双语白皮书:全面建成小康社会:中国人权事业发展的光辉篇章 PDF下载

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全面建成小康社会:中国人权事业发展的光辉篇章
Moderate Prosperity in All Respects: Another Milestone Achieved in China’s Human Rights

中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2021年8月
The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
August 2021

 

目录
Contents

前言
Foreword

一、全面建成小康社会开辟人权事业新境界
I. Achieving Moderate Prosperity and Advancing Human Rights

二、消除绝对贫困实现基本生活水准权
II. Ending Extreme Poverty and Securing the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living

三、以发展促人权增进经济社会文化权利
III. Boosting Human Rights with Development and Securing Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

四、实行良法善治维护公民权利政治权利
IV. Protecting Civil and Political Rights with Law and Governance

五、促进社会公平保障特定群体权益
V. Promoting Social Equity and Protecting the Rights of Special Groups

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Foreword

人权是人类文明进步的成果和标志,尊重和保障人权是现代文明的基本精神,也是中国共产党人的不懈追求。中国共产党是为人民谋幸福的政党。中国共产党的100年,是争取人权、尊重人权、保障人权、发展人权的100年,极大提高了中国人权文明水平,丰富发展了人类文明多样性。
Human rights are an achievement of humanity and a symbol of progress. Respect for and protection of human rights is a basic principle of modern civilization, and the unwavering goal of the Chinese Communists. The Communist Party of China (CPC) seeks happiness for the people. Its 100-year history records its efforts in fighting for, respecting, protecting, and developing human rights. Owing to its efforts, human rights in China have greatly improved, adding diversity to human civilization.

全面建成小康社会是中国共产党和中国政府为增进人民福祉、提高全体人民人权保障水平、实现国家现代化而实施的一项重大国家发展战略。2021年7月1日,中共中央总书记、国家主席习近平在北京代表党和人民庄严宣告,“我们实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会,历史性地解决了绝对贫困问题,正在意气风发向着全面建成社会主义现代化强国的第二个百年奋斗目标迈进”。这是中国人权进程中一个激动人心的时刻、一个载入史册的时刻、一个继往开来的时刻。
Building China into a moderately prosperous society in all respects is a major strategy designed by the Party and the government to improve the wellbeing of the people, better protect human rights, and achieve modernization of the country. On July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, solemnly declared in Beijing on behalf of the Party and the people that we had realized the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This means we have brought about a historic resolution to the problem of extreme poverty in China, and we are now marching with confidence towards the goal of building China into a great modern socialist country in all respects. It is an exciting moment for human rights in China, a moment that will go down in history, and a moment from which we will forge ahead into the future.

全面建成小康社会是中国共产党不忘初心、牢记使命的真实写照。在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民奋力决胜全面小康,最终实现了从贫困到温饱到总体小康直到全面小康的历史跨越。
The realization of all-round moderate prosperity shows that the CPC has stayed true to its original aspiration and founding mission. Under the CPC leadership, the Chinese people worked hard in the final stage towards this goal, and finally completed the historic transformation from poverty to secure access to food and clothing, to a decent life, and finally to moderate prosperity.

全面小康是经济富裕、政治民主、文化繁荣、社会公平、生态良好的小康,是城乡区域均衡发展、惠及全体人民的小康,是切实尊重和全面保障人权的小康。中国全面建成小康社会,夯实了人权基础,丰富了人权内涵,拓宽了人权视野,意味着人权的全面发展和全民共享,谱写了中国人权事业的新篇章,创造了人类尊重和保障人权的奇迹。
Moderate prosperity in China is evident in all respects: a buoyant economy, political democracy, a flourishing culture, social equity, and healthy ecosystems; balanced development between urban and rural areas to the benefit of all the people; and high respect for and comprehensive protection of human rights. China’s realization of moderate prosperity serves as a solid foundation for human rights, and takes a deeper and broader perspective on this cause. It represents comprehensive progress in ensuring universal human rights in China, and a new contribution to the world’s human rights cause.

 

一、全面建成小康社会开辟人权事业新境界
I. Achieving Moderate Prosperity and Advancing Human Rights

在中国,“小康”是一个古老的词汇,指免于劳苦和匮乏,生活水平处于温饱与富裕之间的一种较为殷实幸福的状态。享有安宁、祥和与幸福的生活是人们自古以来的美好愿景。改革开放之初,中国根据自身具体国情提出建设小康社会的目标,蕴含着关注和增进民生福祉、保障和促进人权的丰富内涵。全面建成小康社会开辟了全面保障人权的新时代。
Xiaokang, an ancient term in China, refers to a status of moderate prosperity whereby people are neither rich nor poor but free from want and toil. It has been the people’s wish since ancient times to live a life of peace, stability and happiness. In the early period of reform and opening up, based on its own national conditions, China articulated the goal of building a moderately prosperous society, which demonstrated its concern for improving the people’s wellbeing, and its commitment to protecting and promoting human rights. The realization of all-round moderate prosperity ushers in a new era for the protection of human rights in all respects.

 

1.全面建成小康社会的光辉历程
1. The Journey to Moderate Prosperity

建设小康社会是20世纪80年代以来,中国共产党领导中国实现国家富强、民族复兴、人民幸福的宏伟战略。基于对中国发展实际的分析和判断,中国共产党提出坚持以经济建设为中心,通过经济发展带动整个社会进步。从那时起,“小康”“全面建设小康社会”“全面建成小康社会”成为中国共产党和中国政府的阶段性奋斗目标。
Building a moderately prosperous society has been a grand strategy since the 1980s, designed to realize national prosperity and rejuvenation, and ensure the people’s wellbeing in China under the leadership of the CPC. Based on its analysis and judgment of China’s realities at that time, the CPC decided to focus on economic development to drive social progress on all fronts. Since then, the CPC and the Chinese government have made it a key goal to build a moderately prosperous society by stages.

1979年12月,邓小平提出建设“小康之家”的设想,创造性地借用“小康”这个富有中国传统文化特色的概念来表述“中国式的现代化”的重要内容与目标。1982年中共十二大报告明确,从1981年到20世纪末的二十年,力争使全国工农业的年总产值翻两番,解决人民的温饱问题。1992年中共十四大报告指出,11亿人民的温饱问题已经基本解决,正在向小康迈进。
In December 1979, Deng Xiaoping presented the vision of building a xiaokang society. The reference to xiaokang grounded the goal of China’s modernization firmly in traditional Chinese culture. The report to the 12th CPC National Congress in 1982 defined the goal to quadruple the annual gross output value of industry and agriculture and secure the people’s basic needs in two decades from 1981 to the end of the 20th century. The report to the 14th CPC National Congress in 1992 stated that the country had ensured the basic needs of 1.1 billion Chinese people and was moving on towards xiaokang.

2002年中共十六大报告宣告,“人民生活总体上实现了由温饱到小康的历史性跨越”,并进一步提出“全面建设小康社会”的目标:在本世纪头二十年,集中力量,全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会,使经济更加发展、民主更加健全、科教更加进步、文化更加繁荣、社会更加和谐、人民生活更加殷实。
The report to the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002 declared that on the whole the people had made a historic leap from having only adequate food and clothing to leading a life of moderate prosperity, and set forth the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects: In the first two decades of the 21st century, China would build a society of moderate prosperity of a higher standard in an all-round way to the benefit of over one billion people; China would further develop the economy, improve democracy, advance science and education, promote cultural prosperity, foster social harmony, and upgrade the quality of life for the people.

2012年中共十八大报告进一步提出“确保到2020年实现全面建成小康社会宏伟目标”,实现经济持续健康发展,人民民主不断扩大,人权得到切实尊重和保障,文化软实力显著增强,人民生活水平全面提高,资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设取得重大进展。2017年中共十九大报告提出决胜全面建成小康社会,要求紧扣中国社会主要矛盾变化,统筹推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设,攻坚克难,使全面建成小康社会得到人民认可、经得起历史检验。
The report to the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 laid out the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. According to this report, China’s economy would maintain sustained and sound development, people’s democracy would be expanded, and human rights would be fully respected and protected. The country’s cultural soft power would be improved significantly. Living standards would be raised. Major progress would be made in building a resource-conserving and environmentally friendly society. The report to the 19th CPC National Congress in 2017 pointed out that to succeed in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China must strive against all difficulties to promote coordinated progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental fields in light of the current principal challenge facing the country, so that the moderately prosperous society it builds earns the people’s approval and stands the test of time.

2021年7月1日,中共中央总书记、国家主席习近平在北京代表党和人民庄严宣告,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会。
On July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, declared on behalf of the Party and the people that China had realized the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

小康社会的全面建成,标志着中华民族伟大复兴中国梦迈出关键一步,实现了中国共产党和中国政府向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺。
This is a critical step towards the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, fulfilling the historic commitment of the CPC and the Chinese government to the people.

 

2.全面建成小康社会的人权内涵
2. Steps Taken to Protect Human Rights

全面建成小康社会的进程,也是中国人权事业全方位发展的进程,始终体现和包含着解放人、保障人、发展人的战略、目标和任务。
The route to all-round moderate prosperity coincides with comprehensive progress in human rights in China, which involves all the steps necessary to liberate, protect and develop the individual.

全面建成小康社会首先要保障生存权。生存是享有一切人权的基础。小康社会建设将解决温饱问题、保障生存权作为首要目标,不断满足人民日益增长的物质文化需要。在全面建成小康社会进程中,人民生活质量显著提高,衣食住行用都有较大改善,生存权保障水平稳步提升。
Prioritizing the right to subsistence. The right to subsistence comes first among all human rights. A moderately prosperous society takes it as the primary goal to secure adequate food and clothing and protect the right to subsistence, and takes further steps to meet the growing material and cultural needs of the people. Visible progress in securing basic needs and remarkable improvements in living standards are the natural results of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

全面建成小康社会必然要实现各类人权协调发展。全面小康强调保障物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明建设成果惠及人民。坚持人权相互依存、不可分割的基本原则,既保护经济社会文化权利,又保障公民人身权、人格权、财产权和民主政治权利,全方位增进各类人权和基本自由。
Realizing the coordinated development of all human rights. A moderately prosperous society emphasizes economic, political, cultural, social, and eco-environmental progress to benefit the people. It upholds the basic principle of interdependence and indivisibility of human rights. To advance all human rights and fundamental freedoms in all respects, it protects economic, social, and cultural rights, political and democratic rights, personal rights, personality rights, and property rights.

全面建成小康社会就是要促进所有人的人权。全面小康,本质上是全民共享人权的小康。在全面建成小康社会的历史进程中,中国构建起机会公平、规则公平和权利公平的社会公平体系,切实保障人民平等参与发展、共同促进发展、共享发展成果。中国共产党和中国政府坚持人权主体的普遍性,确保全面小康路上不让一个人掉队;坚持共同富裕方针,通过一部分人先富带动全体人民共富,让发展成果平等惠及全民,实现分配正义;坚持法律面前人人平等和不歧视原则,确保全体公民不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,一律、无差别地享有人权,受到同等的尊重;坚持保护弱势群体,以坚定决心、精准思路、有力措施,举全社会之力,向绝对贫困发起总攻,重点保障贫困地区、贫困人口的基本权利。
Advancing the rights of all people. All-round moderate prosperity means all the people enjoy human rights. In the process of creating this society, China has built a system guaranteeing social equity with equal opportunities, equal rules and equal rights, in which all can participate in, contribute to, and enjoy development.
The CPC and the Chinese government uphold the universality of human rights and ensure that no one is left behind on the way towards prosperity. Holding fast to the principle of common prosperity, they allowed some people to create wealth as a first step to bringing prosperity for all. They have ensured just distribution in order that the fruits of development benefit all people equally. They adhere to the principles of equality before the law and non-discrimination, making sure all citizens are entitled to equal rights and respect without discrimination of any kind, such as ethnicity, race, gender, occupation, birth, religion, education, property, or length of residence. Committed to protecting the basic rights of vulnerable groups, particularly poor people in impoverished areas, they have eliminated extreme poverty by applying strong determination, clear thinking, effective measures, and all resources available.

 

3.全面建成小康社会的人权意义
3. Reinforced Groundwork for Human Rights

人权是善治之本。中国全面建成小康社会,始终坚持尊重人权、保障人权、促进人权的价值遵循,将增加人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感作为出发点和落脚点。
Human rights are the foundation of good governance. China has always been committed to respecting, protecting and advancing human rights, and increasing the people’s sense of fulfillment, happiness and security. The route to moderate prosperity has reinforced the groundwork for human rights.

