纽约时报双语:不走小路、不穿高跟鞋:为何女性牺牲自由也换不来安全?

不走小路、不穿高跟鞋:为何女性牺牲自由也换不来安全?
In Rage Over Sarah Everard Killing, ‘Women’s Bargain’ Is Put on Notice
AMANDA TAUB
2021年3月16日
纽约时报双语:不走小路、不穿高跟鞋:为何女性牺牲自由也换不来安全?

Perhaps it was because pandemic lockdowns have left women clinging to whatever is left of their access to public space. Perhaps it was because after more than three years of the #MeToo movement, the police and society are still telling women to sacrifice their liberties to purchase a little temporary safety.

这一切或许是因为大流行的封锁迫使女人们要抓住仅存的一点进入公共空间的机会;又或许是因为“#我也是”(#MeToo)运动进行了三年多之后,警察和社会仍在告诉女性,应该牺牲自己的自由来换取一点点临时的安全。

It all came to the surface when 33-year-old Sarah Everard, who disappeared as she walked home in London on March 3, was found dead a week later, after doing everything she was supposed to do. She took a longer route that was well-lit and populated. She wore bright clothes and shoes she could run in. She checked in with her boyfriend to let him know when she was leaving. But that was not enough to save her life.

3月3日,33岁的莎拉·埃弗拉德(Sarah Everard)在回家路上失踪。一周后,人们发现她尽了该尽的一切努力,最后仍以死亡告终。她选择了一条比较亮、人较多的远路。她穿着鲜艳的衣服和可以跑步的鞋子。她和男友打了招呼,让他知道自己在什么时候离开。但这些都不足以挽救她的生命。

So the response from British women to reports that the police were going door to door telling women in the South London neighborhood where she disappeared to stay inside for their own safety became an outpouring of rage and frustration.

有报道称,在她失踪的伦敦南部街区,警方逐家告诫该地的女性,为了自身安全应该留在家中。英国女性对此的反应变成了愤怒和沮丧。

It has set off a social movement that feels somehow different from those that have come before: women from all walks of life demanding safety from male violence — and demanding that the police, the government and men collectively be the ones to bear the burden of ensuring it.

它引发了一场社会运动,给人的感觉与以前的运动有所不同:来自各行各业的女性要求免受男性暴力伤害——并要求警察、政府和男性共同承担安全责任。

‘Arrest Your Own’

“去抓你们自己人”

“Hey, mister, get your hands off my sister!” the crowd chanted as police grabbed women while trying to disperse the vigil Saturday night for Everard, a marketing executive, in a park in Clapham, South London.

周六晚上,在伦敦南部克拉彭的公园里,警察抓住几名女性,试图驱散为生前为市场营销主管的埃弗拉德守夜的人群。“嘿,先生,把你的手从我的姐妹身上拿开!”人群高喊着。

“Arrest your own!” hundreds shouted, a reference to the police officer who has been charged with Everard’s killing. “Police, go home!”

“去抓你们自己人!”数百人喊道,她们指的是被控杀害埃弗拉德的警官。“警察,回家去!”

As officers trampled the flowers laid on a makeshift memorial to Everard and wrestled shocked young women to the ground, London’s Metropolitan Police could scarcely have provided a better example of what women were protesting if they had set out intentionally to do so.

警察们践踏了放置在埃弗拉德的临时纪念地里的鲜花,将震惊的年轻女性摔倒在地。如果伦敦警察厅是有意为之,那么此举堪称最好的例子,可以说明女人们在抗议什么。

In the days after Everard’s disappearance, a group calling itself Reclaim These Streets announced that a vigil would be held Saturday night in a South London park. The event would be partly to mourn and partly to protest the police instructions to women to stay home for their own security and to demand safer streets instead.

在埃弗拉德失踪后的几天里,一个自称“收复这些街道”(Reclaim These Streets)的组织宣布,将于周六晚在伦敦南部一个公园举行守夜活动。活动的一部分是哀悼,另一部分是要求改善街道安全,抗议警方指示女性为了自身安全待在家里。

But “the Met,” as London’s police are known, once again told women to stay home. Citing lockdown restrictions, the police threatened steep fines if the vigil was not canceled.

但是被称为“Met”的伦敦警察再次要求女人们待在家里。警方以封锁限制为由威胁称,如果不取消守夜活动,将对她们处以高额罚款。

Eventually the organizers capitulated and called off the event, in part because they could not bear the thought of their fines going to subsidize the very police force they were protesting, said Mary Morgan, a writer and scholar focused on body politics who was one of the event’s original organizers. “It makes my stomach rot,” she said in an interview.

