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纽约时报双语:定义2020年的20个短语

定义2020年的20个短语
The 20 Phrases That Defined 2020
TIM HERRERA
2020年12月22日
纽约时报双语:定义2020年的20个短语

Happy Blursday! Now quit doomscrolling, grab a quarantini and please keep social distancing.

Happy Blursday!(不管今天周几都要快乐哦!)别再doomscrolling(末日刷新)了,来一杯quarantini(隔离马天尼),敬请保持社交距离(social distancing)。

Imagine explaining that sentence to yourself in December 2019.

想象一下如何向2019年的12月的自己解释上面这句话。

This year has given us scores of new words, phrases, expressions and metaphors. Some are new to the popular vernacular, like quarantine pod, while others are just newly relevant after long histories as specialized terms, like contact tracing. Some are technical, like super-spreader event and aerosol droplets; some are packed with cultural meaning, like systemic racism and panic shopping; and others still, like maskne and walktails, are just goofy little turns of phrase that let us find a drop of joy in this disastrous year. But all of them serve a purpose in these most uncertain times.

这一年给了我们许多新词、短语、表达方式和隐喻。有些是流行语中的新词,例如quarantine pod(隔离荚);另一些是由来已久的专门术语,直到最近才被人熟知——如contact tracing(密接追踪)。有一些词是技术性的,例如super-spreader event(超级传播者事件)和aerosl droplets(气溶胶);有些充满文化意义,例如systemic racism(系统性种族主义)和panic shopping(恐慌采购);而其他词,例如maskne(口罩痘痘)和walktails(街尾酒),则是在灾难重重的一年里博人一笑的搞怪短语。但所有这些词语在当今最不确定的时期都产生了某种作用。

“What’s fascinating about this year is that so many of these words have gone from being words that we had maybe heard of and we might have used very occasionally, but they’ve now gone to basically inform almost every single conversation that we have,” said Fiona McPherson, a new words editor at the Oxford English Dictionary. In her more than 20 years with the O.E.D., she said, “I can’t think of anything that has been similar.”

“今年非常有意思的是,这些词中有很多已经不再是我们可能听说、偶尔一用的词了,它们几乎已经充斥在我们所有的对话里,”在《牛津英语词典》(Oxford English Dictionary)任职超过20年的新词编辑菲奥娜·麦克弗森(Fiona McPherson)说。她说,“我想不出任何类似的情况。”

The sheer breadth of words that were popularized this year — everything from medical jargon to social media-friendly shorthand — was particularly unusual, Ms. McPherson said. And for the first time since 2004, when Oxford Languages, the publisher of the O.E.D., started choosing a Word of the Year, it declined to pick just one.

麦克弗森说,今年流行词汇的范围之广尤其不寻常——从医学术语到社交媒体适用的简写。牛津语言(Oxford Languages)——《牛津英语词典》的出版者——自2004年开始每年选择年度单词,而今年它拒绝只选一个。

We couldn’t pick one, either. But here are the 20 words and phrases we think capture what it felt like to be alive in this unprecedented year of our quar, 2020.

我们也选不出来。但我们认为以下20个单词捕捉到了在史无前例的2020年里活着的感觉。

Black Lives Matter

Black Lives Matter:黑人的命也是命

We asked Patrisse Cullors, co-founder and executive director of Black Lives Matter Global Network Foundation, to share her experience with the movement in 2020.

我们邀请黑人的命也是命全球网络基金会(Black Lives Matter Global Network Foundation)联合创始人兼执行董事帕特里塞·卡勒斯(Patrisse Cullors)分享她在2020年开展这项运动的经验。

Every new year brings curiosity and excitement. There is often a collective commitment from people to shed the toxic habits we developed the year before, while pushing to unlock the door of possibilities for the year to come. But not a single human being in the entire world would have predicted what came in 2020. The year where Black communities were ravaged by the twin pandemics: state violence and Covid-19. A year in which Black people and our allies rallied around the globe to reckon with 400 years of racial terror.

每个新年的到来,都会带来好奇与兴奋。人们往往会异口同声地承诺,要改掉我们在前一年养成的恶习,同时努力为来年打开通往各种可能性的大门。但全世界没有一个人会预测到2020年会是这个样子。这一年,黑人群体遭受了双重大流行的摧残:国家暴力和新冠病毒。在这一年里,黑人和我们的盟友在世界各地举行集会,共同应对400年来的种族恐怖。

These three words, Black Lives Matter, resurrected yet again to help remind the world that our fight for racial justice must happen through mass protests, electoral justice and the fight to defund and ultimately abolish the state of policing, and imprisonment as we know it. 2020 was not a year we all could have prepared for but it was a year that pushed us to become stronger, demand more from our elected officials and fight for the lives of Black people like we have never done before.

