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纽约时报双语:新冠病毒肆虐白宫,特朗普及其幕僚做错了什么?

新冠病毒肆虐白宫,特朗普及其幕僚做错了什么?
How the White House Flouted Basic Coronavirus Rules
LAUREN LEATHERBY, AMY SCHOENFELD WALKER, LARRY BUCHANAN, JOHN KEEFE
2020年10月9日
纽约时报双语:新冠病毒肆虐白宫,特朗普及其幕僚做错了什么?

The coronavirus outbreak at the White House has now grown to more than 20 people, and evidence is mounting that the administration did little to prevent or contain the virus’s spread.

白宫的新冠病毒暴发目前已经导致超过20人感染,越来越多的证据表明,特朗普政府在预防或遏制病毒传播方面几乎没有采取什么行动。

For months, President Trump minimized the threat of the virus and eschewed basic safety precautions like wearing a mask or maintaining six feet of distance from other people. And at several events last week, White House staff members defied recommendations — from scientists, local authorities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention — on curbing infection, even after the president tested positive.

几个月来,特朗普总统竭力淡化病毒的威胁,回避了基本的安全防范措施,比如戴口罩或与他人保持六英尺的距离。在上周的几场活动中,尽管总统已经检测出病毒阳性,白宫工作人员还是无视来自科学家、地方当局和疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)关于遏制感染的建议。

Here’s a look at some of the ways Mr. Trump and his staff members ignored basic guidelines.

以下是特朗普和他的幕僚忽视基本指南的一些事例。

The White House relied too heavily on rapid tests alone.

白宫过于依赖快速检测这一种办法。

THE GUIDELINES

指南

The Food and Drug Administration approved the rapid coronavirus tests used by the White House for use only “within the first seven days of the onset of symptoms.” These tests frequently miss infections in people without symptoms.

美国食品与药品管理局(The Food and Drug Administration)允许白宫只能“在出现症状的头七天里”使用快速新冠病毒检测。这些检测经常检不出无症状感染。

The C.D.C. says it may be necessary for those who test negative on a rapid test to confirm the result using a lab-based test, especially if they have symptoms or have been in contact with an infected person.

CDC表示,对于快速检测呈阴性的人,可能有必要通过实验室检测来确认结果,尤其是如果他们出现了症状,或者是与感染者有过接触。

WHAT HAPPENED

实际情况

Since the early days of the pandemic, the White House has regularly used rapid tests to screen staff members and guests for the coronavirus because they are fast, portable and easy to operate. But those who tested negative would often skip other precautions, like wearing a mask or social distancing. Experts say rapid tests are less accurate for people who are not showing any signs of infection, and they should not be used as the only precaution.

从疫情初期开始,白宫就经常使用快速检测对工作人员和访客进行新冠病毒筛查,因为这种测试速度快、携带方便、易于操作。但那些检测结果阴性的人通常会忽略其他预防措施,比如戴口罩或保持社交距离。专家称快速检测对没有任何感染症状的人来说不太准确,不应作为唯一的预防措施。

Testing negative does not guarantee a lack of infection, since people who have been recently infected may not have enough virus in their bodies for tests to detect. Stephen Miller, a senior adviser to the president, and Kayleigh McEnany, the press secretary, both tested positive early this week after testing negative in the preceding days.

检测结果阴性并不保证没有感染,因为新感染的人体内病毒含量可能并不足以被检测出来。总统的高级顾问斯蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)和新闻秘书凯莉·麦克纳尼(Kayleigh McEnany)此前的检测结果为阴性,但在本周早些时候都呈阳性。

And while officials had given the impression that Mr. Trump was getting tested every day, the White House has since conceded that tests were not as frequent and has refused to reveal the last time Mr. Trump tested negative.

尽管官员们给人一种特朗普每天都接受检测的印象,但白宫后来承认,检测没有那么频繁,并拒绝透露特朗普最后一次检测出阴性是在什么时候。

Members of the administration did not wear masks, held meetings indoors and failed to maintain recommended social distance.

特朗普政府的官员没有佩戴口罩,在室内开会,也没有遵守保持社交距离的建议。

THE GUIDELINES

指南

The C.D.C.’s guidelines for preventing the spread of the coronavirus say to remain at least six feet away from people outside your household and to “cover your mouth and nose with a mask when around others.”

CDC预防新冠病毒传播的指南说,与家人以外的人保持至少六英尺距离,“在他人周围时要用口罩遮住口鼻”。

The nation’s health protection agency also recommends hosting gatherings outdoors when possible.

该卫生防护机构也建议在可能的情况下,聚会应在户外进行。

WHAT HAPPENED

实际情况

The Trump administration allowed those who received a negative result to go without a mask to meetings and events, including at a reception inside the White House for the Supreme Court nominee Judge Amy Coney Barrett.