全面建成小康社会为人权保障与发展奠定了坚实物质基础。在全面建成小康社会进程中,中国坚定不移贯彻新发展理念,保持经济长期快速增长,稳定解决了十几亿人的温饱问题;破除城乡二元结构,改革收入分配格局,人民收入水平不断提升;开展精准扶贫、精准脱贫,决胜脱贫攻坚,加强对各类弱势群体的保护;基本建立覆盖全民的社会保障体系,人民健康和医疗卫生水平大幅提高;建设完善公共文化服务体系,全面实现城乡免费义务教育,构建高效泛在的信息网络;加快生态文明建设,实施环境保护基本国策,污染防治力度加大,生态环境明显改善。全面建成小康社会,经济、社会、文化、环境权利更加公平可及,各类主体在经济、政治、社会和文化等领域的平等参与和平等发展,更加切实和顺畅便捷。
Providing a solid material foundation for protecting and developing human rights. In the process of building a moderately prosperous society, China has maintained its commitment to the new development philosophy. The economy has achieved long-term rapid growth and the basic needs of over one billion people have been met. The urban-rural divide has been resolved and the income distribution profile has been reformed to improve living standards. Targeted poverty reduction and eradication has achieved success, strengthening protection of all vulnerable groups. A social security system covering all the people is in place, with better medical services and a higher overall level of health. Public cultural services have improved. Free compulsory education has been realized in both urban and rural areas. An efficient and ubiquitous information network has been set up. With accelerated efforts to build an eco-civilization, a basic national policy of environmental protection has been implemented, measures to prevent and control pollution have intensified, and the eco-environment has notably improved. In a moderately prosperous society, economic, political, social, cultural and environmental rights are more equitable and more easily accessible to all people to ensure equal rights to participation and development in all fields.

全面建成小康社会为人权保障与发展奠定了坚实民主政治基础。坚持中国共产党领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,党的领导体制机制更加完善,人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度、基层群众自治制度稳步发展。社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、法治化、程序化建设不断推进,民主形式更加丰富,民主渠道更加畅通,共建共享的社会治理格局初步构建,人民当家作主落实到国家政治生活和社会生活之中,公民权利更有保障,民主政治权利更加充分。
Providing a solid political and democratic foundation for protecting and developing human rights. In achieving moderate prosperity, China has ensured that the Party’s leadership, the people’s position as masters of the country and law-based governance form an indivisible whole. The institutions and mechanisms by which the Party exercises leadership have improved. The system of people’s congresses, the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of community-level self-governance have developed steadily.
The institutions, standards and procedures of law-based socialist democracy have improved, with more diverse forms of democracy and wider democratic channels. A social governance model based on collaboration and common interests has taken shape and the principle of the people as masters of the country is put into practice in China’s political and social fields. Civil, political and democratic rights are better protected.

 

全面建成小康社会推动了人权法治保障持续加强。“国家尊重和保障人权”载入宪法,成为治国理政重要原则。全面推进依法治国上升为国家战略,保证宪法全面实施的体制机制不断健全,科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法深入推进,法治国家、法治政府、法治社会建设相互促进,中国特色社会主义法治体系日益完善,全社会法治观念明显增强。行政体制改革、国家监察体制改革、司法体制改革取得实效,权力运行制约和监督体系建设有效实施。人权保障法治化水平不断提升。
Strengthening legal protection for human rights. The Constitution stipulates that the state shall respect and protect human rights, which is an important principle in state governance. Advancing the rule of law has been made a national strategy. Systems and mechanisms to ensure the enforcement of the Constitution are improving. Further progress has been made to ensure sound lawmaking, strict law enforcement, impartial administration of justice, and the observance of law by all. Our efforts to build a country, government, and society based on the rule of law are mutually reinforcing. The system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics has been steadily improved, and public awareness of the rule of law has risen markedly.
Good progress has been made in reforming the system of government administration, the national supervision system, and the judicial system. Effective measures have been taken to develop other systems to strengthen checks and oversight over the exercise of power. The role of the rule of law in protecting human rights has been enhanced.

 

全面建成小康社会培育了全社会尊重和保障人权的文化。全面建成小康社会,推动了中华优秀传统文化的创造性转化、创新性发展,社会主义核心价值观深入人心,公共文化服务水平不断提高,文化事业和文化产业蓬勃发展。全面建成小康社会,更好构筑了中国精神、中国价值、中国力量,文化自信得到彰显,国家文化软实力和中华文化影响力大幅提升。全面建成小康社会的过程,也是每一个人对自身价值、人格尊严和主体地位认识不断提升的过程,促进了尊重和保障人权文化氛围的形成。
Fostering a culture to respect and protect human rights throughout society. In building a moderately prosperous society, China has promoted the creative evolution of fine traditional culture, and rooted the core socialist values among the people. Public cultural services have been improved, with cultural programs and industries flourishing. Endeavors to achieve moderate prosperity have fostered a Chinese spirit, Chinese values, and Chinese strength, and cultivated stronger cultural confidence. China’s cultural soft power and the international influence of Chinese culture have increased significantly. The process of achieving moderate prosperity helps everyone improve the understanding of their own value, personal dignity and principal status, fostering a culture that respects and protects human rights.

二、消除绝对贫困实现基本生活水准权
II. Ending Extreme Poverty and Securing the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living

贫困是实现人权的最大障碍。中国共产党和中国政府高度关注农村贫困问题,持续推进扶贫开发事业,在消除贫困道路上不断取得新突破。中共十八大以来,中国政府把贫困人口全部脱贫作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和标志性指标,组织实施了人类历史上规模空前、力度最大、惠及人口最多的脱贫攻坚战,完成了消除绝对贫困的艰巨任务。
Poverty is the biggest obstacle to human rights. The CPC and the Chinese government have directed extra attention to rural poverty, furthering development-driven poverty alleviation, and achieving a series of important breakthroughs. The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 made ending extreme poverty China’s benchmark task in achieving moderate prosperity in all respects. By eliminating extreme poverty China has won the biggest and toughest battle against poverty in human history, to the benefit of the largest number of people.

根据中国农村居民每人每年生活水平在2300元以下(2010年不变价)的现行贫困标准,经过中共十八大以来8年持续奋斗,到2020年底,中国现行标准下9899万农村贫困人口全部脱贫,832个贫困县全部摘帽,12.8万个贫困村全部出列,区域性整体贫困得到解决。改革开放以来,按照现行贫困标准计算,中国7.7亿农村贫困人口摆脱贫困;按照世界银行国际贫困标准,中国减贫人口占同期全球减贫人口70%以上。中国提前10年实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》减贫目标,为全球减贫事业发展和人类发展进步作出了重大贡献。
By the end of 2020, by China’s current poverty threshold of RMB2,300 per person per year (based on the 2010 price index), all of the 99 million rural poor, as well as the 832 counties and 128,000 villages classified as poor, had emerged from poverty, and regional poverty was eliminated.
Since the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, 770 million rural poor living below China’s poverty line have been raised from poverty; against the World Bank’s international poverty line, the number of people lifted out of poverty in China accounts for more than 70 percent of the world total during the same period. China realized its poverty reduction goal from the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule, representing a significant contribution to global poverty reduction and human progress.

 

1.贫困人口食物权得到稳定保障
1. Securing the Right to Food for the Poor

中国政府通过发展农业生产奠定免于饥饿的坚实基础。建设现代农业产业技术体系,提升农业综合生产能力,实现农产品产量稳定增长,解决食物匮乏和营养不良问题。全国粮食总产量由1949年的11318万吨提高到2020年的66949万吨。目前,全国人均粮食占有量超过474.4公斤,高于人均400公斤的国际粮食安全标准线。通过增加收入保障贫困人口粮食获取。建立精准扶贫、精准脱贫机制。贫困地区农村居民人均可支配收入,从2013年的6079元增长到2020年的12588元,2013年至2020年年均增长11.6%。贫困人口粮谷类食物摄入量稳定增加,“不愁吃”问题基本解决,重点贫困群体健康营养状况明显改善,免于饥饿的基本权利得以切实保障。通过营养改善计划保障贫困儿童食物供给。实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,为集中连片特殊困难地区6-24月龄婴幼儿每天免费提供1包辅食营养补充品,截至2020年累计1120万儿童受益。实施农村义务教育学生营养改善计划,为学生提供营养膳食补助,覆盖农村义务教育阶段学校13.2万所,每年惠及3800余万名学生。
China bases its food security on solid agricultural foundations. It has built a modern agrotechnology system, improved comprehensive agricultural productivity, maintained the steady growth of agricultural output, and resolved the problems of insufficient food and undernutrition. China’s total grain output increased from 113 million tons in 1949 to 669 million tons in 2020. China’s per capita share of grain now exceeds 474 kg, which is comfortably above the international food security threshold of 400 kg.
China has ensured that all the poor have access to food by increasing their incomes through targeted poverty alleviation. The per capita disposable income of rural residents in poor areas increased from RMB6,079 in 2013 to RMB12,588 in 2020, an average annual increase of 11.6 percent. The amount of grain they consumed increased steadily. Now, the problem of food shortages has been resolved. Key impoverished groups have much better nutrition, and the right to be free from hunger is guaranteed.
China ensures a proper food supply for poor children through nutrition programs. The Chinese government has implemented the Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas, providing children aged six months to two years in contiguous poverty-stricken areas with free food supplements – one pack per child per day. By 2020, this program had benefited 11.2 million children. There is also a Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Students in Compulsory Education, providing them with nutrition allowances. This program covers 132,000 schools and benefits over 38 million students every year.

 

2.贫困人口饮水安全得到有力保障
2. Ensuring Safe Drinking Water for the Poor

2005年以来,中国政府投入大量财政资金实施农村饮水安全工程,到2015年末共解决了5.2亿农村居民和4700多万农村学校师生的饮水安全问题。农村饮水安全问题基本得到解决。“十三五”规划期间,又实施农村饮水安全巩固提升工程,累计解决2889万贫困人口饮水安全问题,3.82亿农村人口受益。贫困地区自来水普及率从2015年的70%提高到2020年的83%。各地通过实施水源置换、净化处理、易地搬迁等措施,累计解决952万农村人口饮水型氟超标问题。
Since 2005, the Chinese government has made an enormous investment in its Safe Drinking Water Program for Rural Areas. By the end of 2015, the program had benefited 520 million rural residents, including 47 million teachers and students. During the 13th Five-year Plan period (2016-2020), it launched an upgraded program, which improved access to safe drinking water for 382 million rural people, including 28.9 million rural poor. Tap water coverage in poor areas increased from 70 percent in 2015 to 83 percent in 2020. Through replacement of water sources, water purification, and population resettlement, China has resolved the problem of excess fluoride in drinking water for 9.52 million rural people.

 

3.贫困地区义务教育得到充分保障
3. Providing Compulsory Education in Poor Areas

深入实施《教育脱贫攻坚“十三五”规划》和《深度贫困地区教育脱贫攻坚实施方案(2018-2020年)》,实现义务教育有保障,阻断贫困代际传递。大力改善贫困地区义务教育学校办学条件,持续提升义务教育学校办学水平和教育质量。全国中小学(含教学点)互联网接入率达到100%,拥有多媒体教室的学校比例达到95.3%。实施农村义务教育学校教师特设岗位计划,吸引更多优秀高校毕业生到农村贫困地区任教。连片特困地区乡村教师生活补助惠及8万多所学校、127万名教师,累计选派19万名教师到边远贫困地区、边疆民族地区支教。建立健全学生资助体系,不断提高学生资助精准度,对义务教育阶段建档立卡家庭经济困难学生全部给予生活费补助。全国每年约1.5亿城乡义务教育学生免除杂费并获得免费教科书,约2500万家庭经济困难学生获得生活补助,约1400万进城务工人员随迁子女实现相关教育经费可携带。农村贫困家庭子女义务教育阶段辍学问题实现动态清零,2020年贫困县九年义务教育巩固率达到94.8%。
To guarantee compulsory education and prevent poverty from passing down from one generation to the next, China launched the Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Education During the 13th Five-year Plan period and the Implementation Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Education in Severely Impoverished Areas (2018-2020).
A great effort has been invested in improving school conditions and education quality for compulsory education in poor areas. Now, all primary and secondary schools in China have access to the internet, and 95.3 percent have multimedia classrooms.
The Program for Special Teaching Posts in Rural Compulsory Education has been implemented to attract more university graduates to teach in poor rural areas. Living subsidies are offered to rural teachers in contiguous poverty-stricken areas, which benefit nearly 1.3 million teachers from more than 80,000 schools. A total of 190,000 teachers have been dispatched to remote and poor areas and to border areas with large ethnic minority populations.
The system of financial aid to students has been improved to provide targeted assistance. Students from registered poor households all receive living subsidies during their compulsory education. Every year, about 150 million students are given exemption from school fees and textbook fees; about 25 million students in economic difficulty are provided with living subsidies; and about 14 million students from migrant worker families have had their compulsory education subsidies transferred to their urban schools. All students from poor rural households have access to compulsory education, and dropouts are all identified and helped back to school in a timely manner. In 2020, the compulsory education completion rate in poor counties reached 94.8 percent.

