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双语:《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书 PDF下载

双语全文(PDF见文末)

关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场
China’s Position on the China-US Economic and Trade Consultations

(2019年6月)
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
(June 2019)
The State Council Information Office of
The People’s Republic of China

目录
Contents

前言
Preface

一、美国挑起对华经贸摩擦损害两国和全球利益
I. Economic and trade friction provoked by the US damages the interests of both countries and of the wider world

二、美国在中美经贸磋商中出尔反尔、不讲诚信
II. The US has backtracked on its commitments in the China-US economic and trade consultations

三、中国始终坚持平等、互利、诚信的磋商立场
III. China is committed to credible consultations based on equality and mutual benefit

结束语
Conclusion

 

 

前言
Preface

中美经贸关系是两国关系的“压舱石”和“推进器”,事关两国人民根本利益,事关世界繁荣与稳定。两国建交以来,双边经贸关系持续发展,合作领域不断拓宽,合作水平不断提高,形成了高度互补、利益交融的互利共赢关系,不仅两国受益,而且惠及全球。
The China-US commercial relationship serves as both the ballast and the propeller of the overall bilateral relationship. At stake are the fundamental interests of the two peoples, and the prosperity and stability of the world. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the US, bilateral trade and economic relations have come a long way, with expanding fields of cooperation at higher levels. A mutually beneficial and win-win relationship with strong complementarity and interlinked interests has been forged, benefiting not only the two countries but also the entire world.

由于发展阶段、经济制度不同,两国在经贸合作中难免出现分歧和摩擦。在中美经贸关系发展历程中,也曾多次出现波折、面临困难局面。两国本着理性、合作的态度,通过对话协商解决问题,化解了矛盾、缩小了分歧,双边经贸关系更趋成熟。
Given the differences in stage of development and economic system, it is inevitable that the two countries will experience differences and friction in their commercial cooperation. The history of China-US trade and economic relations has seen twists and turns and difficult situations. By adopting a rational and cooperative attitude, the two countries have managed to resolve previous conflicts, bridge differences, and render the bilateral commercial relationship more mature through dialogue and consultation.

2017年新一届美国政府上任以来,以加征关税等手段相威胁,频频挑起与主要贸易伙伴之间的经贸摩擦。2018年3月以来,针对美国政府单方面发起的中美经贸摩擦,中国不得不采取有力应对措施,坚决捍卫国家和人民利益。同时,中国始终坚持通过对话协商解决争议的基本立场,与美国开展多轮经贸磋商,努力稳定双边经贸关系。中国的态度是一贯的、明确的。中美合则两利,斗则俱伤,合作是双方唯一正确的选择。对于两国经贸分歧和摩擦,中国愿意采取合作的方式加以解决,推动达成互利双赢的协议。但合作是有原则的,磋商是有底线的,在重大原则问题上中国决不让步。对于贸易战,中国不愿打,不怕打,必要时不得不打,这个态度一直没变。
Since it took office in 2017, the new US administration has threatened additional tariffs and other measures and provoked frequent economic and trade friction with its major trading partners. In response to the economic and trade friction unilaterally initiated by the US since March 2018, China has had to take forceful measures to defend the interests of the nation and its people. At the same time, committed to resolving disputes through dialogue and consultation, China has engaged in multiple rounds of economic and trade consultations with the US in an effort to stabilize the bilateral commercial relationship. China’s position has been consistent and clear – that cooperation serves the interests of the two countries, that conflict can only hurt both, and that cooperation is the only correct choice for both sides. Concerning their differences and frictions on the economic and trade front, China is willing to work together with the US to find solutions, and to reach a mutually beneficial and win-win agreement. However, cooperation has to be based on principles. There are bottom lines in consultations. China will not compromise on major issues of principle. China does not want a trade war, but it is not afraid of one and it will fight one if necessary. China’s position on this has never changed.

为全面介绍中美经贸磋商基本情况,阐明中国对中美经贸磋商的政策立场,中国政府特发布此白皮书。
To provide a comprehensive picture of the China-US economic and trade consultations, and present China’s policy position on these consultations, the Chinese government hereby issues this White Paper.

 

一、美国挑起对华经贸摩擦损害两国和全球利益
I. Economic and trade friction provoked by the US damages the interests of both countries and of the wider world

现任美国政府奉行“美国优先”政策,对外采取一系列单边主义和保护主义措施,动辄使用关税“大棒”,将自身利益诉求强加于他国。美国启用尘封多年的“201调查”“232调查”等手段,对各主要贸易伙伴频频出手,搅乱全球经贸格局。美国还将矛头对准中国,于2017年8月启动单边色彩浓厚的“301调查”,无视中国多年来在加强知识产权保护、改善外资营商环境等方面的不懈努力和取得的巨大成绩,对中国作出诸多不客观的负面评价,采取加征关税、限制投资等经贸限制措施,挑起中美经贸摩擦。
Trumpeting “America First”, the current US administration has adopted a series of unilateral and protectionist measures, regularly wielded tariffs as a “big stick” and coerced other countries into accepting its demands. The US has initiated frequent investigations under the long-unused Sections 201 and 232 against its main trading partners, causing disruption to the global economic and trade landscape. Specifically targeting China, in August 2017 it launched a unilateral investigation under Section 301. Turning a blind eye to China’s unremitting efforts and remarkable progress in protecting intellectual property and improving the business environment for foreign investors, the US issued a myriad of slanted and negative observations, and imposed additional tariffs and investment restrictions on China, provoking economic and trade friction between the two countries.

