双语:西藏和平解放与繁荣发展 PDF 下载

西藏人民依法享有当家作主权利。自治区成立以来,先后出台152部地方性法规和规范性文件,为维护各族人民的各项权益提供了重要法治保障。西藏各族人民积极行使宪法和法律所赋予的选举权和被选举权,参加全国和自治区各级人大代表选举,参与管理国家和地方事务。1979年以来,先后进行多次自治区、地(市)、县、乡(镇)四级换届选举,选民参选率都在90%以上,有些地方参选率达到100%。2018年1月18日公布的西藏自治区第十一届人民代表大会439名代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表共289人,占65.83%。中国人民政治协商会议西藏委员会历届委员中的绝大多数是藏族和其他少数民族人士。坚持各民族平等参与、共同管理原则,在人口较少民族聚居区设立民族乡保障人口较少民族的权益。目前在山南、林芝、昌都三市人口较少民族聚居区共设立9个民族乡,其中门巴民族乡5个、珞巴民族乡3个、纳西民族乡1个。
People in Tibet enjoy the right to be masters of the country and the region in accordance with the law. Since its founding, the autonomous region has issued 152 local regulations and normative documents, providing an important legal guarantee for the rights and interests of all ethnic groups. People in Tibet actively exercise the right to vote and stand for election as prescribed by the Constitution and laws; they participate in the election of deputies to people’s congresses at the national and local levels, and in the administration of state and local affairs. Since 1979, elections have been held at the regional, prefectural (city), county and township (town) levels, with the voter participation rate above 90 percent, and in some places as high as 100 percent. Of the 439 deputies to the 11th People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region announced on January 18, 2018, 289 – almost exactly two-thirds – are from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. Most of the current and previous members of the Tibetan Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference are or were Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. The state supports equal participation and joint management by all ethnic groups, and sets up ethnic townships in areas where ethnic groups with small populations live in compact communities, to protect the rights and interests of these groups. At present, nine ethnic townships have been set up in Shannan, Nyingchi and Qamdo, of which five are Monba townships, three are Lhoba townships and one is a Naxi township.

国家历来重视少数民族干部和人才培养。和平解放后,特别是民主改革过程中,大批农奴和奴隶出身的积极分子迅速成长,成为优秀的民族干部。1981年,西藏专门设立培养教育民族干部的机构,1989年,成立干部教育工作领导小组,通过培训学习、基层锻炼、异地交流、岗位轮换等多种形式,培养了大批少数民族行政和专业技术干部。
The state pays great attention to the training of officials and personnel from minority ethnic groups. After the liberation of Tibet, especially during democratic reform, a large number of liberated serfs and slaves grew rapidly into outstanding officials. By setting up a special institution to train and educate ethnic minority officials in 1981, and a leading group for official education in 1989, Tibet has cultivated a large number of administrative and technical ethnic minority officials through training, job rotation, providing work opportunities at the grass-roots, and arranging for leading officials to hold posts in different localities.

 

——中华民族共同体意识更加牢固
– The sense of national identity has been heightened.

西藏自古以来就有各民族交往交流交融的优良传统。早在西藏和平解放之初,就有大批各族各界人士到其他省市参观考察。改革开放后,各民族间的经济、文化交流更加紧密,中华民族共同体意识更加牢固。每年在国庆节、西藏和平解放、“民族团结月”等节庆节点,大力开展中国梦主题教育、爱国主义教育,民族团结进步事业得到进一步发展。目前,国务院、西藏自治区表彰的民族团结进步先进单位共有1985个(次)、先进个人2846人(次),拉萨、日喀则、昌都、阿里先后成为全国民族团结进步示范市(地)。截至2020年,西藏颁布实施关于民族团结进步模范区创建条例等地方性法规1部、规范性文件4个。西藏籍学生和劳动者到其他省市就业创业,每年约有10%以上的西藏籍大学生选择区外就业。鼓励其他省市人员在藏求学投资兴业,不断创新招商引资举措,2016年以来出台涉及税收、金融、土地等52条特殊优惠政策,有效提高行政审批效率和服务质量,招商引资到位资金达2535亿元。积极打造各民族互嵌式社会结构和社区环境,大力促进公共服务均等化,保障城市和散居地区少数民族合法权益,尊重他们在节庆、饮食、丧葬等方面的风俗习惯。
Tibet has had a fine tradition of exchanges, communication, and integration among ethnic groups since ancient times. In the early 1950s, a large number of people from various ethnic groups and sectors in Tibet visited other parts of China. Since reform and opening up in 1978, economic and cultural exchanges between ethnic groups have become closer and the sense of national identity has grown stronger. Every year on National Day, and during the Peaceful Liberation Celebration and the Ethnic Unity Month, Tibet conducts themed education on the Chinese Dream and patriotism. Thanks to these efforts, ethnic unity and progress have been promoted. To date the State Council and the Tibet Autonomous Region have presented 1,985 awards to exemplary organizations and 2,846 awards to exemplary individuals for ethnic unity and progress. Lhasa, Xigaze, Qamdo and Ngari have each become demonstration cities (prefectures) for ethnic unity and progress. By the end of 2020, Tibet had promulgated and implemented one regulation – Regulations on the Establishment of Model Areas for Ethnic Unity and Progress – and four normative documents on ethnic unity and progress. Tibetan students and workers are free to find jobs and start businesses anywhere in the rest of China. Every year, more than 10 percent of Tibetan college students take jobs outside the autonomous region.