 

4.贫困人口基本医疗得到有效保障
4. Providing Essential Medical Services for the Poor

实施健康扶贫工程,采取综合措施,保障农村贫困人口享有基本医疗卫生服务,着力提高农村贫困人口医疗保障水平,缓解因病致贫因病返贫问题。持续完善县乡村三级医疗卫生服务体系,除符合基本医疗有保障标准、可不设立的外,实现每个乡镇和每个行政村都有一个卫生院和卫生室并配备合格医生,每个贫困县至少有1家公立医院;98%的贫困县至少有一家二级以上医院;贫困群众常见病、慢性病基本能够就近获得及时诊治。把贫困人口全部纳入基本医疗保险、大病保险、医疗救助三重制度保障范围,贫困人口基本医疗保险参保率稳定在99.9%以上,基本实现应保尽保。实施大病集中救治、慢病签约管理、重病兜底保障等措施,农村贫困人口大病专项救治病种数量增加到30种,包括儿童先心病、儿童白血病、胃癌、食道癌、结肠癌、重性精神疾病等。2000多万贫困患者得到分类救治,曾经被病魔困扰的家庭挺起了生活的脊梁。
China launched the Health Care Program for Poverty Alleviation, taking comprehensive measures to guarantee access to essential medical services for the rural poor, and to prevent them from falling back into poverty due to ill health.
Continuous efforts have been made to improve the three-tiered medical services system at village, township and county levels. Every village has a clinic, and every town or township has a health center served by licensed doctors, except for villages, towns and townships that already satisfy the requirements for basic medical services. Each of the counties formerly classified as poor has at least one public hospital, and 98 percent of them have at least one Grade II hospital. The aim is to ensure the poor can have common ailments and chronic diseases treated at nearby medical institutions in a timely manner.
All poor populations have access to basic medical insurance, serious illness insurance, and medical assistance. Basic medical insurance coverage of the poor remains almost 100 percent. Measures have been taken to ensure medical treatment to those with serious illnesses, contracted health care to those with chronic illnesses, and guaranteed medical services for those with critical illnesses. Now, 30 illnesses are covered by special funds for serious illnesses of the rural poor, including congenital heart defects in children, leukemia in children, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, and serious mental illnesses. The funds have supported treatment for more than 20 million poor patients, relieving their families of the financial burden incurred by medical expenses.

 

5.贫困人口住房安全得到切实保障
5. Ensuring Safe Housing for the Poor

通过农村危房改造、建设集体公租房等措施,帮助数千万贫困农民告别原来的破旧泥草房、土坯房等危房,住上安全房,农房抗震防灾能力和居住舒适度得到显著提升,农村贫困人口住有所居和基本住房安全得到切实保障。其中,2008年至2020年,中央财政累计投入2842.5亿元补助资金,支持2762.2万户建档立卡贫困户、低保户、农村分散供养特困人员、贫困残疾人家庭等贫困群众改造危房,帮助8000多万农村贫困人口住上了安全住房。
To guarantee safe housing for the rural poor, China has launched programs such as the renovation of dilapidated rural homes and construction of rural public rental housing. Tens of millions of people have had their dilapidated mud-and-straw dwellings replaced by safe homes which are more comfortable and offer better protection against earthquakes. The right to housing and basic housing safety of the rural poor were fundamentally guaranteed.
Between 2008 and 2020, the central government allocated a total of RMB284 billion for the renovation of 27.6 million dilapidated homes, targeting registered poor households, households entitled to subsistence allowances, severely impoverished rural residents cared for at their homes with government support, and impoverished families of individuals with disabilities. These funds have helped to guarantee access to safe housing for 80 million rural poor.

 

三、以发展促人权增进经济社会文化权利
III. Boosting Human Rights with Development and Securing Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights

在全面建成小康社会进程中,中国坚持以发展促人权,推动全面落实经济社会权利、文化教育权利以及生态环境权利,人民生活更加富足安康、和谐幸福。
In building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China is committed to boosting human rights with development and securing economic, social, cultural, educational and environmental rights. As a result, its people now lead more prosperous, secure, harmonious and happier lives.

 

1.疫情防控奉行生命至上
1. Putting Life First in Fighting Covid-19

新冠肺炎疫情是百年以来人类经历的最严重的全球公共卫生突发事件。中国坚持人民至上、生命至上,不惜付出巨大经济社会代价,在疫情暴发之初就采取最全面最严格最有力的防控措施,有力扭转了疫情局势,维护人民生命安全和身体健康。
The Covid-19 pandemic is the most serious global health emergency in a century. Facing this crisis, China has put the people’s interests first – nothing is more precious than people’s lives. It has adopted thorough, rigorous and effective prevention and control measures, regardless of huge economic and social costs. It has turned the tide in the battle against the virus and safeguarded people’s lives and health.

疫情暴发初期,中国举全国之力实施了规模空前的生命大救援,从全国调集最优秀的医生、最先进的设备、最急需的资源千里驰援武汉市和湖北省。2020年1月24日至3月8日,全国共调集346支国家医疗队、4.26万名医务人员、900多名公共卫生人员驰援湖北;紧急调集4万名建设者和几千台机械设备,分别仅用十多天时间就建成了有1000张病床的火神山医院、有1600张病床的雷神山医院和共有1.4万余张床位的16座方舱医院。湖北省共成功治愈3000余位80岁以上、7位百岁以上患者,多位重症老年患者都是从死亡线上抢救回来,充分体现了对每一个生命的尊重和保护。
In the early days of the epidemic, China mobilized the whole nation and carried out a campaign to save lives on an unprecedented scale. It pooled the best doctors, the most advanced equipment, and critical supplies from across the country to aid Hubei Province, especially its capital city of Wuhan.
From January 24 to March 8, 2020, it rallied 346 national medical teams, consisting of 42,600 medical workers and more than 900 public health professionals to the immediate aid of Hubei; it mobilized 40,000 construction workers and a huge array of machinery and equipment to build the 1,000-bed Huoshenshan Hospital in 10 days, the 1,600-bed Leishenshan Hospital in 12 days, and 16 temporary treatment centers providing more than 14,000 beds in just over 10 days. Across Hubei, more than 3,000 patients over the age of 80, including seven centenarians, were cured, with many of them brought back to life from the verge of death. This fully demonstrated that the state respects and protects each and every life.

 

全力以赴救治患者,不遗漏每一个感染者,不放弃每一位病患者,及时出台救治费用保障政策,确保患者不因费用问题影响就医、医疗机构不因费用问题影响收治,最大程度提高了治愈率,降低了病亡率。坚持常态化精准防控和局部应急处置有机结合,不断巩固疫情防控成果。大力推进新冠疫苗接种,加快构筑免疫屏障。
China did everything possible to treat all patients. The government promptly adopted policies to subsidize medical expenses for Covid-19 to ensure that patients could receive timely treatment and that medical institutions could proceed smoothly with admission and treatment. They proved to be very effective in raising the cure rate and lowering the fatality rate.
China has combined ongoing targeted control and local emergency response, and consolidated the gains in its fight against Covid-19. It is making every effort to vaccinate its people and moving faster to form nationwide immunity.

 

2.卫生健康服务公平可及
2. Ensuring Equitable and Accessible Health Services

没有全民健康,就没有全面小康。中国把人民健康放在优先发展的战略位置,实施健康中国战略,推进健康中国行动,推行普惠高效的基本公共卫生服务,不断提升医疗卫生服务的公平性、可及性、便利性和可负担性。
Prosperity for all is impossible without health for all. China gives top priority to improving its people’s health. It is carrying out the Healthy China initiative and has worked out action plans to ensure that basic public health services are inclusive and efficient, and to make health and medical services more equitable, accessible, convenient and affordable.

公共卫生服务体系基本形成。全国医疗卫生机构(包含医院、基层医疗机构、专业公共卫生机构)由1978年的17万个大幅增长到2020年的102.3万个。包括疾病预防控制、健康教育、妇幼保健、精神卫生防治、应急救治、采供血、卫生监督等各种专业机构在内的公共卫生服务体系基本形成。公共卫生服务范围不断扩大。城乡居民免费享受的基本公共卫生服务项目由2010年的9类扩展到2020年的12类,项目内容覆盖居民生命的全过程。持续实施脑卒中、心血管疾病高危筛查、口腔疾病综合干预、癌症早诊早治等项目,慢性病防控效果显著增强。主要传染性疾病得到有效遏制。通过提升免疫规划疫苗接种率,中国在2000年消灭了脊髓灰质炎,在2012年消除了新生儿破伤风,在2020年消除了疟疾,2021年被世界卫生组织认证为无疟疾国家。艾滋病整体疫情控制在低流行水平,结核病成功治疗率保持在90%以上。
A basic public health services system is in place. The number of medical and health institutions in China, including hospitals, grassroots medical institutions and specialized public health institutions, increased from 170,000 in 1978 to over 1 million in 2020. A public health services system consisting of various specialized institutions has taken shape, providing disease prevention and control, health education, maternal and child health care, mental health care, emergency response, blood collection and supply, health inspection, and other services.
The range of public health services is expanding. Free basic public health services increased from nine categories in 2010 to 12 categories in 2020, spanning the entire life cycle. The state promotes many preventive services, such as screening for stroke and cardiovascular disease risk, comprehensive oral disease prevention and intervention, and early screening and treatment of cancer. China’s capacity to prevent and control chronic illnesses has improved remarkably. Major infectious diseases have been effectively contained. By raising the vaccination rates under the national immunization program, China eradicated polio in 2000 and neonatal tetanus in 2012. It eliminated malaria in 2020 and was awarded a malaria-free certification from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2021. The spread of HIV remains at a low level, and the cure rate of tuberculosis is maintained at over 90 percent.

 

医疗卫生服务体系不断健全。中国致力于建立优质高效的整合型医疗卫生服务体系,改善医疗卫生资源的可及性和便利性,提高医疗服务质量和效率,居民就医感受明显改善。2020年,全国医疗卫生机构床位总数达911万张,其中医院713万张,乡镇卫生院139万张;卫生技术人员总数达1066万人,其中执业医师和执业助理医师408万人,注册护士471万人;全年总诊疗人次78.2亿人次,孕产妇产前检查率达96.8%,住院分娩率为99.9%。合理配置医疗资源,构建“基层首诊、双向转诊、急慢分治、上下联动”的分级诊疗服务体系。取消以药补医机制,建立基本药物制度,各级各类公立医疗机构全面配备优先使用基本药物,实行零差率销售。
China’s medical services system has been improving. The country is committed to building an integrated medical services system of high quality and efficiency and improving the availability and accessibility of medical resources. As a result, public satisfaction with medical services is rising notably.
In 2020, the number of beds in medical institutions across the country reached 9.1 million, including 7.1 million beds in hospitals and 1.4 million in township-level health centers. There were 10.7 million health professionals, including 4.1 million licensed doctors and assistant doctors and 4.7 million registered nurses. That year recorded 7.8 billion medical visits. The rate of prenatal care was 96.8 percent, and the rate of hospital deliveries reached 99.9 percent.
China provides a reasonable distribution of medical resources. It is building a tiered treatment system featuring primary treatment at the community level, flexible inter-hospital patient transfer, differentiated treatment for acute and chronic illnesses, and coordination across different levels. It has put an end to the practice of hospitals subsidizing their medical services with drug sales and established a system of essential medicines. All government-funded medical institutions across the country are supplied with essential medicines, which are guaranteed to meet priority health care needs and sold with zero markup.

 

人民健康指标稳步改善。居民主要健康指标总体上优于中高收入国家平均水平。中国人均预期寿命从1981年的67.8岁增长到2019年的77.3岁。婴儿死亡率从改革开放初期的37.6‰下降到2020年的5.4‰。孕产妇死亡率从2002年的43.2/10万下降到2020年的16.9/10万,被世界卫生组织誉为“发展中国家的典范”“妇幼健康高绩效国家”。基本医疗卫生与健康促进法通过并实施,为全方位全周期维护人民健康、实施健康中国战略提供法治保障。随着经济社会的发展,国家不断引导居民形成健康的生活方式。城乡居民在工作之余锻炼身体、关注饮食健康已经成为普遍的社会风气。
Public health indicators are steadily improving. The core health indicators of the Chinese have generally surpassed the average level of middle- and high-income countries. The average life expectancy in China rose from 67.8 years in 1981 to 77.3 years in 2019. Infant mortality declined from 37.6 per 1,000 in the early days of reform and opening up to 5.4 per 1,000 in 2020; and maternal mortality dropped from 43.2 per 100,000 in 2002 to 16.9 per 100,000 in 2020. In recognition of its achievements, China has been hailed by the WHO as a role model for developing countries and a fast-track country in improving maternal and child health.
The Law on the Promotion of Basic Medical and Health Care has been adopted and implemented, providing a legal guarantee for comprehensive health care for the full life cycle and for the Healthy China initiative. With steady social and economic improvement, the state devotes itself to helping citizens develop healthy lifestyles. A social atmosphere has taken shape where both urban and rural residents do regular exercise in their spare time and pay attention to a healthy diet.