 

双语:《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书 PDF下载

 

Box 1: China’s technological innovation is based on self-reliance. Accusing China of intellectual property theft and forced technology transfer is utterly unfounded.

China is an innovative and diligent nation. It has created a highly-sophisticated civilization and contributed significantly to human progress over the course of 5,000 years. Since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, and in particular since the beginning of reform and opening up in 1978, China’s scientific and technological undertakings have passed through a series of phases. They started from a difficult beginning, forged ahead in the course of reform, and have now achieved multiple breakthroughs featuring a variety of innovations. These achievements have won worldwide recognition. Historical records confirm that China’s achievements in scientific and technological innovation are not something we stole or forcibly took from others; they were earned through self-reliance and hard work. Accusing China of stealing intellectual property to support its own development is an unfounded fabrication.

China is fully committed to intellectual property protection. It has established a legal system for the protection of intellectual property that is consistent with prevailing international rules and adapted to China’s domestic conditions. China values the leading role of judicial measures in protecting intellectual property, and has achieved impressive results. The understanding of the importance of intellectual property among the general public and business community in China has increased, the value of royalties paid to foreign rights-holders has risen significantly, and the number of intellectual property applications and registrations has surged.

The effective impact of China’s intellectual property protection has won broad international recognition. Former WIPO Director General Arpad Bogsch spoke highly of China’s legal framework for intellectual property protection, noting that China’s achievements are “unmatched in the history of intellectual property protection”. The US Chamber of Commerce recognized that China is making concrete progress in creating an intellectual property environment appropriate to the 21st century. In its 2018 China Business Climate Survey Report, the American Chamber of Commerce in China noted that among the main challenges facing its member companies operating in China, concern over intellectual property dropped from 5th place in 2011 to 12th place in 2018. An article in The Diplomat predicted that China will become a leader in global intellectual property. Many of the concerns raised by foreign firms doing business in China have already been addressed through judicial reform and a strengthened enforcement mechanism.

Respecting the laws of the market economy, China has been actively improving the policy system for innovation, continuously increasing investment in research and development, accelerating the development of innovators, and strengthening international cooperation on technological innovation in an all-round way. In terms of some key innovation indices, China is already among the world’s leading players. As China continues to witness a series of major scientific and technological achievements, its industries are gravitating toward the middle and high end, and the country’s international influence is markedly increasing. In 2017, total R&D investment in China reached RMB1.76 trillion, ranking second in the world. The number of patent applications reached 1.382 million, ranking No. 1 in the world for the seventh consecutive year. The number of invention patents granted reached 327,000, up by 8.2 percent year-on-year. China ranks third in the world in terms of valid invention patents held.

China has always pursued international technical cooperation with mutual benefit and win-win as the basic value orientation. China’s economic development has benefited from international technology transfer and dissemination. International holders of technology have also reaped enormous benefits from this process. China encourages and respects voluntary technical cooperation between Chinese and foreign firms based on market principles. It strongly opposes forced technology transfer and takes resolute action against intellectual property infringement. Accusations against China of forced technology transfer are baseless and untenable.

 

美国无视中美经济结构、发展阶段特点和国际产业分工现实,坚持认为中国采取不公平、不对等的贸易政策,导致美国出现对华贸易逆差,在双边经贸交往中“吃了亏”,并对华采取单边加征关税措施。事实上,在经济全球化时代,中美两国经济高度融合,共同构成完整的产业链,两国经济连骨带筋、互利共赢,把贸易逆差当作“吃亏”是算错了账。美国对中国采取的贸易限制措施不利于中国,也不利于美国,更不利于全球。
Turning a blind eye to the nature of the economic structure and the stage of development in China and the US, as well as the reality of the international industrial division of labor, the US insists that China’s “unfair” and “non-reciprocal” trade policies have created a trade deficit in bilateral commercial exchanges that constitutes “being taken advantage of”, leading to unilateral imposition of additional tariffs on China. In fact, in today’s globalized world, the Chinese and American economies are highly integrated and together constitute an entire industrial chain. The two economies are bound in a union that is mutually beneficial and win-win in nature. Equating a trade deficit to being taken advantage of is an error. The restrictive measures the US has imposed on China are not good for China or the US, and still worse for the rest of the world.

 

双语:《关于中美经贸磋商的中方立场》白皮书 PDF下载

 

Box 2: The Chinese and American economies are interlinked, and bilateral trade and investment are mutually beneficial

China and the US are each other’s largest trading partner and important source of investment. In 2018, bilateral trade in goods and services exceeded US$750 billion, and two-way direct investment approached US$160 billion. China-US commercial cooperation has brought substantial benefits to both countries and both peoples.

According to China Customs, the trade in goods between China and the US grew from less than US$2.5 billion in 1979 when the two countries forged diplomatic ties to US$633.5 billion in 2018, a 252-fold increase. In 2018, the US was China’s largest trading partner and export market, and the sixth largest source of imports. According to the US Department of Commerce, in 2018 China was the largest trading partner of the US, its third largest export market, and its largest source of imports. China is the key export market for US airplanes, soybeans, automobiles, integrated circuits and cotton. During the ten years from 2009 to 2018, China was one of the fastest growing export markets for American goods, with an annual average increase of 6.3 percent and an aggregate growth of 73.2 percent, higher than the average growth of 56.9 percent represented by other regions in the world.

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