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纽约时报双语:盘点2020年18件第一次发生的事

盘点2020年18件第一次发生的事
18 Things That Happened for the First Time in 2020
TRICIA TISAK
2020年12月15日
纽约时报双语:盘点2020年18件第一次发生的事

1. Woman surfs the year’s biggest wave off the Portuguese coast

1. 一名女子在葡萄牙海岸冲过了今年最大的巨浪

The Brazilian surfer Maya Gabeira rode the biggest recorded wave of 2020, becoming the first female surfer with that distinction. The wave, off the coast of Nazaré, Portugal, measured 73.5 feet. Gabeira’s ride was certified by the World Surf League and the Guinness World Records.

巴西冲浪者玛雅·加贝拉(Maya Gabeira)在2020年再次创下世界冲浪记录,在葡萄牙纳扎尔海岸附近征服了高达22.4米的巨浪,成为获此殊荣的首位女性冲浪者。加贝拉的冲浪记录获得了世界冲浪联盟和吉尼斯世界纪录的认证。

2. American officials slap global terrorist label on Russian white supremacist group

2. 美国官员给俄罗斯白人至上主义组织贴上了全球恐怖分子的标签

In April the Trump administration designated the ultranationalist Russian Imperial Movement as a global terror threat. It was the first time the government applied the label to a white supremacist group.

今年4月,特朗普政府将极端民族主义的俄罗斯帝国运动(Russian Imperial Movement)认定为全球恐怖主义威胁。这是美国政府首次将恐怖主义标签用于一个白人至上主义团体。

3. In a first for the luxury industry, Louis Vuitton debuts a face shield

3. 路易威登推出一款防护面罩,这在奢侈品行业尚属首次

While many fashion houses sold protective face masks in 2020, Louis Vuitton became the first to release a face shield, as part of its 2021 cruise collection. The item, which will cost $961 and features the luxury brand’s signature monogram design on its trim, can be worn with the shield flipped up or down depending on social distancing requirements.

虽然许多时尚品牌都在2020年推出了防护口罩,而路易威登(Louis Vuitton)成为第一个推出一款防护面罩的品牌。这个面罩是其2021年度假系列产品之一,售价961美元,面罩框上印有该奢侈品牌的徽标设计。面罩的防护屏可以拉下来或翻上去,视保持社交距离的需要而定。

4. K-pop band tops the charts in the United States for the first time

4. 韩国流行乐队首次在美国登上音乐排行榜榜首

BTS, a South Korean pop band that has been making tweens squeal since 2013, nabbed the No. 1 spot on Billboard magazine’s Hot 100 singles ranking in September with “Dynamite,” a song sung in English.

韩国流行乐队防弹少年团(BTS)自2013年起就一直令十来岁的孩子们兴奋地尖叫。今年9月,该乐队凭借英文歌曲《炸药》(Dynamite)登上了《公告牌》(Billboard)杂志100首热门单曲排行榜榜首。

5. France’s first transgender mayor takes office

5. 法国首位跨性别市长上任

The council of Tilloy-lez-Marchiennes, a village of about 600 residents, elected the first openly transgender mayor in France in March. Marie Cau, ran on a platform that emphasized ecological sustainability.

今年3月,有约600名居民的蒂洛伊-莱斯-马尔基安内斯(Tilloy-lez-Marchiennes)小村的议会选举出了法国首位公开的跨性别市长。当选市长玛里·科(Marie Cau)的竞选主张强调了生态可持续性。

6. Japanese flying car soars in test flight

6. 日本飞车试飞成功

The tech company SkyDrive completed the first successful public test of a flying car in Japan in August. The manned vehicle, named SD-03, circled the Toyota Test Field, home to the company’s development base, for four minutes. SkyDrive plans to make the car available to consumers by 2023.

今年8月,科技公司SkyDrive在日本完成了飞行汽车首次成功的公开测试。这辆名为SD-03的载人汽车在丰田研发基地所在地的试验场上空盘旋了四分钟。SkyDrive打算在2023年前让消费者用上这款车。

7. Scientists use gene-editing tool inside a human

7. 科学家在人体内使用基因编辑工具

In March a blind patient in the United States underwent a procedure using the gene-editing tool CRISPR. It was the first time the technology was used inside a human. In a bid to restore the patient’s vision, doctors injected microscopic drops containing the editing tool inside the eye of the patient, who has a rare genetic disorder that prevents the body from making a protein necessary to convert light into signals to the brain.

今年3月,美国一名失明患者接受了使用基因编辑工具CRISPR的手术。这是该技术首次用于人体内部。为了恢复视力,医生们在患者的眼睛里注射了含有基因编辑工具的微滴。该患者患有一种罕见的遗传疾病,导致体内无法制造一种将光转换为发给大脑信号所需的蛋白质。

8. Police in Hong Kong make first arrests under controversial new law

8. 香港警方首次根据备受争议的新法律实施逮捕

Less than a day after a contentious new security law went into effect in Hong Kong on June 30, the local police made the first arrests under the measure. Critics say the law will undermine the territory’s autonomy and give the Chinese government more power to tighten restrictions on the press and protests there.