 

3.生活质量显著提高
3. Upgrading the Quality of Life

居民收入水平持续提升。中国经济长期持续稳定增长,人均国内生产总值从1978年的385元增至2020年的72000元。2020年,全国居民人均可支配收入达到32189元。居民消费结构日益优化。2020年全国居民恩格尔系数为30.2%,比1978年降低33.7个百分点。基本居住条件显著改善。城镇居民人均住房建筑面积从1978年的4.2平方米增长到2019年的39.8平方米;农村居民人均住房建筑面积从1978年的8.1平方米增长到2019年的48.9平方米。城市人均公园绿地面积从1981年的1.5平方米增长到2019年的14.36平方米。实施城镇保障性安居工程,帮助约2亿困难群众改善了住房条件。交通基础网络日益完善,人民出行更加安全便利。截至2020年,全国铁路运营里程达14.6万公里,其中高速铁路运营里程3.8万公里。公路总里程达519.81万公里,其中高速公路里程16.1万公里。城市轨道交通运营里程达7354.7公里。信息化生活品质大幅提升。中国政府大力实施新型基础设施建设,让人民群众享受更多的信息化发展成果。2020年,全国移动电话普及率达113.9部/百人;互联网普及率达70.4%,其中农村地区互联网普及率为55.9%。截至2021年6月,全国已建设开通5G基站84.7万个。互联网在线购物等消费新业态蓬勃发展。2020年,全国网络购物用户规模达7.82亿,占网民整体的79.1%;全国网络零售额11.76万亿元,比2019年增长10.9%。
Incomes continue to rise. For four decades, China’s economy has been growing steadily. From 1978 to 2020, the country’s per capita GDP increased from RMB385 to RMB72,000. In 2020, the average per capita disposable income was RMB32,189. Consumption patterns are improving. In 2020, the Engel coefficient was 30.2 percent, down 33.7 percentage points from 1978. Housing conditions have improved markedly. In 2019, the per capita floor space of urban residents was 39.8 sq m, up from 4.2 sq m in 1978, and that of rural residents was 48.9 sq m, up from 8.1 sq m in 1978. Urban park green space per capita increased from 1.5 sq m in 1981 to 14.36 sq m in 2019. Construction projects have been launched to provide affordable housing to urban residents, helping nearly 200 million poor people improve their housing conditions.
China’s transport infrastructure network has been improving steadily, resulting in more convenient and safer public transport. By the end of 2020, the country’s rail length had grown to 146,000 km, and high-speed rail had reached 38,000 km; road length had increased to 5.2 million km, including 161,000 km of expressways; urban rail transit had reached 7,355 km.
The availability of IT applications has improved greatly. The Chinese government makes great efforts to develop new types of infrastructure to ensure that the people benefit more from the use of information technology. In 2020, every 100 people had 113.9 mobile phones; internet usage was 70.4 percent nationwide and 55.9 percent in rural areas. By June 2021, 847,000 5G base stations had been built and put into operation across the country. New business forms represented by online shopping are thriving. In 2020, there were 782 million online shoppers, accounting for 79.1 percent of all internet users, and nationwide online retail sales reached RMB11.8 trillion, up 10.9 percent from 2019.

 

4.就业更加充分
4. Maximizing Employment

中国政府坚持实施就业优先战略和积极的就业政策,推动“大众创业、万众创新”,突出强调“要优先稳就业保民生”,致力实现充分就业、体面就业、和谐就业的美好愿景。建立起覆盖省、市、县、街道(乡镇)、社区(村)的五级公共就业服务网络体系。截至2020年,全国共有人力资源服务机构4.58万家,全年为2.9亿人次劳动者提供了就业、择业和流动服务;全国就业人数为75064万人,其中城镇就业人数为46271万人。2019年,中国城镇新增就业1352万人,连续7年保持在1300万人以上。在新冠肺炎疫情带来的不利影响下,2020年中国城镇新增就业仍达到1186万人。民营企业提供了80%以上城镇就业岗位。新产业新业态新模式不断涌现,创造了大量兼职就业、灵活就业岗位。劳动者工资收入快速增长,城镇非私营单位就业人员年均工资从1978年的615元增加到2019年的90501元。
China advocates an employment-first strategy and a proactive employment policy. It encourages widespread entrepreneurship and innovation, and gives top priority to ensuring stability in employment and people’s wellbeing. It is committed to realizing fuller employment, with decent jobs for all and harmonious labor relations. It has established a five-tiered employment services network covering the province, city, county, sub-district/township, and community/village levels.
As of 2020, there were 45,800 employment services agencies in China, helping 290 million people find temporary or long-term work; China’s employed population reached 750 million, of whom 463 million were in urban areas. In 2019, the growth in new jobs in urban areas was 13.5 million, and the figure had remained above 13 million for seven consecutive years. In 2020, despite the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, there were 11.9 million new jobs in urban areas.
Private enterprises provide more than 80 percent of urban jobs. New industries and new business forms and models continue to emerge, creating a large number of part-time or flexible jobs. Workers’ incomes are increasing rapidly. The average annual salary of employees in urban non-private units rose from RMB615 in 1978 to RMB90,501 in 2019.

 

5.公共文化服务不断优化
5. Enhancing Public Cultural Services

经过40多年的发展,覆盖城乡的公共文化服务体系不断完善,文艺创作持续繁荣,文化体育事业蓬勃发展。2020年,全国共有公共图书馆3212个,博物馆5788家,文化馆3321个,乡镇综合文化站32825个,村级综合性文化服务中心575384个。全年出版各类报纸277亿份,各类期刊20亿册,图书101亿册(张),人均图书拥有量达7.24册(张)。全国广播节目综合人口覆盖率为99.4%,电视节目综合人口覆盖率为99.6%。全年生产电视剧202部7476集,电视动画片116688分钟,故事影片531部,科教、纪录、动画和特种影片119部。实施广播电视户户通工程、农村电影放映工程、农家书屋工程等文化惠民工程,促进基本公共文化服务标准化、均等化,保障人民群众基本文化权益。公共数字文化工程累计建设可供全国共享的数字资源约1274TB,数字图书馆推广工程已覆盖全国39家省级图书馆、376家市级图书馆,服务辐射2760个县级图书馆。建设完善公共体育场、全民健身中心、体育公园、健身步道、足球场、多功能健身场地等多种类型的全民健身场地设施,倡导全民健身。2020年,全国共有体育场地371.3万个,体育场地面积31亿平方米,人均体育场地面积2.2平方米,行政村“农民体育健身工程”基本实现全覆盖,经常参加体育锻炼人数比例达37.2%。
Over the past four decades, China’s public cultural services have continued to improve. Art, literature, culture and sports are thriving.
In 2020, China had 3,212 public libraries, 5,788 museums, 3,321 cultural centers, 32,825 township-level cultural stations, and 575,384 village-level cultural service centers. In publishing, 27.7 billion copies of newspapers, 2 billion copies of magazines, and 10.1 billion copies of books were issued, a per capita average of 7.2 books.
In 2020, the coverage of radio programs was 99.4 percent, and the coverage of TV programs 99.6 percent. The country produced 202 TV series, TV animations with a total length of 116,688 minutes, 531 feature films, and 119 popular science films, documentaries, animated cartoons and special films. Public-interest cultural initiatives to ensure radio and television coverage for all households, bring cinema to rural communities, and set up rural libraries were implemented to provide consistent and equal access to basic public cultural services and to protect the people’s basic cultural rights and interests.
In 2020, a total of 1,274 terabytes of public cultural resources were created through projects under the public digital cultural services program. Among them, the digital library project covered 39 provincial-level and 376 city-level libraries, with services radiating into 2,760 county-level libraries.
The state is promoting a national fitness program. Sports venues of various types have been built or renovated, including public stadiums, fitness centers, sports parks, running trails, soccer fields, and multifunctional fitness facilities. In 2020, there were 3.7 million sports venues in China, with a total floor area of 3.1 billion sq m (2.2 sq m per capita); 37.2 percent of the population took part in regular exercise; the rural fitness program covered almost all villages.

 

6.受教育权利得到更好保障
6. Guaranteeing the Right to Education

中国坚持教育公益性原则,把教育公平作为国家基本教育政策,受教育权保障水平显著提升。全国学前三年毛入园率从2010年的56.6%提高到2020年的85.2%,实现了学前教育基本普及。2020年,全国九年义务教育巩固率为95.2%,义务教育普及程度达到世界高收入国家的平均水平。残疾儿童义务教育入学率达95%以上。建立覆盖从学前教育到研究生教育的全学段学生资助政策体系,不让一个孩子因家庭经济困难而辍学的目标基本实现。倾斜支持农村教育、中西部地区教育,全国96.8%的县实现义务教育基本均衡发展,更多农村和中西部地区孩子享受到更好更公平的教育。全国高中阶段教育毛入学率从2000年的42.8%提高到2020年的91.2%,超过中等偏上收入国家平均水平;高等教育毛入学率从2000年的12.5%提高到2020年的54.4%,高等教育在学总规模超过4000万人,建成世界上最大规模的高等教育体系。
China runs education for the public good and regards equal access to education as a basic national education policy. It has made significant progress in protecting the right to education. The gross enrollment rate in three-year preschool education rose to 85.2 percent in 2020 from 56.6 percent in 2010. In 2020, the completion rate of compulsory education was 95.2 percent, and the availability of compulsory education reached the average level of high-income countries. More than 95 percent of children with disabilities received compulsory education.
The state has established a policy system for subsidizing students with financial difficulties, which offers full coverage from preschool to postgraduate education. As a result, the goal of ensuring that no student drops out of school due to financial difficulties has now been largely achieved. The state gives more support to education in rural areas and central and western regions. Thanks to this, 96.8 percent of the counties nationwide have realized balanced compulsory education, and more children in rural areas and central and western regions enjoy better access to quality education.
The gross enrollment rate in senior secondary education increased from 42.8 percent in 2000 to 91.2 percent in 2020, higher than the average of upper-middle-income countries. The gross enrollment rate in higher education rose from 12.5 percent in 2000 to 54.4 percent in 2020. China has built the world’s largest higher education system, with over 40 million students on campus.

 

7.社会保障体系覆盖全民
7. Expanding Social Security to Cover All Citizens

社会保障是保障和改善民生、维护社会公平、增进人民福祉的基本制度保障。2020年,全国参加职工基本医疗保险人数3.4亿人,参加城乡居民基本医疗保险人数10.2亿人,参保总人数超过13.6亿人;参加生育保险人数23567万人。截至2021年6月,全国参加城镇职工基本养老保险人数46709万人,参加城乡居民基本养老保险人数54735万人;参加失业保险人数22229万人;参加工伤保险人数27399万人,其中参加工伤保险的农民工9082万人;参加生育保险人数23546万人。国家还通过城乡居民大病保险等补充保险,在基本医保制度之外对大病患者高额医疗费用予以保障。构筑以最低生活保障、特困人员救助供养、受灾人员救助、医疗救助、教育救助、住房救助、就业救助、临时救助等为主体,社会力量参与为补充,应救尽救的综合性社会救助体系。截至2020年,全国共有805万人获得城市最低生活保障,3621万人获得农村最低生活保障,31万人获得城市特困人员救助供养,447万人获得农村特困人员救助供养,全年临时救助1341万人次,全国共实施医疗救助18608万人次,支出资金546.8亿元。为保障受疫情影响困难群众基本生活,2020年为困难群众发放价格临时补贴资金218亿元,惠及4亿人次;受疫情影响,困难群众有244万人新纳入低保,有254万人次获得临时救助。
Social security is a basic institutional guarantee for safeguarding and improving people’s lives, ensuring social equity and enhancing their sense of wellbeing.
In 2020, 340 million people were covered by basic medical insurance for urban workers, and 1.02 billion by basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents – a total of 1.36 billion. As of June 2021, basic old-age insurance for urban workers covered 467 million people, basic old-age insurance for rural and non-working urban residents covered 547 million, and unemployment insurance covered 222 million. Work-related injury insurance covered 274 million, 90.8 million of whom were migrant workers. Childbirth insurance covered more than 235 million people. In addition, the state has established a serious illness insurance covering both urban and rural residents, which is a supplement to the basic medical insurance systems, reimbursing the victims of serious illnesses for their high medical expenses.
China has established a comprehensive and inclusive social assistance system whose main provisions are subsistence allowances, assistance and support for severely impoverished people, disaster relief, medical assistance, education assistance, housing assistance, employment assistance, and temporary assistance, supplemented by public participation. At the end of 2020, 8 million people lived on urban subsistence allowances, 36.2 million on rural subsistence allowances, 310,000 on assistance and support for urban residents in extreme difficulty, and 4.5 million on assistance and support for rural residents in extreme difficulty. In 2020, 13.4 million received temporary assistance; 186 million received medical assistance worth of RMB54.7 billion.
To guarantee a basic living to people in difficulties caused by Covid-19, the government provided temporary subsidies totaling RMB21.8 billion to residents in need when the Consumer Price Index fluctuates beyond a certain range, benefitting 400 million people. Due to impact from Covid-19, subsistence allowances were extended to an additional 2.4 million people facing difficulties, and 2.5 million received temporary assistance.