The autonomous region encourages people from other parts of China to study, invest and start businesses in Tibet, and constantly creates innovative new measures to attract investment. Since 2016, the region has issued 52 special preferential policies related to taxation, finance, and land, which have effectively improved the efficiency of administrative examination and approval and the quality of services. As a result, a total of RMB253.5 billion has been in place. The region has also worked hard to create an integrated social structure and community environment for all ethnic groups, promote equal access to public services, protect the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minorities living in cities and scattered residential areas, and respect their festive, food and funeral customs and traditions.

 

——宗教信仰自由得到充分保障
– Freedom of religious belief is fully protected.

在西藏,各宗教、各教派一律平等,信教和不信教群众一视同仁。现有藏传佛教宗教活动场所1700多处,僧尼约4.6万人,清真寺4座,世居穆斯林群众12000余人,天主教堂1座,信徒700余人。为坚持我国宗教中国化方向,切实保障宗教信仰自由与秩序,依法管理宗教事务,依照《宗教事务条例》制定《藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法》,并制定《西藏自治区实施〈宗教事务条例〉办法(试行)》《西藏自治区大型宗教活动管理办法》《西藏自治区藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法实施细则》等一系列政策措施和规范性文件。
In Tibet, all religions and sects are equal, as are all believers and non-believers. There are more than 1,700 sites for Tibetan Buddhist activities with 46,000 monks and nuns, 4 mosques serving 12,000 native Muslims, and a Catholic church with more than 700 followers. In order to adapt religions to the Chinese context, ensure the freedom and order of religious belief, and manage religious affairs in accordance with the law, the state has formulated the Measures on the Management of the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas of Tibetan Buddhism in accordance with the Regulations on Religious Affairs. It has also formulated a series of policies, measures and regulatory documents, which include Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region on Implementing the Regulations on Religious Affairs (trial), Measures of the Tibet Autonomous Region on the Management of Major Religious Activities, and Detailed Rules of the Tibet Autonomous Region for the Implementation of the Measures on the Management of Living Buddha Reincarnation of Tibetan Buddhism.

按照法规规章、宗教仪轨和历史定制,有序开展活佛转世认定。1995年,通过金瓶掣签,经国务院批准,完成十世班禅转世灵童寻访、认定以及十一世班禅坐床工作。2010年,经金瓶掣签,报西藏自治区人民政府批准,完成六世德珠活佛的认定和坐床工作。截至2020年,已有92位新转世活佛严格按照宗教仪轨和历史定制,得到批准和认定。依法开展正常宗教活动,寺庙学经、辩经、受戒、灌顶、修行等传统宗教活动和寺庙学经考核晋升学位活动正常进行。
The reincarnation of Living Buddhas has been carried out in an orderly manner in accordance with laws, regulations, religious rituals and historical conventions. In 1995, with the approval of the State Council, the search for and identification of the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama and the enthronement of the 11th Panchen Lama were completed by drawing lots from a golden urn. In 2010, the Sixth Living Buddha Dezhub was identified and enthroned through the drawing of lots from a golden urn and with the approval of the government of the Tibet Autonomous Region. By 2020, 92 reincarnated Living Buddhas had been identified and approved through traditional religious rituals and historical conventions. Traditional religious activities are carried out regularly in accordance with the law – activities such as studying scriptures and debate, initiation as a monk or nun, abhisheka (an empowerment ceremony), and self-cultivation. Examination on scriptures and subsequent promotion in academic degrees are also held in monasteries on a regular basis.

