When it comes to criticizing the nation’s most elite universities, the Trump administration has had a busy year.


In recent months, it has accused Yale of discriminating against white and Asian-American applicants and opposed Harvard’s affirmative action policy. It threatened to force international students to leave the country if their coursework was entirely online — a policy that would have disproportionately affected Harvard and other elite research universities. And last week, it began a civil rights investigation of Princeton, based on a letter from the university’s president that expressed concern about systemic racism at the school, and vowed to combat it.


To anyone who has listened closely to President Trump, himself an Ivy League graduate, the actions might not have seemed surprising. Over the years, he has depicted many American colleges as engines of “radical left indoctrination” and “propaganda,” questioned their patriotism and called for a review of their tax-exempt status.


But to many university leaders, the attacks represent something more ominous: the election-year weaponization of federal agencies — principally the Education Department and the Justice Department — to energize conservative voters who have long viewed the nation’s elite universities as liberal bastions.


“It’s seven weeks until the election, and this is a political attempt by the Trump administration to play to his base by going after an elite educational institution,” Erwin Chemerinsky, a constitutional law scholar and dean of the University of California, Berkeley, law school, said of the investigation of alleged racism at Princeton. “If you look at the demographics, college-educated voters overwhelmingly vote Democratic, and his base is overwhelmingly white.”

“距离大选还有七周,抨击精英教育机构就是特朗普政府迎合其基层选民的政治尝试,”宪法学者、加州大学伯克利分校法学院院长埃尔温·舍梅林斯基(Erwin Chemerinsky)在谈到对普林斯顿涉嫌种族主义的调查时表示。“如果你看下人口统计数据,受过大学教育的选民绝大多数都支持民主党,而他的票仓绝大多数是白人。”

Trump administration officials do not deny that they have confronted top universities on issues ranging from admissions to free speech to sexual assault. But they deny that it is all about election-year politics, saying the administration is mainly concerned with protecting the rights of students.


The Justice Department, for instance, has said that it is questioning affirmative action admission policies at Harvard because “unconstitutionally partitioning Americans into racial and ethnic blocs harms all involved by fostering stereotypes, bitterness, and division among the American people.”


“President Trump shares the concerns of the American public that many colleges and universities are failing in their public mission to expand economic opportunity and provide students a relevant, timely, and affordable education,” Judd Deere, a White House spokesman, said in an email.

“特朗普总统和美国公众一样担心,许多学院和大学没有履行他们的公共使命,即扩大经济机会,为学生提供相关、及时且负担得起的教育,”白宫发言人贾德·迪尔(Judd Deere)在一封电邮中表示。

“The president believes these failures have gone unchecked for far too long and only gotten progressively worse at the expense of the next generation.”


Mr. Trump’s criticism of elite universities follows in a Republican tradition that dates back at least to President Richard Nixon. Mr. Nixon, who was offered a scholarship to Harvard but stayed closer to home to attend Whittier College in California, accused elite universities of fostering anti-Americanism among their professors and students.

特朗普总统对精英大学的批评遵循了至少可以追溯到理查德·尼克松(Richard Nixon)总统时期的共和党传统。尼克松获得了哈佛的奖学金,但留在了离家较近的加州惠蒂尔学院(Whittier College)就读,并指责精英大学在教授和学生中助长了反美情绪。

“Richard Nixon made a concerted effort to penalize institutions of higher learning, especially the elite institutions he considered to be tolerant of the antiwar movement,” said Timothy Naftali, director of the undergraduate public policy major at New York University and former director of the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, Calif.

“理查德·尼克松用全面的行动来惩罚高等教育机构,特别是那些被他认为对反战运动持宽容态度的精英机构,”纽约大学公共政策本科专业主任、理查德·尼克松图书馆与博物馆创始馆长蒂莫西·纳夫塔尔(Timothy Naftal)说。

“He instructed the Office of Management and Budget to find a way to cut federal funding to those schools. He focused on M.I.T., but he didn’t like the Ivies, and he wasn’t happy with the University of California.”