有争议的香港新国安法于6月30日生效不到一天后,当地警方就根据该法逮捕了第一批人。批评人士说,港区国安法将破坏香港的自治,让中央政府有更大的权力对当地媒体和抗议活动加强限制。

9. Telescope’s pictures detail the surface of the sun

9. 望远镜拍摄的照片显示了太阳表面的细节

In January astronomers released the most detailed pictures of the sun to date, taken by the new Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, the world’s largest. The telescope was built in the Hawaiian volcano Haleakala, which appropriately means “house of the sun.”

今年1月,天文学家公布了迄今为止最详细的太阳照片,这些照片是由以“丹尼尔·K·井上”(Daniel K. Inouye)命名的世界上最大的新太阳望远镜拍摄的。该望远镜建在夏威夷的哈雷阿卡拉火山上,火山名的意思是“太阳之家”,恰如其分。

10. German and Israeli fighter jets train together in German airspace

10. 德国和以色列战斗机在德国领空共同训练

In August Germany and Israel held joint military exercises on German soil for the first time — an event underlining the complex tie between two countries that share a deep and painful history. The exercises came at a critical time for Germany’s military, which has been struggling to modernize and deal with concerns that far-right extremist sentiments have infiltrated the ranks of the armed forces.

今年8月,德国和以色列首次在德国领土上举行了联合军事演习,凸显了这两个有着一段深远且痛苦历史的国家之间的复杂关系。对德国军队来说,此次演习恰逢一个关键时刻。德国军队一直在努力实现现代化,也在应对极右翼极端主义情绪已经渗透到军队中的担忧。

11. Hajj is canceled for first time in modern history

11. 麦加朝圣被取消,为近代历史上首次

Saudi Arabia announced in June that pilgrims outside of the country would be barred from traveling to the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Islam’s holiest site, effectively canceling the hajj for what may be the first time in known history. Although war, treacherous travel conditions and previous plagues have affected the hajj , a pilgrimage that has happened since 632, this was the first time that an official travel ban upended the holy ritual.

沙特阿拉伯今年6月宣布,禁止境外朝圣者前往伊斯兰教最神圣的麦加大清真寺,实际上取消了麦加朝圣活动,这可能是已知历史上的第一次。尽管战争、沿途的危险和以前的瘟疫影响过这个始于公元632年的朝圣,但这是该神圣活动首次被官方旅行禁令限制。

12. Black photographer shoots Vanity Fair’s cover

12. 黑人摄影师的作品登上了《名利场》杂志封面

Dario Calmese, who took photographs of the actor Viola Davis for the July-August cover of Vanity Fair, became the first Black photographer to shoot the cover in the magazine’s history, according to its editor. The decision trailed the controversy surrounding Vogue’s August cover photo of Simone Biles, a decorated gymnast, shot by the celebrity photographer Annie Leibovitz. Critics said that the photographs of Ms. Biles were not flattering to her skin tone, suggesting that a Black photographer should have been hired instead of Ms. Leibovitz.

达里奥·卡尔梅塞(Dario Calmese)为《名利场》(Vanity Fair) 7-8月刊封面拍摄的演员维奥拉·戴维斯(Viola Davis)的照片,据杂志编辑说,这让卡尔梅塞成为该杂志历史上首个为封面拍照的黑人摄影师。这一决定是在《Vogue》杂志8月刊封面照的风波后做出的。《Vogue》杂志8月刊封面照是体操运动员西蒙·比尔斯(Simone Biles),由著名摄影师安妮·莱博维茨(Annie Leibovitz)拍摄。批评者说,拜尔斯照片的采光不适宜她的肤色,暗示杂志应该聘一名黑人摄影师而不是莱博维茨来拍照。

13. Cancer discovered in dinosaur bone

13. 恐龙骨骼化石中发现肿瘤

Scientists at the Royal Ontario Museum and McMaster University identified osteosarcoma, a malignant bone cancer, in a specimen of Centrosaurus apertus, a herbivorous horned dinosaur that lived about 76 million years ago. It’s the first confirmed diagnosis of malignant cancer in a dinosaur, according to a paper published in the medical journal Lancet Oncology.

加拿大皇家安大略博物馆(Royal Ontario Museum)和麦克马斯特大学(McMaster University)的科学家在一个尖角龙(Centrosaurus apertus)化石标本中识别出骨肉瘤,这是一种恶性骨癌。据发表在医学杂志《柳叶刀肿瘤学》(Lancet Oncology)上的论文,这是首例确诊的恐龙恶性肿瘤。

14. Balloons deliver internet in Kenya

14. 气球将互联网送到肯尼亚

High-altitude, solar-powered balloons were used to deliver internet service to Kenya, a first for Africa. A subsidiary of Alphabet, the parent company of Google, launched 35 balloons in July to provide a 4G LTE network across most of the central and western parts of the country.