西藏佛学院及其10所分院现有学经僧尼3000余人,2005年到2020年共有240人获得藏传佛教最高学衔“拓然巴”。寺庙传统印经院得到保留和发展,现有布达拉宫印经院等规模性传统印经院3家。信教群众正常参加萨噶达瓦节、拉萨祈愿大法会、马年转冈底斯山、羊年转纳木错等各种各样的宗教和传统活动。当前各级人民代表大会、政治协商会议中,有600余名宗教界人士担任代表、委员。
The Tibetan Buddhist Institute and its 10 branches now have more than 3,000 monks and nuns who are studying the sutras, and 240 received senior academic titles between 2005 and 2020. Monastery-run scripture printing houses have been conserved and developed; there are three large-scale printing houses at the Potala Palace and other monasteries. Religious believers regularly participate in various religious and traditional activities such as the Saga Dawa Festival, the Monlam Prayer Festival in Lhasa, the Tour of Gangdise Mountains in the Year of the Horse, and the Tour of Lake Namtso in the Year of the Sheep. Currently more than 600 religious figures serve as deputies or members of people’s congresses and political consultative conferences at various levels.

八、生态安全屏障日益坚实
VIII. Solid Environmental Safety Barriers

青藏高原是“世界屋脊”“亚洲水塔”,西藏是中国重要的生态安全屏障。国家高度重视西藏生态文明建设,持续推进制度创新、筑牢科技文化支撑、加大生态建设投入,推动构建人与自然生命共同体。目前,西藏生态系统整体稳定,环境质量持续向好,绿色发展格局初步形成,人民生态环境权益不断提升,“绿水青山就是金山银山、冰天雪地也是金山银山”的理念深入人心,西藏成为世界上生态环境最好的地区之一。
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is known as “the roof of the world” and “the water tower of Asia.” Tibet is an important guarantor of China’s environmental security. The Chinese government attaches great importance to eco-environmental protection in Tibet. It has made constant efforts to improve institutions, provide strong scientific and cultural support, and increase investment in this field, with the goal of building a community of life for humanity and nature.

Tibet’s ecosystems are now generally stable. Environmental quality is improving, a green development model is in place, and eco-environmental rights and interests are more secure. “Clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets, so is snow-covered land” – this concept is alive in people’s hearts. Tibet has become one of the regions with the best eco-environment in the world.

 

——生态文明建设统筹推进
– Making coordinated progress in improving the eco-environment

和平解放初期,中国科学院就派出专家学者对西藏生态、地质气象进行综合考察。1973年和2017年国家先后开展两次青藏高原综合科学考察。2012年以来,出台《关于全面加强生态环境保护 坚决打好污染防治攻坚战的实施意见》《关于建设美丽西藏的意见》《关于创建国家生态文明建设示范区 加快建设美丽西藏的实施意见》《西藏自治区国家生态文明高地建设条例》等,不断完善监测监察考核体系。截至2020年,西藏累计投入生态环境领域的资金达814亿元。统筹山水林田湖草系统治理,大力实施《西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划(2008-2030年)》和“两江四河”流域绿化项目。持续推进生态文明创建示范工作。拉萨市、山南市、林芝市、昌都市和阿里地区获国家生态文明建设示范市称号,巴宜区、亚东县和当雄县获国家生态文明建设示范县称号,隆子县获“绿水青山就是金山银山”实践创新基地称号。加强水土保持工作,加大水土流失综合治理力度,全面推进河湖长制,设立区、市、县、乡、村五级河湖长1.48万名,实现河湖“清四乱”常态化制度化。2020年,噶尔县因河湖长制工作成效明显,被国务院办公厅列入激励名单。
Shortly after liberation, the Chinese Academy of Sciences sent specialists to Tibet to survey the local ecology, geology and meteorology. The Chinese government organized two comprehensive scientific investigations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, in 1973 and 2017.

Since 2012, a number of regulations have been released to improve the system for monitoring and assessing the local eco-environment. These include Opinions on Strengthening Eco-environmental Protection and Pollution Prevention and Control, Opinions on Building a Beautiful Tibet, Opinions on Building National Ecological Culture Demonstration Areas to Boost Efforts for Building a Beautiful Tibet, and Regulations on Developing Ecological Highlands in the Tibet Autonomous Region. By 2020, Tibet had invested a total of RMB81.4 billion in this field.

A holistic approach to conserving mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands has been adopted. The Plan for Protecting and Improving the Ecological Safety Barriers in Tibet (2008-2030) and the afforestation project in the watersheds of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Nujiang River, Lhasa River, Nianchu River, Yalong River, and Shiquan River have been implemented.

Work has been carried forward to build eco-environmental culture demonstration areas. Lhasa, Shannan, Nyingchi and Qamdo cities and Ngari Prefecture won national titles for their pioneering work, as did Bayi District of Nyingchi City, Yadong County and Damxung County. Lhunze County has become a base for practicing the concept that clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets.

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