再次提出“黑人的命也是命”这几个字,是为了提醒世人,争取种族正义的斗争必须通过大规模抗议、选举正义,以及拦截资金并最终废除我们所知道的那种警察和囚禁制度。2020年让我们许多人措手不及,但这一年也让我们变得更加强大,对我们选出来的官员提出了更多要求,并以前所未见之势为黑人的生命而战。

Blursday

Blursday:日子过得稀里糊涂,不知道今天是周几

The passage of time itself became seemingly unreliable this year, as some days felt like a week while some months flew by in an instant. This quickly became a go-to Twitter meme as the combination of a relentless news cycle mixed with the droll, repetitive reality of life in lockdown, giving existence in 2020 a Groundhog Day-esque quality. Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York made this a recurring bit in his daily coronavirus briefings, and our friends at The Washington Post even launched a newsletter called “What Day Is It?”

今年,时间的流逝似乎变得不可靠了,有些日子感觉像一个星期那么长,而有些月份又在一瞬间过去。这个词很快就在Twitter上爆红,它将无穷尽的新闻周期和隔离状态下滑稽、重复的生活现实混合在一起,给2020年的存在带来一种土拨鼠日一般的质感。纽约州州长安德鲁·M·库默(Andrew M.Cuomo)在他的每日例行新冠病毒吹风会上反复提到这一点,我们在《华盛顿邮报》的朋友甚至推出了一份时事通讯,名为《What Day Is It?》(今天周几来着?)。

Circuit breaker

Circuit breaker:熔断机制

“Markets Spiral as Globe Shudders Over Virus.” So declared a blaring headline atop page A1 of The New York Times on March 10, the day following a drop in the stock market so steep that a so-called “circuit breaker” — an automatic halt in trading after a major decline — kicked in. It was the first since 1997, and over the next nine days it would happen three more times. Some $5 trillion in stock market wealth disappeared by March 10.

《随着全球陷入病毒恐慌,股市出现螺旋式下跌》——这是3月10日,《纽约时报》头版上的醒目标题。此前一天,股市暴跌,触动所谓的熔断机制,也就是在大幅下跌后自动停止交易。这是1997年以来的首次,在接下来的9天时间里,它又发生了三次。截至3月10日,股市蒸发了约5万亿美元。

For wealthier Americans, the crisis was short-lived: The markets began to bounce back as early as May following the reopening of businesses across the country. That recovery steadily continued through the summer, and, after a few major drops in the fall, the markets hit all-time highs in November.

对于那些不差钱的美国人来说,这场危机是短暂的:随着全国各地的企业重新开放,股市在5月就开始出现反弹。整个夏季,这种复苏都在稳步延续,秋季经历了几次大幅下跌之后,市场在11月创下新高。

But that’s just half the story — or, more precisely, about 10 percent of it, which is the percentage of households that own more than 87 percent of all stock as of earlier this year.

但这只是故事的一半,或者更准确地说,是大约10%,即截至今年早些时候,在全部股票市场持有87%以上份额的美国家庭比例。

For everyone else, the economic picture is much more grim: There are still some 10 million fewer jobs than there were in February; employers last month added far fewer jobs than would be needed for a speedy recovery; some jobs may just never come back; and officials have warned that the pandemic may make the already-crippling inequality in the U.S. even worse.

对于其他人来说,经济形势就严峻多了:与2月相比,工作岗位仍然少了1000万个;上个月新增就业岗位远低于经济快速复苏所需的数量;有些岗位可能永远不会再有了;官员们警告,这场大流行可能会使美国本已严重恶化的不平等现象雪上加霜。

Related word: K-shaped recovery

相关词汇:K-shaped recovery(K型复苏)

Contact tracing

Contact tracing:密接追踪

Whom did you see and when did you see them? That’s the essence of this term, long familiar to anyone in public health but new to the public consciousness. In the early days of the pandemic, South Korea gained attention for its aggressive — and highly successful — contact tracing program, while the United States continues to shrug at the concept.

你见过谁?是什么时候见到他们的?这就是这个术语的本质,公共卫生工作者早已熟悉这个术语,但对大众来说还是个新词。在疫情初期,韩国因其积极且非常成功的密接追踪程序而受到关注,但美国继续对这个概念不屑一顾。

Doomscrolling

Doomscrolling:末日刷新

The catchall, platform-agnostic term for consuming bad news or information you know is detrimental to your mental health and wellness yet being unable to stop. “I think the doomscrolling thing validated a lot of people’s experiences,” said the journalist Karen Ho, a.k.a. “Doomscrolling Reminder Lady,” who helped popularize the term with her eight-months-running nightly Twitter reminders to put the phone away and get to sleep. “It’s easy to feel like, ‘Am I overreacting to everything going on?’” she said. “At night people would scroll and be like, ‘Oh, things are really bad, and if they’re not bad for me they’re bad for other people’ and feel really helpless.”