“他指示管理与预算办公室(Office of Management and Budget)想方设法削减对这些学校的联邦资助。他专注于对麻省理工学院动手,但他不喜欢常春藤盟校,也对加州大学不满。”

But the difference, Mr. Naftali said, was that Mr. Nixon’s own appointees and good-government Republicans stepped in and stopped him. “Nixon believed in government; Trump doesn’t,” Mr. Naftali said.


For most of his presidency, Mr. Trump — who has often bragged of his undergraduate degree from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School — did not focus as much on education as on more signature issues like curbing immigration or cutting federal regulations. But he has taken on education issues when they fit with his broader agenda.

在担任总统的大部分时间里,特朗普——他经常吹嘘自己拥有宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院(University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School)本科学位——关注的重点并不是教育,而是遏制移民或削减联邦法规等更有代表性的议题。但当教育议题符合他更广泛的议程时,他会采取行动。

For example, the president’s antagonism toward China has spilled over into the academic world, with many college presidents fearing an exodus of Chinese students, who often pay full, nonresident tuition.


“We opened our arms to Chinese citizens, only to see the Chinese Communist Party exploit our free and open society,” Michael R. Pompeo, the secretary of state, said in July in a speech at the Nixon library. “China sent propagandists into our press conferences, our research centers, our high schools, our colleges, and even into our P.T.A. meetings.”

“我们向中国公民张开双臂,换来的却是中共利用我们自由开放的社会,”国务卿迈克尔·R·庞皮欧(Michael R. Pompeo)7月在尼克松图书馆的演讲中表示。“中国派出宣传人员进入我们的记者会、我们的研究中心、我们的高中、我们的大学,甚至还有我们家长教师协会(P.T.A.)的会议。”

In February, the Education Department notified Yale and Harvard that it was investigating whether the two universities had failed to report at least $375 million from countries including China, Iran, Russia, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. The Education Department sought records related to two Chinese telecommunications companies, Huawei and ZTE, that the Trump administration has labeled security risks or sanctions violators. Republican lawmakers have also raised alarms over U.S. schools’ relationships with China, in particular its government influence in American academia.


In April, Mr. Trump demanded that Harvard pay back $8.6 million in relief money from a coronavirus stimulus package that the president himself had signed the month before, saying that with a $41 billion endowment, Harvard did not need taxpayer relief. Harvard turned down the money, despite financial challenges created by the pandemic, as did Princeton, Stanford and Yale. Mr. Trump and his education secretary, Betsy DeVos, did not criticize the $15 million allocated to Liberty University, whose former leader, Jerry Falwell Jr., is a key Trump ally and boasted in February that its $1.6 billion endowment was ballooning and “outpacing Ivy League schools.”

4月,特朗普要求哈佛归还860万美元的救济金,这笔资金来自总统自己一个月前批准的冠状病毒经济刺激计划,他说哈佛有了410亿美元的捐款,不再需要纳税人的救助。尽管大流行带来了财务困难,但哈佛拒绝了这笔钱,普林斯顿、斯坦福和耶鲁也是如此。特朗普和他的教育部长贝茜·德沃斯(Betsy DeVos)没有批评拨给利伯缇大学(Liberty University)的1500万美元,该校前校长小杰里·福尔韦尔(Jerry Falwell Jr.)是特朗普的重要盟友,2月时还在夸耀该校的16亿捐款正在迅速膨胀,并且“超过了常春藤校”。

Mr. Trump’s attacks on what he criticizes as left-wing ideology in American education have also strayed into secondary school curriculum. On Thursday, the president denounced what he called “left-wing indoctrination” in the country’s classrooms, and schools that teach “America is a wicked and racist nation.”


Mr. Trump said he would create a new “1776 Commission” to help “restore patriotic education to our schools.” It is unclear what this commission will do because the federal government does not control curriculum in local school systems.


