的多边贸易体制。只要是对互利共赢有利的,无论是多边、双边的机制,我们都持积极开放的态度。
Openness calls for joint efforts among countries. Last year, after eight years of negotiations, 15 countries, namely the 10 ASEAN countries, China, Japan, the ROK, Australia and New Zealand, concluded the RCEP agreement, the largest FTA in the world. This is an FTA among countries different in social system, cultural heritage and stage of development. Its conclusion shows that with mutual respect and equality, countries with such differences can work things through, reach consensus, identify common interests and add to the good of people of these countries. This agreement is also important for keeping regional industrial and supply chains stable and boosting global economic growth. China is an important component of the world industrial and supply chains. China will continue to play its due role and live up to its due responsibilities. We will continue to uphold the multilateral trading regime based on WTO rules, and China has a positive and open attitude towards any multilateral or bilateral mechanism that helps achieve mutual benefit.

我们会进一步主动地对外开放,继续缩减外商来华投资负面清单,继续推动包括服务业在内的对外开放。我注意到,很多外企关心中国的营商环境,我们还要继续打造市场化、法治化、国际化的营商环境。总而言之,通过多种努力,在扩大内需中不断扩大开放,继续让中国成为外商投资的重要目的地、世界的大市场。
We will continue to take the initiative to open further. We will further shorten the negative list on market access for foreign investors and further open up our services and other sectors. I know that foreign investors following keenly the development of China’s business environment. We will continue to foster a world-class, market-oriented business climate governed by a sound legal framework. We believe that by taking various actions to expand domestic demand and further open up, China will remain a key destination for foreign investment and a big market to the world.

记者会采用网络视频形式进行,主会场设在人民大会堂三楼金色大厅,分会场设在梅地亚两会新闻中心。记者会历时约110分钟。
The Press Conference was held via video link between the main venue, the Golden Hall on the third floor of the Great Hall of the People, and the Press Center for the NPC and CPPCC Sessions at Media Center Hotel. It lasted for about 110 minutes.

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