 

8.生态环境持续改善
8. Improving the Eco-environment

良好生态环境是最普惠的民生福祉。中共十八大以来,将生态文明建设纳入国家发展“五位一体”总体布局,倡导“绿水青山就是金山银山”绿色发展理念,严守生态保护红线,坚决打好污染防治攻坚战,推进美丽中国建设,切实保护公民环境权利。坚决打赢蓝天保卫战,空气更加清新。2020年,全国万元国内生产总值二氧化碳排放较2005年下降48.4%,提前完成比2005年下降40%至45%的碳排放目标。天然气、水电、核电、风电等清洁能源消费量占能源消费总量比重从2016年的19.1%上升到2020年的24.3%(初步核算数)。全国337个地级及以上城市中,2020年空气质量达标的城市占59.9%。着力打好碧水保卫战,水质持续优化。2020年,1940个国家地表水考核断面中,水质优良(Ⅰ-Ⅲ类)断面比例为83.4%,比2019年上升8.5个百分点;劣Ⅴ类断面比例为0.6%,比2019年下降2.8个百分点;全国近岸海域优良(一、二类)水质比例为77.4%,比2019年上升0.8个百分点;劣四类水质比例为9.4%,比2019年下降2.3个百分点。扎实推进净土保卫战,土壤环境风险得到有效管控。制定土壤污染防治法,实施土壤污染防治行动计划。以农用地和重点行业企业用地为重点,开展土壤污染状况详查。2014年至2019年,全国依法依规关停涉重金属行业企业3500余家,实施金属减排工程850多个。开展农用地土壤环境质量类别划分、治理修复等工作,农用地土壤环境状况总体稳定。全面禁止洋垃圾入境,基本实现固体废物零进口。人居环境不断改善。2020年,全国农村卫生厕所普及率超过68%,生活垃圾进行收运处理的行政村比例超过90%,全国农村生活污水治理率达25.5%;46个重点城市生活垃圾分类覆盖居民8300万户,居民小区覆盖率94.6%,地级及以上城市建成区黑臭水体消除比例超过90%。实施最严格的生态保护。截至2020年,全国共建立自然保护地近万处,保护面积覆盖陆域国土面积的18%,约90%的陆地生态系统类型和85%的重点野生动物种群得到有效保护。全国森林覆盖率由20世纪70年代初的12.7%提高到2020年的23.04%。在全球森林面积持续净损失达1.78亿公顷的不利形势下,中国森林面积近十年年净增约249.9万公顷,居全球第一。2012年至2021年6月,累计完成防沙治沙任务面积超过1900万公顷,封禁保护面积达到177.2万公顷。中国率先实现了荒漠化土地零增长,为实现《联合国2030年可持续发展议程》提出的2030年全球退化土地零增长目标作出重要贡献。
A sound eco-environment is the most inclusive benefit to people’s wellbeing. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the central leadership has incorporated eco-environmental progress as part of the Five-sphere Integrated Plan for national development and has promoted an environment-friendly development model, advocating that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. It has enforced strict eco-environmental red lines and made solid efforts to prevent and control pollution, working to build a beautiful China and protect environmental rights.
The air has become cleaner through efforts to keep the sky blue. In 2020, China’s CO2 emissions per RMB10,000 of GDP fell by 48.4 percent from 2005, achieving the goal of a 40-to-45-percent fall during this period ahead of schedule. The proportion of natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power and other types of clean energy in total energy consumption rose from 19.1 percent in 2016 to 24.3 percent in 2020. Among the 337 cities at and above prefecture level nationwide, 202 met the air quality standards in 2020.
Water quality is improving through efforts to keep waters clear. In 2020, 83.4 percent of the 1,940 surface water sections monitored by the state showed excellent and good quality (meeting Class I to Class III surface water quality standards), up 8.5 percentage points from 2019; 0.6 percent of sections suffered from poor water quality below Class V, down 2.8 percentage points from 2019. In 2020, 77.4 percent of offshore waters reached Class I and Class II sea water quality standards, up 0.8 percentage point from 2019; 9.4 percent of offshore waters were worse than Class IV, down 2.3 percentage points from 2019.
Effective measures have been taken to bring under control the risks associated with worsening soil qualities. The state has formulated the Law on Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution, and implemented its action plan for addressing soil pollution. National soil pollution surveys have been carried out, with the focus on land for agriculture and key industries and enterprises. From 2014 to 2019, more than 3,500 heavy-metal enterprises were shut down in accordance with laws and regulations, and more than 850 heavy-metal discharge reduction projects were carried out. The soil quality of agricultural land is subject to classification and restoration, and the soil environment of agricultural land remains stable. China has banned the import of foreign waste, and imports have largely fallen to zero.
The living environment is improving. In 2020, sanitary toilets were used by more than 68 percent of rural households. The system for the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of domestic waste covered more than 90 percent of villages. Domestic sewage treatment covered 25.5 percent of rural areas. In 46 major cities, 83 million households in 94.6 percent of communities were involved in domestic waste sorting programs. More than 90 percent of black and fetid water bodies in built-up areas of cities at and above prefecture level had been eliminated.
China enforces stringent eco-environmental conservation. As of 2020, nearly 10,000 nature reserves had been established across the country, covering 18 percent of China’s land mass, and bringing some 90 percent of land ecosystems and 85 percent of key wild animal populations under effective protection. China’s forest coverage rose from 12.7 percent in the early 1970s to 23 percent in 2020. While the global forest stock decreased by 178 million ha between 1990 and 2020, China’s forest area has seen an average annual increase of 2.5 million ha in the past decade, ranking top in the world. Between 2012 and June 2021, China completed desertification control work involving over 19 million ha of land, and 1.8 million ha have been closed off to prevent deterioration. China has become the first country to achieve a zero increase in desertification, making a great contribution to the UN 2030 Sustainable Development goal of zero increase in land degradation across the globe.

 

9.人类发展指数大幅提升
9. Achieving a Higher HDI Score

根据联合国开发计划署发布的“人类发展报告”,1990年中国还处于低人类发展水平组,1996年便进入了中等人类发展水平组,2011年又步入高人类发展水平组。中国的人类发展指数从1990年的0.499增长到2019年的0.761,是自1990年联合国开发计划署在全球首次测算人类发展指数以来,唯一从低人类发展水平组跨越到高人类发展水平组的国家。
According to the Human Development Report released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), China was among the low-ranked countries in terms of the human development index (HDI) score in 1990; it moved into the ranks of countries with medium HDI scores in 1996; it ascended into the ranks of countries with high HDI scores in 2011. From 1990 to 2019, China’s HDI score increased from 0.499 to 0.761. China is the only country to have risen from a low-ranked country to a high-ranked country since 1990, when the UNDP first started to calculate countries’ HDI ratings.

 

四、实行良法善治维护公民权利政治权利
IV. Protecting Civil and Political Rights with Law and Governance

在全面建成小康社会进程中,中国共产党和中国政府践行以人民为中心的发展思想,以更大的力度、更实的措施发展全过程人民民主,维护社会公平正义,确保人民依法享有更加广泛、更加充分、更加真实的权利和自由。
In building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the CPC and the Chinese government have pursued a people-centered development philosophy, and adopted vigorous and practical measures to develop whole-process people’s democracy, uphold social equity and justice, and ensure by law that people enjoy more extensive rights and freedoms.

 

1.拓展人民民主权利
1. Expanding People’s Democratic Rights

坚持人民主体地位,发展完善人民代表大会制度以及中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、基层群众自治制度,丰富民主形式,拓宽民主渠道,人民民主权利得到切实保障。
China ensures the principal status of the people, and improves the system of people’s congresses, the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, and the system of community-level self-governance. It has worked to diversify the forms of democracy and establish more democratic channels. People’s democratic rights are effectively protected.

民主选举有序发展。城乡按相同人口比例选举人大代表,保证各地区、各民族、各方面都有适当数量的代表。县级及以下人大代表实行直接选举,强调保障人民选举权和被选举权,确保选举工作风清气正、选举结果人民满意。2016年开始的县乡两级人民代表大会换届选举中,登记选民10亿多人,直接选举产生近248万名县乡两级人大代表。全国共有五级人大代表262万多名。
Implementing orderly democratic election processes. Both rural and urban areas are represented by people’s congress deputies in proportion to their population, and all regions, ethnic groups, and sectors of society have a certain proportion of deputies.
To guarantee people’s rights to vote and to stand for election, deputies to the people’s congresses at the county level and below are directly elected, and measures are taken to ensure the elections are clean and the results are satisfactory to the people. In the elections to the people’s congresses at county and township levels beginning in 2016, more than 1 billion constituents cast votes for nearly 2.5 million deputies. There are now more than 2.6 million deputies to the people’s congresses at all five levels – the province, city, county, township, and village levels.

 

社会主义协商民主稳步健全。推动协商民主广泛多层制度化发展,不断规范协商内容、协商程序,以事关经济社会发展全局和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,开展广泛协商。发挥人民政协作为社会主义协商民主的重要渠道和专门协商机构作用,推动协商履职成果更好运用。2012年1月至2021年6月,全国政协共收到58768件提案,48496件立案,大多数提案的建议得到采纳和落实。
Steadily advancing socialist consultative democracy. Democratic consultation is applied extensively as a mechanism at multiple levels. The fields and procedures of consultation are well regulated. Extensive consultation is conducted on matters concerning overall economic and social development and related to the vital interests of the people.
The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) serves as a major channel and specialized body for socialist consultative democracy. It has worked hard to play its role well and apply the results of consultation to good effect. Between January 2012 and June 2021, the CPPCC National Committee had received 58,768 proposals, 48,496 of which were placed on file. Most of the suggestions in the proposals were adopted and implemented.

 

基层群众自治不断完善。修订城市居民委员会组织法、村民委员会组织法,进一步完善和规范居委会、村委会成员的选举和罢免程序。全国农村已普遍开展10轮以上村委会换届选举,98%以上的村委会依法实行直接选举,村民参选率达95%。拓展流动人口有序参与居住地社区治理渠道。在脱贫攻坚中,特别注重健全村民自治机制,凡是涉及脱贫攻坚惠民政策的落实、惠民资金的分配使用、民生工程项目的建设,都广泛开展议事协商,凝聚群众共识,取得群众支持。以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度不断健全,目前全国已有29个省(区、市)制定了36个有关企业民主管理的地方性法规,保障职工参与管理和监督的民主权利,维护职工合法权益。
Improving community-level self-governance. China has amended the Organic Law of the Urban Residents Committees and the Organic Law of the Villagers Committees to improve and regulate the election and removal procedures for committee members. More than 10 rounds of villagers committee elections have been held in villages across the nation. More than 98 percent of these have been conducted by direct election, with more than 95 percent of villagers taking part. The state has worked to expand the channels for the migrant population to participate in community-level governance in their residential areas.
In the fight against poverty, China has paid special attention to improving the mechanism for self-governance by villagers. All matters related to the implementation of poverty alleviation policies, allocation and use of public funds, and projects for improving people’s wellbeing are subject to extensive public discussion and consultation to build consensus and obtain popular support.
The system for the democratic management of enterprises and public institutions in the form of workers congresses has improved. Across the country, 29 provinces and equivalent administrative units have issued 36 local regulations concerning the democratic management of enterprises, to guarantee workers’ right to participate in management and oversight, and to protect their lawful rights and interests.