这是个笼统的、与平台无关的术语,指的是你明知道阅读大量糟糕的新闻或信息对心理健康有害,但却无法停止。“我认为刷手机上的末日新闻是许多人的经历,”又被称为“末日刷新提醒女士”的凯伦·何(音)是一名记者,她帮助推广了这个词,8个月来,她每晚都在Twitter上提醒大家把手机收起来睡觉去。“人们很容易产生这样的想法,‘我对发生的一切反应过度了吗?’”她说。“人们在晚上滚动浏览,然后觉得,‘哦,情况真的很糟糕,就算对我来说不算糟糕,对其他人来说也很糟糕’,他们就会感到非常无助。”

Related word: Joyscrolling

相关词汇:joyscrolling(快乐刷新)

Essential workers

Essential workers:必要行业工作者

By early April, much of the country was under stay-at-home orders, marooned inside and safely out of the virus’s reach … unless, of course, you happened to work at a grocery store, a gas station, an airport, a hotel, a food processing plant, a restaurant, a convenience store, the U.S.P.S., a child-care center, a farm, a funeral home, a bike repair shop, an auto body shop, for a delivery app or any of the dozens of other types of businesses that were given permission to remain open during lockdowns.

到4月初,这个国家的大多数人都在指挥之下待在家中,被困在室内,安全地远离病毒侵袭……当然,除非你刚好在杂货店、加油站、机场、酒店、食品加工厂、餐厅、便利店、美国邮政服务(USPS)、儿童保育中心、农场、殡仪馆、自行车修理店、汽车车身车间、送货应用或是其他任何在封锁期间被允许继续营业的数十类企业工作。

“We are not essential. We are sacrificial,” Sujatha Gidla, an M.T.A. conductor in New York, wrote in an essay in May.

“我们不是必要的。我们是可牺牲的。”纽约大都会运输署(MTAS)的乘务员苏亚塔·吉德拉(Sujatha Gidla)今年5月在一篇文章中写道。

Flatten the curve

Flatten the curve:压平曲线

It was back to middle-school math: To prevent hospitals from getting overwhelmed with Covid-19 patients, the country needed to reduce the overall number of virus cases and stop the exponential increase in infections.

这又回到了初中数学问题:为了防止医院因新冠患者过多而不堪重负,全国需要减少确诊总数,并阻止感染的指数级增长。

After nationwide lockdowns, we were generally successful at flattening the curve of the first surge: Confirmed cases peaked at around 33,000 in one day in mid-April and slowly declined until mid-June. Then the summer surge hit, causing that previously flat line to shoot upward for a month until reaching a second, higher peak in mid-July of about 75,000 cases in a day. After a seasonal low of about 25,000 cases on one day in early September, cases have been on the rise ever since, reaching a recent high of about 230,000 in one day earlier this month.

在全国封锁之后,我们基本成功压平了第一波高峰曲线:确诊病例在4月中旬达到单日约3.3万例的峰值,6月中旬之前一直缓慢下降。然后,夏季感染高峰到来,导致此前被压平的曲线连续一个月上升,直到7月中旬达到第二个高峰,单日约7.5万例。在9月初单日约2.5万例的季节性低点之后,确诊数一直在上升,本月初达到了单日约23万的近期峰值。

Related words: Disinfect; “Wear a mask”; 6 feet; ventilator

相关词汇:disinfect(消毒)、“wear a mask”(“佩戴口罩”)、6 feet(6英尺)、ventilator(呼吸机)

Frontline workers

Frontline workers:一线工作者

Danielle Ofri is a primary care doctor at Bellevue Hospital in New York and the author of “When We Do Harm: A Doctor Confronts Medical Error.” Dr. Ofri gave me my coronavirius test when I became the first Times employee to test positive, and I turned out to be her first positive case. I’ve invited her to share her experience as a frontline worker during the pandemic.

丹妮尔·欧弗里(Danielle Ofri)是纽约贝尔维尤医院(Bellevue Hospital)的初级保健医生,著有《当我们造成伤害——一名面对医疗失误的医生》(When We Do Harm: a doctor confronting ts Medical Error)一书。欧弗里为我做了新冠检测,当时我成了时报第一个阳性员工,结果也成了她的第一个阳性病例。我邀请她分享了在疫情期间作为一线工作者的经历。

New York City’s Covid-19 surge in the spring made our hospital feel like a jigsaw puzzle whose pieces were frantically re-scrambled each day to accommodate yet another set of unprecedented circumstances. On the other hand, it also felt oddly ordinary: In health care, you go to work every day, and your mandate is whatever your patients bring that day. Which is why the “hero” appellation felt so awkward to most of us. Nurses, doctors, technicians, aides and housekeepers surely have put in heroic hours during the pandemic, placing themselves and their families at risk. But we do it every day as patients grapple with the vulnerability that illness engenders. We do it every day when they need to unload their worries and their grief.

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