特朗普政府允许测出阴性结果的人不戴口罩参加会议和活动,包括在白宫内为最高法院大法官提名人艾米·科尼·巴雷特(Amy Coney Barrett)举行的招待会。

The president also huddled with advisers for maskless preparation sessions ahead of the first presidential debate, held on Sept. 29. Several of those involved — including Chris Christie, a former governor of New Jersey; Kellyanne Conway, a former White House adviser; Hope Hicks, a current adviser; and Bill Stepien, Mr. Trump’s campaign manager — have said they have since tested positive.

在9月29日的第一次总统竞选辩论前,总统还与顾问们在不戴口罩的情况下会面,为辩论做准备。其中一些与会人士——包括新泽西州前州长克里斯·克里斯蒂(Chris Christie)、前白宫顾问凯莉安·康维(Kellyanne Conway)、现总统顾问霍普·希克斯(Hope Hicks)以及特朗普的竞选经理比尔·施特平(Bill Stepien)——称他们随后检测呈阳性。

The president and his staff members also spent several hours in the enclosed space of Air Force One last week traveling to events in Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Ohio and New Jersey. At least eight people aboard those flights, including Ms. Hicks, Ms. McEnany, Mr. Miller and Mr. Stepien, have since tested positive for the virus.

上周,总统和他的幕僚还在空军一号的密闭空间里共处几个小时,前往宾夕法尼亚州、明尼苏达州、俄亥俄州和新泽西州参加活动。机上至少有8人随后被检测出阳性,包括希克斯、麦克纳尼、米勒和施特平。

The White House and Trump campaign hosted large gatherings that flouted state and local restrictions.

白宫和特朗普竞选团队举行了大型集会,无视州和地方的限制规定。

THE GUIDELINES

指南

C.D.C. guidelines say large, in-person gatherings where it is difficult to maintain social distance of at least six feet apart pose the “highest risk” of spreading the coronavirus among all types of gatherings and events. This includes both indoor and outdoor events.

CDC的指南称,在所有类型的聚会和活动中,难以保持至少六英尺社交距离的面对面大型聚会传播新冠病毒的“风险最高”。这包括室内和室外的活动。

WHAT HAPPENED

实际情况

The White House and Trump campaign held several large rallies, fund-raisers and other events in the week before Mr. Trump tested positive.

在特朗普被检测出阳性的前一周,白宫和特朗普竞选团队举行了几场大型集会、筹款会和其他活动。

The day after Mr. Trump hosted at least 200 people in the Rose Garden, the president hosted a White House reception honoring Gold Star families. At least 100 people attended the indoor reception, including Adm. Charles Ray, the vice commandant of the Coast Guard, who has since tested positive, prompting many of the country’s top military officials to go into quarantine.

特朗普在玫瑰园接待了至少200人之后的第二天,总统又在白宫举办了一个表彰“金星家庭”的招待会。至少有100人参加了这场室内招待会,其中包括海岸警卫队副司令、海军上将查尔斯·雷(Charles Ray),他后来检测呈阳性,导致许多美国军方高级官员进入隔离状态。

A citywide order in Washington prohibits gatherings of more than 50 people, but because the White House is on federal property, it is exempt from local rules.

华盛顿一项涉及全市的命令要求禁止超过50人的集会,但由于白宫属于联邦物业,不受地方法规的约束。

The Trump campaign also held three large outdoor rallies that week in Virginia, Pennsylvania and Minnesota, three states whose guidelines limit gatherings to 250 people. Officials in Pennsylvania criticized the Trump campaign for flouting local regulations, and the Virginia event also drew scrutiny.

那一周,特朗普竞选团队还在弗吉尼亚州、宾夕法尼亚州和明尼苏达州举行了三场大型户外集会,这三州的指导原则都规定集会人数不得超过250人。宾夕法尼亚州的官员批评特朗普竞选团队无视地方法规,弗吉尼亚州的集会也引发非议。

The president and his aides did not quarantine after people near them showed symptoms and tested positive.

当周围的人出现症状并检测呈阳性后,总统和他的助手们并没有进行隔离。

THE GUIDELINES

指南

The C.D.C. says those who have been in “close contact” with someone who tests positive should quarantine for 14 days, starting from two days before the infected person’s illness onset.

CDC表示,与检测呈阳性的人有过“密切接触”的人应该从感染者发病前两天开始,进行为期14天的隔离。

The White House says it is following C.D.C. guidelines for essential personnel who have come in contact with infected people.

白宫表示,他们正在遵循CDC对接触过感染者的必要工作人员提出的指导原则。

WHAT HAPPENED

实际情况

On Sept. 30, Mr. Trump flew aboard Air Force One with staff members and members of Congress to Minnesota for a fund-raiser and rally. That night, Ms. Hicks felt ill and isolated at the back of Air Force One on the way home.

9月30日,特朗普与幕僚和国会议员乘空军一号飞往明尼苏达州,参加一场筹款会和集会。当晚,希克斯感觉不适,在返程路上被隔离在空军一号的机舱尾部。

Anyone who was in close contact with Ms. Hicks in the two days before she started feeling symptoms should have quarantined.