 

知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权得到切实保障。实行审计结果公告制度,制定修改政府信息公开条例,提升政府信息公开水平,保障公民知情权。“互联网+政务服务”服务能力持续提升。通过推行“一网通办”,全国一半以上行政许可事项办理时限缩短40%以上,省级行政许可事项网上受理和“最多跑一次”比例超过82%,50个高频服务事项和200个便民服务实现“跨省通办”。根据《2020年联合国电子政务调查报告》,中国电子政务服务的在线服务指数与电子参与水平均列全球第9位,进入领先行列。推进民主立法,完善立法座谈论证、法律草案公开征求意见等制度,使每一项立法反映人民意志。截至2020年,十三届全国人大常委会已就87件次法律草案公开征求意见。不断健全依法决策机制,将公众参与、专家论证、风险评估、合法性审查、集体讨论确定为重大行政决策的法定程序,提高决策民主化水平。完善公开透明、高效便捷的诉求表达渠道,实行网上受理信访制度,广泛汇集社情民意,依法及时就地解决公民合理诉求,保障公民有序参与公共事务管理,监督国家机关依法行使职权。2018年至2020年,十三届全国人大常委会共听取和审议“一府一委两院”工作报告52个,共对19部法律和决定的实施情况进行检查,围绕“十四五”规划纲要编制、精准脱贫、污染防治、社会保险制度改革等内容开展18次专题调研,开展8次专题询问。把握政协民主监督性质定位,加强和改进政协民主监督工作,突出政协民主监督重点、丰富政协民主监督方式,不断完善民主监督的组织领导、权益保障、知情反馈和沟通协调机制,寓监督于协商之中,更好发挥协商式监督优势作用。推进监察体制改革,依法全方位加强对所有行使公权力的公职人员的监督。不断完善人民陪审员、人民监督员制度,保障公民参与司法、监督司法的权利。
Protecting the rights to know, to participate, to express views, and to supervise the exercise of power. China has put in place an audit result announcement system and revised the Regulations on Government Information Disclosure to improve government transparency and protect citizens’ right to know.
Internet-based government services have improved. E-government has been promoted to ensure access to all government services through a single portal, shortening the process by over 40 percent for more than half of the items requiring administrative licensing. Moreover, online and one-stop services are provided for over 82 percent of the items requiring provincial administrative licensing, and 50 commonly used government services and 200 public services are provided on an inter-provincial basis to ensure easier access. According to the E-Government Survey 2020 published by the United Nations, China ranks 9th on both the Online Service Index and the E-Participation Index, showing a very high level of e-government development.
Democratic lawmaking is ensured through improved systems for legislative deliberations and solicitation of public opinion on draft laws, so that every law reflects the will of the people. By the end of 2020, the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC) had solicited public opinion on 87 draft laws.
China has improved the mechanism of law-based decision-making. This makes public participation, expert discussion, risk assessment, legality review, and group discussion statutory procedures in major administrative decision-making, so as to make decision-making more democratic.
China provides open, smooth, efficient and convenient channels for people to express their opinions and demands. Public complaints can be submitted online as well as through letters, visits, calls and other channels. This ensures that extensive public opinion is collected, that citizens’ legitimate demands are addressed quickly, in situ and by law, and that people can participate in the management of public affairs in an orderly manner and supervise state agencies in exercising their powers.
From 2018 to 2020, the Standing Committee of the 13th NPC heard and reviewed a total of 52 work reports of the State Council, the National Supervisory Commission, the Supreme People’s Court, and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate. It examined the implementation of 19 laws and decisions. It conducted 18 surveys and 8 consultations on subjects such as the outline of the 14th Five-year Plan, targeted poverty alleviation, pollution prevention and control, and reform of the social security system.
With a well-defined role in democratic supervision, the CPPCC has strengthened its function of democratic supervision, with clearer priorities and in more forms. It has improved the mechanisms for organizing democratic supervision, protecting related rights and interests, providing informed feedback, and facilitating communication and coordination, so that supervision is embodied in consultation and consultative supervision plays a better role.
Reform of the national supervision system has been advanced to strengthen all-round law-based supervision of public servants in the exercise of public power. The systems of people’s assessors and supervisors have been improved to ensure citizens’ right to judicial participation and supervision.

 

2.保障人身权利
2. Protecting Personal Rights

尊重人格尊严和价值,依法保护公民的人身权利和自由。
China respects human dignity and value, and protects citizens’ personal rights and liberty in accordance with the law.

公民人身自由得到尊重和保护。非由法律规定、非经法定程序不得剥夺、限制公民人身自由。十二届全国人大常委会2013年通过关于废止有关劳动教养法律规定的决定,十三届全国人大常委会2019年通过关于废止有关收容教育法律规定和制度的决定,国务院2020年废止《卖淫嫖娼人员收容教育办法》,废除劳动教养和收容教育制度,彰显国家尊重和保障人权的宪法精神及依法保障公民人身自由的人权理念。
Respecting and protecting personal liberty. Unlawful deprivation or restriction of a citizen’s personal freedom is prohibited. In 2013, the Standing Committee of the 12th NPC adopted a decision to repeal laws and regulations on reeducation through labor. In 2019, the Standing Committee of the 13th NPC adopted a decision to repeal laws and regulations on detention education. In 2020, the State Council abolished the Measures for the Detention Education of Persons Engaging in Prostitution and Whoring. The abolition of reeducation through labor and detention education embodies the constitutional principle of respecting and protecting human rights, and demonstrates China’s commitment to protecting citizens’ personal liberty by law.

人员流动更加便利。不断推进户籍制度改革,实行城乡统一的户口登记制度,促进有能力在城镇稳定就业的常住人口有序实现市民化,更好保障人民公平享有民生权利。2020年,全国户籍人口城镇化率达到45.4%,比2012年提高10.1个百分点。2010年以来,共为1500余万无户口人员办理了落户,基本解决全国无户口人员登记户口问题。
Facilitating the movement of people. China has continued to reform the household registration system. It conducts unified household registration of urban and rural areas to enable rural people who have stable jobs and have lived in urban areas for the appropriate time to register as permanent urban residents. In this way, China ensures that people enjoy equal rights. In 2020, the urbanization rate of registered population reached 45.4 percent, an increase of 10.1 percentage points from 2012. Since 2010, more than 15 million unregistered people have completed household registration.

严格依法保护个人信息安全和隐私。颁布实施民法典,加强人格权保护。加强数据安全和个人信息安全保护,加大对侵犯公民个人信息行为的打击力度。2016年以来,通过开展专项行动依法办理一批涉嫌侵犯公民个人信息的案事件,泄露公民个人信息案事件得到有效遏制。2019年在全国范围开展App违法违规收集使用个人信息保护专项治理工作,重点治理无隐私政策、捆绑授权和强制索权、未经同意收集使用个人信息等突出问题,App隐私政策透明度大幅提升。2021年3月,国家网信办等四部门联合发布《常见类型移动互联网应用程序必要个人信息范围规定》,明确39类常见类型移动应用程序必要个人信息范围。2021年5月至7月,相关部门共组织对12种常见类型、用户下载量大的1035款App开展专项检测评估,对存在严重违法违规问题的351款App进行公开通报,对未在规定时限内整改的52款App依法依规采取下架处罚措施,违法违规收集使用个人信息行为逐步减少。依法严厉打击电信网络诈骗违法犯罪,严惩侵犯公民个人信息犯罪,加大个人隐私保护力度。2017年至2020年,全国各级人民法院一审审结侵犯公民个人信息的刑事案件数量分别为1393件、2315件、2627件、2558件,一审审结隐私权纠纷案件数量分别为273件、292件、331件、395件。依法审理手机应用擅自读取用户通讯录信息、网络信用平台滥用个人征信数据等案件,准确适用“通知-删除”规则,对散发诽谤他人言论的网络平台,根据受害人请求责令删除相关信息。2019年至2020年,全国各级人民法院一审审结网络侵权责任纠纷案件分别为4059件、4058件。检察机关将个人信息保护作为拓展公益诉讼案件范围的新领域重点部署推进,加强对公民个人信息保护。
Securing personal information and privacy by law. China has enacted the Civil Code and strengthened protection of personality rights. The government has intensified efforts in protecting data and personal information in accordance with the law and taking firm action on infringements concerning personal information. Since 2016, it has taken special actions to handle cases involving suspected violations of personal information, effectively curbing such violations. In 2019, a campaign was launched nationwide to address collection and use of personal information by applications in violation of laws and regulations, focusing on the absence of a privacy policy, bundled and forced consent, and collection and use of personal information without consent. This campaign has increased transparency in the privacy policy of applications.
The Cyberspace Administration of China and three other departments jointly issued in March 2021 the Provisions on the Scope of Required Personal Information for Common Types of Mobile Applications, clearly defining the personal information required for 39 common types of mobile apps. Between May and July 2021, the authorities conducted an assessment of personal information protection provided by 1,035 frequently downloaded apps of 12 common types. In an ensuing public notice, 351 apps were criticized for seriously violating laws and regulations, and 52 apps were taken down for failing to correct their violations within the required time frame. As a result, infringements of privacy in the collection and use of personal information have declined.
China strikes hard at telecom and cyber fraud, and severely punishes crimes involving infringements of personal information, to strengthen protection of personal privacy. In 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020, people’s courts at all levels concluded 1,393, 2,315, 2,627, and 2,558 such cases at first instance, and 273, 292, 331, and 395 cases at first instance related to privacy disputes.
Cases of unauthorized access to users’ address book data by mobile phone apps and abuse of personal credit information by online credit platforms are subject to legal procedures. The notice and takedown rule is accurately applied. Any online platform being used to spread defamation is ordered to delete relevant information as requested by the victim. In 2019 and 2020, people’s courts at all levels concluded 4,059 and 4,058 cases at first instance on online infringement liability. The prosecuting bodies have made the protection of personal information a focus of their efforts to expand the coverage of public interest litigation.

 

切实保障被羁押人和罪犯的合法权益。规范强制措施,减少羁押性强制措施的适用,实行看守所在押人员入所权利义务告知制度,建立在押人员投诉调查处理机制。完善相关法律制度,保障被羁押人的人格尊严及律师会见、申诉、医疗等合法权利。深化狱务公开,强化检察监督和执法监督,保障罪犯合法权利不受侵犯。实行人文关怀,开展罪犯离监探亲活动。制定实施社区矫正法,坚持依法管理与尊重保障人权相统一,监督管理与教育帮扶相统一,对符合条件的社区矫正对象落实最低生活保障,提供临时救助和社会保险、就业就学等政策,依法保障社区矫正对象的合法权益。截至2020年,已累计接收社区矫正对象537万人,累计解除矫正473万人,在册社区矫正对象64万人,社区矫正对象在矫正期间再犯罪率一直处于0.2%的较低水平。健全完善刑满释放人员救助管理制度,落实社会救助和就业安置措施,促进刑满释放人员顺利融入社会。
Protecting the lawful rights and interests of detainees and prisoners. China has regulated and reduced the application of compulsory custodial measures. When detainees enter a house of detention, they are informed of their rights and obligations, and their complaints are handled in accordance with due procedure. Relevant laws and regulations have been improved to guarantee the dignity and lawful rights of detainees, including the right to meet lawyers, appeal, and receive medical treatment. Prison affairs are open to the public. Procuratorial and law enforcement supervision has been improved to protect prisoners’ lawful rights and interests. Some prisoners are allowed leave of absence from prison to visit their families.
The Community Correction Law was enacted, which embodies respect for and protection of human rights in law-based management, and integrates supervision and management with education and assistance. To protect the legitimate rights of those subject to community corrections, China provides subsistence allowances, temporary assistance, social security, and employment and education assistance. By the end of 2020, a total of 5.37 million people throughout the country had received community service orders. Of these, 4.73 million had completed their service, and 640,000 were still subject to their service orders. The recidivism rate in the case of those assigned to community service remains low at 0.2 percent.
China has improved the assistance and management system for people released after completing their prison sentence, ensures their access to social assistance, and provides employment assistance to them to enable a smooth return to normal life.

 

3.保障个人财产权
3. Protecting Individual Property Rights

健全以公平为核心原则的产权保护制度。清理有违公平的法律法规条款,加强对各种所有制经济组织和自然人财产权的保护,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济发展,保证各种所有制经济依法平等使用生产要素、公平参与市场竞争、同等受到法律保护。宪法规定公民的合法私有财产不受侵犯,国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。民法典明确规定对所有财产权平等保护,强化对个人信息、数据和网络虚拟财产等的保护,完善了权利保护和救济规则,形成有效的权利保护机制,公民财产权法治保障水平不断提升。
Improving property rights protection with fairness as the core principle. China has cleared up unfair laws and regulations, strengthened protection of the property rights of economic organizations under all forms of ownership and of natural persons, and encouraged, supported and guided the development of the non-public sector. It has ensured that economic entities under all forms of ownership have equal access to factors of production in accordance with the law, can participate in market competition on a level playing field, and enjoy equal legal protection.
The Constitution stipulates that citizens’ lawful private property is inviolable, and the state protects citizens’ property and inheritance rights. The Civil Code stipulates equal protection of all property rights, strengthens protection of personal information, data and virtual property, and improves rules for the protection of rights and remedy for rights violations. As a result, an effective mechanism for rights protection has taken shape in China, and the legal framework for property rights protection continues to improve.