高空太阳能气球首次在非洲被用于向肯尼亚提供互联网服务。今年7月,谷歌母公司Alphabet下属的一家子公司在肯尼亚中西部放了35个气球,让4G LTE网络覆盖了那里的大部分地区。

15. China launches mission to Mars and lands first reusable spacecraft

15. 中国发射火星探测器,首个可重复使用的航天器返回着陆场

The state-owned China Aerospace and Technology Group launched its first solo Mars mission, called Tianwen-1, in July. Tianwen-1’s payload includes a rover, a lander and an orbiter; the probe is expected to land on Mars in early 2021. In September, China’s space agency reported another major achievement: It successfully landed a reusable spacecraft for the first time, using experimental technology.

今年7月,国有企业中国航天科技集团发射了首个火星探测器天问一号。该探测器的有效载荷包括巡视器、着陆器和轨道飞行器,预计将于2021年初在火星着陆。今年9月,中国航天局报告了另一项重大成就:首次发射的一型可重复使用的试验航天器成功返回预定着陆场。

16. Former Mexican military official arrested in the United States on drug charges

16. 墨西哥前军官因毒品指控在美国被逮捕

In October, Gen. Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda, a former defense minister of Mexico, became the first high-ranking Mexican military official taken into custody in the United States on drug-related charges. Authorities arrested General Cienfuegos, who served in the administration of President Enrique Peña Nieto from 2012 to 2018, after he and his family landed in Los Angeles.

今年10月,墨西哥前国防部长萨尔瓦多·西恩富戈斯·加佩达上将(Gen. Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda)成为首名因与毒品有关的指控被美国拘留的墨西哥高级军官。西恩富戈斯和家人在洛杉矶机场着陆后,当局将其逮捕。西恩富戈斯曾于2012年至2018年间在恩里克·培尼亚·涅托(Enrique Pena Nieto)总统的政府中任职。

17. Gold prices top $2,000 per ounce

17. 黄金价格达到每盎司2000美元

With traders looking for safer places to invest amid the uncertainty of the Covid-19 pandemic, gold prices reached a record high in summer 2020, topping out at more than $2,000 per ounce. Other precious metals, such as silver and platinum, have also seen surges in value.

受新冠病毒大流行造成的不确定性影响,交易员们纷纷寻找更安全的投资选择,黄金价格在2020年夏创下历史新高,达到每盎司2000美元以上。白银和铂等其他贵金属的价格也出现飙升。

18. Pontiff says he supports same-sex civil unions

18. 教皇称支持同性民事结合

For the first time in his papacy, Pope Francis indicated support for same-sex civil unions. In an interview for the documentary “Francesco,” which premiered in October at the Rome Film Festival, Francis spoke about how gay people have the right to be in a family and described them as “children of God.” He is the first pontiff to voice support for civil unions.

教皇方济各在任内首次表示支持同性民事结合。方济各为纪录片《弗朗西斯科》(Francesco)今年10月在罗马电影节上的首映接受了采访,他在采访中谈到同性恋者有权利组建家庭,并把他们描述为“上帝的孩子”。他是首位公开表示支持同性民事结合的教皇。

Looking ahead to 2021

展望2021年

India’s first crewed space mission

印度的首次载人航天任务

India plans to send a flight crew into space in December 2021. The project, called Gaganyaan, relies on India’s own technology and will launch three astronauts and a humanoid robot into orbit for a week, according to India’s national space agency.

印度计划于2021年12月将宇航员送入太空。据印度国家航天局称,这个名为“加冈扬”(Gaganyaan)的太空任务用的是印度自己的技术,将把三名宇航员和一个人形机器人送入太空轨道飞行一周。

L.G.B.T.Q. awareness in Scotland’s school curriculum

苏格兰学校课程中的LGBTQ意识

By May 2021, every school in Scotland is expected to include L.G.B.T.Q. history and awareness in its curriculum, the first country to do so. Scotland legalized same-sex marriage in 2014.

预计到2021年5月,苏格兰的每所学校都将把有关LGBTQ历史和认识的内容纳入课程,这是首个这样做的国家。苏格兰已在2014年将同性婚姻合法化。

Robot ship to sail across the Atlantic

自主驾驶航船将横跨大西洋

The Mayflower Autonomous Research Ship was unveiled in September on the 400th anniversary of the original Mayflower’s journey to the New World, and it is set to undergo sea trials in preparation for its maiden voyage in April 2021. It will be the first robot-powered ship to sail across the pond, roughly retracing the wake of its namesake.

今年9月,五月花号抵达新大陆400周年之际,“五月花号自主驾驶航船”首次出现在公众面前,它将进行海上试验,为2021年4月的首航做准备。这将是第一艘由机器人驾驶的横跨大西洋的船,将大致沿着同名船的航迹航行。

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