最终,组织者屈服了,取消了活动,专注于身体政治的作家和学者、活动最初的组织者之一玛丽·摩根(Mary Morgan)说,部分原因是她们无法忍受自己的罚款恰恰会被发给她们所抗议的警察队伍。“想到这个我胃都难受,”她在接受采访时说。

Whatever the Met’s internal reasoning, the message it sent to women across the country was that the police were doubling down on restricting women’s freedom instead of men’s violence.

不管伦敦警察厅的内部理由是什么,它向全国女性传递的信息是,警方正在加倍努力限制女性的自由,而不是男性的暴力。

“@metpoliceuk really do want women off the streets don’t they?” Anne Lawtey, 64, wrote on Twitter after organizers announced the cancellation of the gathering. She was shocked, she said in a telephone interview, that it had been shut down. “We can’t have a vigil? People standing still, in a park, wearing masks?”

“@metpoliceuk(伦敦警察厅)真的很希望女人别上街,不是吗?”组织者宣布取消集会后,64岁的安·劳泰(Anne Lawtey)在Twitter上写道。她在电话采访中说,她对活动取消感到震惊。“我们不能举行守夜活动?只是几个人静静地站在公园里,戴着口罩,都不行?”

A huge crowd turned out anyway, carrying candles and bouquets, crocus bulbs in glass jars and flats of pansy seedlings to add to the pile of blooms.

不管怎样,还是来了一大群人,手里拿着蜡烛和花束、装在玻璃罐里的番红花和一盆盆三色堇幼苗为鲜花增添了色彩。

With no audio equipment, women climbed on the Victorian bandstand that had become a makeshift memorial and used an Occupy Wall Street-style human microphone: The crowd repeated what was said so it could be heard at the back.

由于没有音响设备,女人们爬上一座维多利亚时代的舞台,它被作为临时纪念址,她们使用“占领华尔街”式的人体麦克风:人群重复刚才的人所说的话,让后面的人也能听到。

“The police are trying to silence us. The police are trying to repress us,” hundreds repeated in unison. “The police said we can’t have a vigil to remember Sarah Everard. The police have the nerve to threaten us. The police have the nerve to intimidate us.”

“警察想让我们闭嘴。警察想镇压我们,”数百人齐声重复。“警察说我们不能为莎拉·埃弗拉德守夜。警察竟敢威胁我们。警察竟敢恐吓我们。”

Then, louder: “WE. SAY. NO.”

然后是大声的:“我们。说。不。”

A Bad Bargain

不合算的交易

To be a woman is to be “in a constant state of bargaining,” author and columnist Nesrine Malik wrote in her book, “We Need New Stories.”

作家兼专栏作家内斯琳·马利克(Nesrine Malik)在新书《我们需要新的故事》(We Need New Stories)中写道,作为一名女性,就意味着“始终处于一种做交易的状态”。

Everard’s disappearance called attention to the terms of a safety bargain so ubiquitous that many women might never have considered it in such terms: that in order to buy their own safety from male violence, they must make the “right” choices. And that if a woman fails to do so, her fate is her own fault.

埃弗拉德的失踪令人们注意到一种安全交易,它是如此普遍,以至于许多女人可能从未考虑过它:为了使自己的安全不受男性暴力威胁,她们必须做出“正确”的选择。如果一个女人没能做到这一点,她的命运就是她自己造成的。

Online, women shared the details of their side of that bargain: what they wore; where they walked; whom they checked in with before they left and after they got home; when they would go out alone, or with other women or men.

在网上,女人们分享这些交易的细节:她们穿什么;她们走什么路线;她们离开前和回家后都要和谁报备;她们什么时候独自外出,或者和其他男女一起外出。

Some reflected on their own close calls. Nosisa Majuqwana, 26, an advertising producer who lives in East London, said she told her friends, “Thank God I was wearing trainers, thank God I was carrying a rucksack” on the night a strange man approached her on a deserted path, pulled out a knife and told her to be quiet. “You would never walk home in London wearing heels.”

一些人回忆自己是如何幸免于难的。26岁,家住东伦敦的广告制作人诺西萨·马祖瓦纳(Nosisa Majuqwana)说,她曾经告诉朋友,“感谢上帝,我穿着运动鞋,感谢上帝,我背着背包。”那天晚上,在一条荒芜的小路上,一个陌生男子走近她,拿出一把刀,让她别出声。“在伦敦,你绝不会穿高跟鞋步行回家。”

But Everard’s death has led Majuqwana and many others to reject the bargain outright.