 

为优化营商环境提供法治保障。毫不动摇地坚持鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展的一系列方针政策,依法打击侵犯民营企业及经营者合法权益的犯罪,依法保护民营企业自主经营权,以及企业经营者人身、财产安全。坚持刑法的谦抑性,严格规范涉及民营企业的执法司法行为,坚决禁止刑事执法介入经济纠纷,依法准确适用强制措施,最大限度减少对企业正常生产经营活动的影响。最高人民法院、最高人民检察院先后发布一系列涉及民营企业司法保护指导性案例和典型案例,指导各级司法机关依法办案。
Providing legal guarantee for optimizing the business environment. China adheres to a series of principles and policies to encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector. It combats crimes infringing the lawful rights and interests of private enterprises and their operators, and protects the independent management of private enterprises and the personal and property safety of their owners in accordance with the law.
China adheres to the principle of restraint in the Criminal Law, regulates law enforcement and judicial activities involving private enterprises, prohibits criminal law intervention in economic disputes, and accurately applies compulsory measures in accordance with the law to minimize any impact on the normal work and business activities of enterprises. The Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate have publicized a series of guiding cases and typical cases concerning judicial protection of private enterprises, providing guidance for judicial bodies at all levels in handling cases.

 

加大知识产权保护力度。加强知识产权保护和运用,健全技术创新激励机制。完善体现知识产权价值的侵权损害赔偿制度,进一步彰显激励和保护创新的鲜明态度,净化市场竞争环境,促进创新发展。在北京、上海、广州设立知识产权法院,通过审理重大典型案件,确立裁判规则,统一裁判标准,加大对知识产权侵权行为的惩治力度,着力解决侵权成本低、维权成本高等问题。最高人民检察院设立知识产权检察办公室,统一指导履行知识产权刑事、民事、行政检察职能,构建知识产权全方位综合性司法保护机制。加强国际知识产权执法司法对话、交流与合作,推动构建更加公平合理的知识产权国际规则。
Strengthening protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs). China is strengthening the protection and application of IPRs and improving the incentive mechanism for technological innovation. For a better market competition environment and innovation-driven development, China has improved infringement compensation that reflects the value of IPRs, demonstrating its determination to encourage and protect innovation.
China has set up intellectual property courts in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, which have tried major cases, established judgment rules and made consistent standards, and strengthened punishment for IPR infringement. The system is designed to address the problem that the cost of infringement is low and the cost of protection is high. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate has set up an Intellectual Property Prosecution Office for guiding prosecution of criminal, civil, and administrative cases concerning IPR infringement and establishing a mechanism for comprehensive judicial protection of intellectual property rights.
China is also stepping up international dialogue, exchanges and cooperation on IPR law enforcement and justice, and working for fairer and sounder international IPR rules.

 

4.加强人权司法保障
4. Reinforcing Judicial Guarantee for Human Rights

深化司法体制改革,全面落实司法责任制,完善律师执业权利保障制度,加强对司法活动的监督,维护人民权益,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。
China has furthered judicial reform, fully implemented the judicial accountability system, improved protection of lawyers’ practicing rights, and strengthened supervision over judicial activities, so as to safeguard the rights and interests of the people and ensure that fairness and justice apply in every judicial case.

稳步推进司法体制改革。2014年中共十八届四中全会通过《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,全方位改革司法体制,保证公正司法,提高司法公信力。全面落实司法责任制改革,健全有序放权、科学配权、规范用权、严格限权的司法管理体制和司法权力运行体系。优化司法职权配置,深化以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革,强化检察机关法律监督职能,充分发挥诉讼程序制约作用,完善执法司法权力运行程序、行使方式、责任要求,健全执法司法机关之间工作衔接机制,健全公安机关、检察机关、审判机关、司法行政机关分工负责、各司其职,侦查权、检察权、审判权、执行权相互配合、相互制约的体制机制,构建各尽其职、配合有力、制约有效的工作体系。
Steadily advancing judicial reform. In 2014, the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted at its Fourth Plenary Session the CPC Central Committee’s Resolution on Certain Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Law-Based Governance of China, to fully reform the judicial system, ensure justice, and improve judicial credibility. China has implemented all-round judicial accountability reform, and improved judicial administration and the exercise of judicial power by delegating power in an orderly manner, rationally allocating power, and standardizing and strictly regulating the use of power.
China has improved the allocation of judicial functions and powers, and furthered reform to establish a criminal litigation system centered on court trials. It has strengthened legal supervision by prosecuting bodies, and underlined the role of litigation procedures in regulating the exercise of power. It has better defined the procedures, powers and accountabilities of the judiciary and law enforcement, and improved their coordination. China has also enhanced the institutions and mechanisms by which public security, prosecuting, judicial, and judicial administrative bodies perform their respective functions and work closely together while mutually checking on each other in the exercise of investigative, prosecuting, judicial and law enforcement powers.

 

健全司法人员依法履职保护机制。建立健全领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理和司法机关内部人员过问案件的记录通报和责任追究制度,保障司法机关和司法人员依法办理案件不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。规范司法人员考评考核和责任追究、惩戒办法,明确法官、检察官依法履行法定职责的行为不受法律追究,非因故意违反法律、法规或者有重大过失导致裁判结果错误并造成严重后果的,不承担错案责任;非因法定事由、非经法定程序,不得将法官、检察官调离、免职、辞退或者作出降级、撤职等处分。建立健全司法人员受到侵害救济保障机制和不实举报澄清机制,坚决打击侵害司法人员合法权益的行为,推动形成尊重司法裁判、维护司法权威的社会氛围。完善抚恤优待办法,为法官、检察官的人身、财产等权益提供与其职业风险相匹配的保障。
Improving protection for judicial personnel to perform their duties. China has improved the system under which any leading officials found to have interfered in judicial activities or the handling of specific cases, or any judicial personnel found to have attempted to influence the result of a case, will be put on record and held accountable. This aims to ensure that the judiciary is free from interference by administrative bodies, social organizations or individuals.
China has standardized methods for the evaluation, accountability and sanctioning of judicial personnel, making it clear that judges and prosecutors who perform their duties in accordance with the law are not subject to legal action, and protecting those responsible for misjudgments that result in severe consequences as long as they have not intentionally violated laws and regulations or are not guilty of gross negligence. No judge or prosecutor may be transferred, removed, dismissed, or demoted without legal procedures and other than for legal reasons.
China has improved the relief mechanism for victimized judicial personnel and the mechanism for clarifying false reports against judicial personnel, and acts resolutely against infringements of the legitimate rights and interests of judicial personnel, so as to foster a social atmosphere that respects judicial adjudication and upholds judicial authority. It has also improved compensation and preferential treatment measures to provide judges and prosecutors with personal and property guarantees that are commensurate with their occupational risks.

 

坚决纠正和防范冤错案件。建立健全错案发现、纠正、防范和责任追究机制,坚持程序公正和实体公正相统一,坚持严格公正司法,坚持罪刑法定、无罪推定、证据裁判,严禁刑讯逼供、体罚虐待,严格实行非法证据排除规则,坚持实事求是、有错必纠,落实国家赔偿制度,加强人权司法保障。2019年至2020年,全国各级人民法院分别按照审判监督程序再审改判刑事案件1774件、1818件;依法宣告637名、656名公诉案件被告人和751名、384名自诉案件被告人无罪;审结国家赔偿案件18164件、18433件,保障赔偿请求人合法权益。2020年1月至2021年6月,各级检察机关通过审判监督程序提出刑事抗诉1325件,同期法院改判685件、发回重审134件;提出刑事再审检察建议616件,同期法院改判214件、发回重审6件。“张氏叔侄强奸杀人案”“于英生杀妻案”“陈满故意杀人案”等一批重大冤错案件得到依法纠正。
Preventing and redressing miscarriages of justice. China has established and improved mechanisms for the identification, correction and prevention of misjudged cases, and for imposing accountability on those responsible. It adheres to the unity of procedural justice and substantive justice, and safeguards judicial justice. It strictly follows the principles of legality, presumption of innocence, evidence-based verdict, and exclusion of illegally obtained evidence. It prohibits forced confessions, corporal punishments, or abuse. It also implements a state compensation system to strengthen judicial guarantee of human rights.
In 2019 and 2020, people’s courts at all levels retried 1,774 and 1,818 criminal cases respectively in accordance with trial supervision procedures and overthrew the original judgments, acquitting 637 and 656 defendants in public prosecution cases and 751 and 384 defendants in private prosecution cases, and concluded 18,164 and 18,433 state compensation cases to protect the legitimate rights and interests of compensation claimants. Between January 2020 and June 2021, prosecuting bodies at all levels lodged protests in 1,325 criminal cases through trial supervision procedures, while the courts changed 685 verdicts and remanded 134 cases for retrial in the same period. The prosecuting bodies raised 616 proposals for criminal retrial, and the courts changed 214 verdicts and remanded 6 cases for retrial over the same period. A number of major wrongful convictions were corrected in accordance with the law.

 

加强对执业律师权利的保障。完善律师执业权利保护制度,印发《关于依法保障律师执业权利的规定》等文件,对保障律师会见、阅卷、调查取证以及庭审中的发问、质证、辩论辩护等各项诉讼权利作出全面规定,健全完善了律师执业权利救济机制和责任追究机制。最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、国家安全部、司法部和全国律协建立了维护律师执业权利快速联动处置机制,畅通律师维权通道,确保律师权利被侵犯后能够得到及时有效救济。全国律协、省级和设区的市级律师协会全部设立维护律师执业权利中心,专门负责维护律师执业权利工作。最高人民检察院开展保障律师执业权利专项监督活动,监督纠正执法司法机关阻碍律师依法行使诉讼权利问题,保障诉讼活动顺利进行。截至2020年,全国共有律师事务所3.4万多家,律师52.2万多人。
Strengthening protection of lawyers’ practicing rights. China has issued the Provisions on Protecting Lawyers’ Practicing Rights in Accordance with the Law, which provide comprehensive provisions protecting lawyers’ litigation rights, such as the rights to meet their clients, examine case files, investigate, and obtain evidence, as well as to ask questions, conduct cross-examination, debate, and defend during court trials. It has also improved the relief and accountability mechanisms for protecting lawyers’ rights.
The Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Justice, and the All-China Lawyers Association have set up a fast-track joint response mechanism for safeguarding lawyers’ practicing rights, to ensure that lawyers can get timely and effective relief when their rights are infringed. The All-China Lawyers Association, and lawyers associations at provincial and city levels have all set up centers for safeguarding lawyers’ practicing rights. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate has carried out special programs to supervise and correct cases where law enforcement and judicial bodies hinder lawyers from exercising their litigation rights, so as to ensure the smooth progress of litigation activities. At the end of 2020, there were more than 34,000 law firms and 522,000 lawyers in China.

 

全面推进阳光司法。深入推进审判公开、检务公开、警务公开和狱务公开,依法及时公开执法司法依据、程序、流程、结果和生效法律文书。推进智慧司法建设,执法司法信息化水平不断提升,保障当事人获得更为高效便捷诉讼服务。截至2020年,全国98%的法院建成了信息化程度较高的诉讼服务体系,为当事人提供全方位的诉讼服务;98%的法院开通诉讼服务网,为当事人、律师提供网上预约立案、案件查询、卷宗查阅、电子送达等服务。全国检察机关自2014年10月1日部署应用案件信息公开系统以来,截至2021年6月30日,“案件信息公开网”已导出案件程序性信息15023598件、发布重要案件信息1142802件、公开法律文书6597917件,接受辩护与代理网上预约558872人次。2019年,“案件信息公开网”统一并入“12309中国检察网”,网上服务进一步优化升级,检察机关案件信息公开进入信息化、常态化、规范化的快速发展轨道。
Increasing transparency in the administration of justice. China promotes openness in judicial, procuratorial, policing and prison affairs, and releases timely information on the legal basis, procedures, processes, results and effective legal documents of the judiciary and law enforcement in accordance with the law. With advances towards a smart judicial system, and increased IT application in judicature and law enforcement, people now have quicker and easier access to litigation services.
By the end of 2020, 98 percent of the courts across the country had widely applied information technology to their litigation systems, providing a full range of litigation services. 98 percent of the courts had opened service websites to provide online application for case filing, case inquiry, file access, and electronic document delivery.
From October 1, 2014, when the case information service system went online for China’s prosecuting bodies, to June 30, 2021, the website delivered procedural information on 15 million cases, published information on 1.1 million major cases and 6.6 million legal documents, and accepted 558,872 online applications for defense and litigation services. In 2019, the website was merged into 12309.gov.cn to upgrade online services, and China’s prosecuting bodies began to advance faster in regular and standardized release of case information supported by IT.