在希克斯开始出现症状的前两天与她密切接触过的人都应该被隔离。

Yet despite knowing of Ms. Hicks’s illness, Mr. Trump and his aides traveled the next day to Bedminster, N.J., to a small indoor round table and then a larger outdoor fund-raiser. That evening, Bloomberg News reported that Ms. Hicks had tested positive, and after midnight, Mr. Trump revealed he had also tested positive.

但尽管知晓希克斯的病情,特朗普和他的助手们在第二天仍然去了新泽西州的贝德明斯特,参加一场小型室内圆桌会议,随后又去了一场更大的户外筹款会。当晚,彭博新闻社(Bloomberg News)报道称希克斯检测呈阳性,而午夜过后,特朗普也宣布自己的检测结果是阳性。

Even after Mr. Trump and Ms. Hicks tested positive, Ms. McEnany, who had been in close contact with both of them, continued to go to work. She hosted a news conference while maskless on the White House lawn on Friday and went to work on Sunday, later saying she acted as an essential worker. On Monday, she said she had tested positive.

即使是在特朗普和希克斯都已经检测出阳性后,一直与两人有密切接触的麦克纳尼仍继续工作。周五,她未戴口罩,在白宫草坪上主持了一场新闻发布会,而在周日也去上班,后来还说自己是必要工作者。周一,她说她的检测结果为阳性。

Mark Meadows, the White House chief of staff, and Dan Scavino Jr., a deputy chief of staff, have continued to work from the West Wing despite repeated exposure to the president. Both were with Mr. Trump at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center after he was hospitalized over the weekend and joined the president in the Oval Office on Wednesday, six days after the president’s positive test.

尽管与已被感染的总统有频繁接触,白宫幕僚长马克·米道斯(Mark Meadows)和副幕僚长小丹·斯卡维诺(Dan Scavino Jr.)还是继续在白宫西翼工作。当周末特朗普入院治疗后,两人和他一起待在沃尔特·里德国家军事医学中心(Walter Reed National Military Medical Center),周三又跟着总统回到椭圆形办公室,当时距离总统检测呈阳性只过了6天。

The president failed to isolate after testing positive.

总统在检测呈阳性后未进行隔离。

THE GUIDELINES

指南

Those who test positive for the coronavirus should isolate themselves from others for a minimum of 10 days after testing positive, according to the C.D.C., or for at least 10 days after symptoms first appear.

CDC称,新冠病毒检测呈阳性的人应该在出结果后自我隔离至少10天,或者在首次出现症状后隔离至少10天。

WHAT HAPPENED

实际情况

Officials say Mr. Trump tested positive on Oct. 1. That means he should have isolated until at least Sunday, Oct. 11 — even if he had stopped experiencing symptoms, as his doctors said he has.

官员称,特朗普在10月1日检测呈阳性。这意味着他至少应该隔离到周日,也就是10月11日——哪怕他的医生说他已经不再有症状。

Instead, Mr. Trump, escorted by Secret Service agents, left isolation on Sunday for a drive-by to greet supporters, flew to the White House on Marine One on Monday, and re-entered the White House without wearing a mask, defying guidance that is intended to protect others. Video footage of the president before he walked into the White House on Monday showed him in proximity to a photographer and several other people.

但是,特朗普在特勤局特工的护送下,于周日离开隔离区,一路上与支持者打招呼,周一乘坐海军陆战队一号飞抵白宫,无视旨在保护他人的指南,没戴口罩就重新进入了白宫。总统在周一进入白宫之前的一段视频显示,他与一

The White House is not tracing contacts of those at a potential ‘super-spreader’ event.

白宫并未追踪那些参与过潜在“超级传播者”活动的人的接触史。

THE GUIDELINES

指南

The C.D.C. advises contact tracing for close contacts of people who have tested positive for the coronavirus or are considered probable cases. Contact tracers notify, interview and advise the close contacts of the infected person, and the C.D.C. says close contacts should themselves be tested.

CDC建议追踪与新冠病毒呈阳性或疑似感染者有密切接触的人。接触追踪者会对与感染者有过密切接触的人进行通知、面谈和建议,CDC表示,密切接触者自己也应该接受检测。

WHAT HAPPENED

实际情况

Even though at least 12 attendees have since tested positive, the White House has decided not to trace the contacts of those who attended the Rose Garden event for Judge Barrett. Instead, the White House said it would notify only those who came into contact with Mr. Trump in the two days before his positive test on Oct 1.

尽管此后有至少12位与会者检测呈阳性,但白宫决定对玫瑰园那场为巴雷特法官举办的活动不进行接触史追踪。相反,白宫表示,只会通知在特朗普10月1日检测呈阳性的前两天与他接触过的人。

A White House spokesman did say contact tracing “was completed” for Mr. Trump’s Oct. 1 trip to Bedminster. One guest confirmed he received three emails alerting him to possible exposure — one from the Trump campaign and two from state and local government tracers — but said no one had called him.

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