但是埃弗拉德的死让马祖瓦纳和其他许多人完全拒绝这笔交易。

“It doesn’t matter what women do,” Morgan said. “We can be hypervigilant. We can follow all the precautions that have been taught to us since we were children.”

“女人做什么并不重要,”摩根说。“我们会保持高度警惕。我们会遵循从小就被教给我们的所有预防措施。”

The killing has “shocked people out of accepting that it’s normal” to make those trade-offs, said Anna Birley, an economic policy researcher and local politician in South London who also worked to organize the Reclaim These Streets event. “Every woman can see themselves in that situation.”

这起谋杀令人们“从这种对取舍的接受中惊醒”,经济政策研究员、南伦敦当地政治人士、参与了“收复这些街道”活动组织的安娜·伯利(Anna Birley)说。“每个女人都能想象自己处在那种情况之下。”

Who Should Sacrifice?

应该由谁来牺牲?

Why does the burden of women’s safety fall on women rather than on the men who are the source of most of the violence against them?

为什么女性安全的重担全落在女性身上,而不是落在大部分暴力侵害女性的源头——男性身上?

“Women’s freedoms are seen as dispensable, as disposable — very much like, sometimes, tragically, women ourselves,” Kate Manne, a professor of philosophy at Cornell University and author of two books on the ways sexism shapes society, said in an interview. “There is just an immediate assumption that men’s lives won’t be significantly affected by this,” so they cannot be asked to make sacrifices to change it.

康奈尔大学哲学教授凯特·曼恩(Kate Manne)在接受采访时说:“女性的自由被视为可有可无、可以随意丢弃——可悲的是,有时这就像女性本身一样。”曼恩写过两本关于性别歧视如何塑造社会的著作。“有一个直接的假设,男人的生活不会因此而受到重大影响,”所以他们不会被要求做出牺牲来改变这种情况。

As women’s role in public life has grown, the differences have become plain and painful. The #MeToo movement revealed that many women left their jobs or entire industries to avoid predators like Harvey Weinstein — with the result that their abusers were able to continue harming other women for decades.

随着女性在公共生活中的角色越来越重要,这种差异变得常见而痛苦。“#我也是”运动揭示,许多女性为了躲避哈维·韦恩斯坦(Harvey Weinstein)这样的性侵者而离开了自己的工作或整个行业——结果是,侵犯她们的人在几十年里仍然能够继续伤害其他女性。

Women in abusive relationships are often told to just leave their violent partners but in fact often face the worst violence when they try to do so.

处于虐待关系中的女性经常被告知要离开暴力的伴侣,但事实上,当她们试图这样做时,往往会面临最严重的暴力。

Sometimes the calculus is more subtle, but the collective impact is still significant.

这种交易有时是不易察觉的,但集体影响仍然非常重大。

A working paper from Girija Borker, a researcher at the World Bank, found that women in India were willing to go to far worse colleges and pay more tuition in order to avoid harassment or abuse on their daily commutes to classes. The impact of that “choice” on one woman can be hard to measure — but among the thousands she documented in her research, it can be expected to have an effect on earnings, economic power and social mobility.

世界银行(World Bank)研究员吉里贾·博克(Girija Borker)的一份工作报告发现,印度女性为了避免在每天上下学路上受到骚扰或虐待,宁愿支付更多学费,去条件差得多的大学。这种“选择”对一名女性的影响很难衡量——但在博克的研究中所记录的数千名女性中,可以预期这会对收入、经济实力和社会流动性产生影响。

But British women’s anger is beginning to shift assumptions about who should make sacrifices for safety.

但英国女性的愤怒开始转变谁应该为安全做出牺牲的假设。

Jenny Jones, a baroness and Green Party peer, suggested in the House of Lords last week that there should be a 6 p.m. curfew for men in the wake of Everard’s disappearance. She later clarified that it was not an entirely serious suggestion, telling Britain’s Sky News, “Nobody makes a fuss when, for example, the police suggest women stay home. But when I suggest it, men are up in arms.”

绿党成员詹妮·琼斯(Jenny Jones)女爵上周在上议院提议,埃弗拉德失踪后,应该从下午6点开始对男性实行宵禁。她后来澄清说,这并不是一个完全严肃的建议,她告诉英国天空新闻(Sky News):“比如说,当警察建议女性待在家里,没有人会大惊小怪。但我一提出这个建议,男人们就会大吵大闹起来。”

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