The administration also threatened at one point this summer to cut federal funds to public schools that did not open during the pandemic. And this is not the first time Mr. Trump has attacked Princeton. In June, after Princeton removed Woodrow Wilson’s name from its public policy school, citing his segregationist policies, Mr. Trump tweeted, “Can anyone believe that Princeton just dropped the name of Woodrow Wilson from their highly respected policy center.”

今年夏天,对于那些没有在疫情期间开放的公立学校,特朗普政府还一度威胁要削减联邦经费。此外,这不是特朗普第一次攻击普林斯顿大学了。6月,在普林斯顿大学以其种族隔离主义政策为由,将伍德罗·威尔逊(Woodrow Wilson)的名字从其公共政策学院院名中移除后,特朗普发推说,“有人能相信吗?普林斯顿大学刚刚把他们大名鼎鼎的政策中心的伍德罗·威尔逊冠名去掉了。”

Mr. Chemerinsky said that Mr. Trump’s use of the Justice Department for political gain was exceptional. “I cannot think of any president who has ever used the Justice Department as an extension of his political effort as much as Trump has done,” he said. “Even Nixon, with his Justice Department, wasn’t to this extent.”


That said, the Trump administration is not alone in using executive power to shape the behavior of higher education institutions. The Obama administration’s Department of Education issued “guidance” that forced schools to be more attentive to allegations of sexual assault on campus, and that many schools considered heavy-handed.


The Trump administration changed course, writing a new rule to give more protection to the accused in such cases. “Too many students have lost access to their education because their school inadequately responded when a student filed a complaint of sexual harassment or sexual assault,” said Ms. DeVos as she announced new regulation in May.


It was speech that triggered the investigation of Princeton last week, specifically a letter from Princeton’s president, Christopher Eisgruber, to the university community that acknowledged “systemic racism” at Princeton and in society, and outlining some steps to correct it. Mr. Eisgruber’s aides later described the letter as an attempt at “grappling honestly” with the nation’s legacy of systemic racism.

引发上周普林斯顿大学调查的言论,出自校长克里斯托弗·埃斯格鲁伯(Christopher Eisgruber)的一封致大学社区的公开信,在其中承认普林斯顿及社会上均存在“系统性种族歧视”,并且列出了一些改正措施。埃斯格鲁伯的助手后来将该信描述为“诚实对待”美国系统性种族歧视传统的一个努力。

Many universities had issued similar letters over the summer, addressing concerns about racism raised in the aftermath of the death of George Floyd and other Black people at the hands of the police.

在乔治·弗洛伊德(George Floyd)及其他由于警方造成的黑人死亡后,许多大学都在夏天发出类似公开信,以解决相关事件引发的种族主义问题。

Pedro Ribeiro, spokesman for the American Association of Universities, which represents the nation’s 65 leading research universities, called the investigation a “stunt” that could hardly be taken seriously, although Princeton was compelled to respond and to spend time and money on legal work and producing documents sought by the government.

尽管普林斯顿大学已经被迫做出回应,花费大量时间和资金用于法务工作以及出示政府索取的文件,但代表全美65家顶级研究型大学的美国大专院校联合会(American Association of Universities)发言人佩德罗·里贝罗(Pedro Ribeiro)仍称这次调查是个“噱头”,不能当真。

Mr. Eisgruber did venture a little further than most into the vein of mea culpa, to his peril. “Racist assumptions from the past also remain embedded in structures of the University itself,” he wrote.


Such language caught the attention of Robert King, the assistant secretary of education, who signed the letter requesting records that would document discrimination at Princeton.

这样的言辞引起了教育部助理部长罗伯特·金(Robert King)的注意,正是他签署了要求普林斯顿交出该校歧视记录的信件。

“While we can’t comment on an open investigation, we would point you to the (Princeton) President’s letter that clearly states that there are current racist practices at Princeton,” an Education Department spokesperson said in an email on Friday. “The department is clearly under obligation to investigate.”


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