 

完善法律援助制度。发布实施《法律援助值班律师工作办法》,在法院、看守所普遍设立法律援助工作站。加强刑事法律援助,落实刑事诉讼法及相关配套法规制度关于法律援助范围的规定,积极开展刑事案件律师辩护全覆盖试点工作。扩大民事、行政法律援助覆盖面,与民生紧密相关的事项逐步纳入法律援助补充事项范围。聚焦打赢脱贫攻坚战,以法治扶贫为切入点,扩充法律援助事项、扩大法律援助范围,惠及更多困难群众。提升法律援助服务质量,发布并落实全国刑事、民事和行政法律援助服务规范,制定法律援助案件质量评估标准。2020年,全国组织办理法律援助案件近140万件,受援人达216万余次,提供法律咨询1466余万人次;值班律师提供法律援助(不含法律咨询)74万余件,其中参与认罪认罚从宽案件68万余件。截至2020年,在全国乡镇(街道)司法所及仲裁、法院、信访等矛盾纠纷相对集中的部门设立法律援助工作站7万余个,方便群众就近获得法律援助服务。
Improving the legal aid system. China has implemented the Measures for the Work of Legal Aid Duty Lawyers, and set up legal aid stations at courts and detention centers. It has strengthened legal aid in criminal cases, implemented provisions on the scope of legal aid stipulated in the Criminal Procedure Law and related regulations, and carried out pilot programs to achieve full legal defense coverage in criminal cases.
China has expanded the coverage of legal aid in civil and administrative proceedings, and brought matters closely related to people’s lives into the scope of legal aid. China has worked to alleviate poverty through legal empowerment, and expanded the scope and coverage of legal aid to benefit more people in need. To improve the quality of legal aid services, China has also issued and implemented norms for legal aid services in criminal, civil and administrative cases, and established standards for evaluating the efficacy of legal aid cases.
In 2020, 1.4 million legal aid cases were handled nationwide, helping 2.2 million people and providing legal advice to 14.7 million people; duty lawyers provided legal aid in 740,000 cases, including 680,000 cases where the rule of clemency applied to suspects and defendants who confessed to their crimes. By the end of 2020, more than 70,000 legal aid stations had been set up at courts, arbitral institutions, public complaints agencies, and township-level judicial offices to provide citizens with easy access to legal aid to address their concerns and solve disputes as early as possible.

 

5.保障宗教信仰自由
5. Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

宪法规定公民有宗教信仰自由。中国政府支持各宗教坚持独立自主自办的原则,在法律范围内进行各种宗教活动;依法对涉及国家利益和社会公共利益的宗教事务进行管理,不干涉各宗教内部事务,宗教工作法治化水平不断提高。2017年修订《宗教事务条例》,贯彻实施《中华人民共和国境内外国人宗教活动管理规定》,依法保障中国公民及境内外国人的宗教信仰自由。依法打击宗教极端主义以及打着宗教活动名义开展的“邪教”活动。中国现有依法登记的宗教活动场所14.4万处,宗教院校92所,信仰佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、天主教和基督教等宗教的公民近2亿人,宗教教职人员38万余人。不断加大宗教教职人员社会保障力度,宗教教职人员医疗保险参保率达96.5%,养老保险参保率达89.6%,基本实现了宗教教职人员社保体系全覆盖。公民的宗教信仰自由得到充分保障,呈现出宗教和顺、社会和谐的良好局面。
The Constitution provides that the citizens enjoy freedom of religious belief. The Chinese government upholds the principle that all religious groups should operate independently and carry out religious activities within the law. It administers religious affairs involving state and public interests, but does not interfere in the internal affairs of religions. China has advanced the rule of law in the administration of religious affairs.
In 2017, China amended the Regulations on Religious Affairs to better protect citizen’s freedom of religious belief. It has implemented the Rules on the Administration of Religious Activities of Foreigners in the People’s Republic of China to protect foreigners’ freedom of religious belief in accordance with the law.
China resolutely fights religious extremism and cults acting under the guise of religion. It now has 144,000 registered sites for religious activities, 92 religious academies, nearly 200 million citizens who believe in Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholic and Protestant Christianity, and other religions, and more than 380,000 clerical personnel.
China has improved social security for clerical personnel, with medical insurance covering 96.5 percent and old-age insurance covering 89.6 percent. With the citizens’ freedom of religious belief fully protected, China enjoys religious and social harmony.

 

五、促进社会公平保障特定群体权益
V. Promoting Social Equity and Protecting the Rights of Special Groups

全面建成小康社会,一个也不能少。中国切实维护和促进农民权益,高度重视对妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人及少数民族等特定群体权益的保障,使他们享有均等机会,以平等身份充分参与经济政治文化社会生活,共享发展成果。
A moderately prosperous society is to be enjoyed by each and every one of us. China takes solid measures to protect and promote the rights and interests of rural people, and attaches great importance to protecting the rights of women, children, the elderly, people with disabilities, and ethnic minority groups, ensuring their equal status and providing them with equal opportunities to participate in economic, political, cultural and social life and enjoy the fruits of development.

 

1.农民权益保障全方位改善
1. Upgrading Protection of the Rights of Rural People

土地制度改革极大增进农民财产性权利。改革开放后实施家庭联产承包责任制,解决了农民的温饱问题;全面取消农业税费,减轻了农民负担。中共十八大以来,稳定农村土地承包关系并保持长久不变,实施农村集体土地所有权、承包权、经营权“三权分置”,赋予农民对承包地占有、使用、收益、流转及经营权融资担保权能,保障农户宅基地用益物权,增加农民财产性收入,赋予农民更多财产权利。截至2020年,31个省(区、市)均开展了承包地确权工作,承包地确权面积达15亿亩,完善土地承包合同2亿份,颁发土地承包经营权证书2亿份。
Boosting rural property right through land reform. Rural people’s basic needs are ensured by the household contract responsibility system with remuneration linked to output, introduced after the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, and their burden is eased with the abolition of agricultural taxes and fees.
Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, measures have been taken to ensure that rural land contracting practices will remain stable and unchanged on a long-term basis. The system for separating the ownership, contractual, and management rights for contracted rural land has improved. Farmers have the right to possess, use and benefit from the contracted land, and can transfer or mortgage their management right. The government ensures rural households’ usufruct of their landholdings. It aims to help rural people increase income from property and endowing them with more property rights.
As of 2020, all 31 provinces and equivalent administrative units had begun to certify the rights to contracted land, confirming the contractual right to 100 million ha of land, upgrading 200 million land contracts, and issuing 200 million land contractual management certificates.

 

农民工生活条件不断改善。2012年至2020年,全国农民工人均月收入从2290元上升到4072元。进城农民工居住环境明显改善,人均居住面积达到21.5平方米,住房中有洗澡设施的占85.4%,能上网的占94.8%,拥有电冰箱、洗衣机、汽车(包括经营用车)的比重分别为67%、68.1%、30.8%。
Improving the lives of migrant workers. The per capita monthly income of migrant workers increased from RMB2,290 in 2012 to RMB4,072 in 2020. Migrant workers in cities now enjoy much better housing, with a per capita living area of 21.5 sq m. 85.4 percent of them have showers, 94.8 percent have access to the internet, 67 percent have refrigerators, 68.1 percent have washing machines, and 30.8 percent have automobiles for private or business use.

关爱农村留守人员。随着返乡创业就业、就业扶贫、随迁子女就地入学等工作的持续开展,全国农村留守儿童数量从2016年的902万名下降到2020年的643.6万名。印发《关于进一步健全农村留守儿童和困境儿童关爱服务体系的意见》《关于劳动密集型企业进一步加强农村留守儿童和困境儿童关爱服务工作的指导意见》等政策文件,完善农村留守儿童关爱工作顶层设计。印发《关于加强农村留守妇女关爱服务工作的意见》,结合各地实际,面向有困难、有需求的农村留守妇女提供相应关爱服务。印发《关于加强农村留守老年人关爱服务工作的意见》,农村留守老年人关爱服务政策已实现省级层面全覆盖,有力保障了特殊困难老年人基本生活。
Caring for family members of migrant workers left behind in rural areas. Policies have been introduced to boost employment for poverty alleviation and more people are returning to their hometowns to work or start businesses. There is also help to enable the children of migrant workers to go to school in cities where their parents work. This has resulted in a drop in the number of left-behind children, from 9 million in 2016 to 6.4 million in 2020.
The government has issued the Opinions on Further Improving the System of Care and Services for Rural Left-Behind Children and Children in Need, and the Guidelines for Labor-Intensive Enterprises to Further Strengthen Care and Services for Rural Left-Behind Children and Children in Need, to improve policy design in this regard. The government has also issued the Opinions on Strengthening Care and Services for Rural Left-Behind Women, to provide services to rural women in need, and the Opinions on Strengthening Care and Services for Rural Left-Behind Elderly, to ensure basic needs for poor elderly people through service networks covering all provinces.

 

农村人居环境极大改善。推进农村生活垃圾治理,扎实开展农村厕所革命,梯次推进农村生活污水治理,提升村容村貌。截至2020年,全国95%以上村庄开展了清洁行动。2019年至2020年,累计安排144亿元中央财政资金实施农村厕所革命整村推进奖补政策,安排中央预算内投资60亿元支持中西部省份以县为单位开展农村人居环境整治项目建设。中央财政对农村人居环境整治成效明显的39个县给予激励支持。
Enhancing the rural living environment. To improve the living environment in rural areas, proper facilities have been created for treating household waste and domestic sewage, and solid efforts have been made to enhance toilet sanitation through the “toilet revolution”. As of 2020, more than 95 percent of villages had taken action for a cleaner environment. In 2019 and 2020, the government allocated RMB14.4 billion from central finance to subsidize the “toilet revolution” in villages, and RMB6 billion from the central budget to support programs for improving the rural living environment in the counties of central and western provinces. Monetary incentives were given to the 39 best-performing counties.

 

2.妇女儿童老年人权益保障持续加强
2. Increasing Protection of the Rights of Women, Children and the Elderly

法律政策体系日臻完善。中国于20世纪90年代先后制定未成年人保护法、妇女权益保障法、老年人权益保障法,并对三项法律进行多次修改完善。制定母婴保健法、反家庭暴力法、预防未成年人犯罪法等法律,颁布《女职工劳动保护特别规定》《禁止使用童工规定》《校车安全管理条例》《未成年工特殊保护规定》等行政法规及部门规章,为保障妇女儿童老年人权益奠定了法律基础。印发《关于建立健全法规政策性别平等评估机制的意见》,切实从法规、规章、政策的源头上贯彻男女平等基本国策,促进妇女全面发展。2020年颁布民法典,增设居住权,明确夫妻共同债务的范围,增加防止和制止性骚扰等条款,进一步提高了妇女儿童老年人等群体的保护水平。中国政府先后制定实施三个周期的中国妇女发展纲要、中国儿童发展纲要和五个老龄事业发展纲要(规划)。
Optimizing laws and policies. Since they were promulgated in the 1990s, the Law on the Protection of Minors, the Law on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests, and the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Elderly have undergone multiple revisions to better serve their purpose.
A series of laws and regulations, including the Law on Maternal and Infant Health Care, the Anti-Domestic Violence Law, the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, the Special Provisions on Labor Protection for Female Employees, the Provisions on Prohibiting the Use of Child Labor, the Regulations on School Bus Safety Management, and the Special Provisions on the Protection of Juvenile Workers, have been enacted to lay down a legal basis for protecting the rights of women, children and the elderly. The government has issued the Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Mechanism for Evaluating Gender Equality Implications in Laws, Regulations and Policies, to codify and institutionalize the basic national policy of gender equality and promote the all-round development of women.
The Civil Code promulgated in 2020 includes articles regarding the right of habitation, the common debts of spouses, and measures to prevent and stop sexual harassment, further strengthening protection for the three groups. The Chinese government has developed three outlines and plans for the development of women, three for children, and five for the elderly.

 

妇女经济社会参与能力不断提升。全国15岁及以上女性文盲率由1979年的20.5%降至2017年的7.3%,普通高等学校本专科在校女生占在校生总数的比例由1978年的24.1%提高到2019年的51.7%。全国女性就业人数占全社会就业人数的比重超过四成。2018年修订的农村土地承包法明确规定,农村土地承包,妇女与男子享有平等的权利。2018年十三届全国人大代表中有742名妇女代表,占比24.9%,比1983年第六届全国人大提高了3.7个百分点;十三届全国政协委员中有440名女性委员,占比20.4%,比1983年第六届全国政协提高了7.6个百分点。
Empowering women to participate in economic and social affairs. The illiteracy rate of women aged 15 years and above dropped from 20.5 percent in 1979 to 7.3 percent in 2017, and the proportion of female students in junior colleges and universities rose from 24.1 percent in 1978 to 51.7 percent in 2019. More than 40 percent of the employed are women.
The Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas amended in 2018 stipulates that women enjoy equal rights with men in undertaking land contracts. There were 742 female deputies to the 13th NPC in 2018, accounting for 24.9 percent of the total and 3.7 percentage points higher than the percentage of female deputies to the Sixth NPC in 1983. There were 440 female members in the 13th CPPCC National Committee, representing 20.4 percent of the total and 7.6 percentage points higher than that in the Sixth CPPCC National Committee in 1983.

 

妇女儿童健康保障水平进一步提高。2020年,全国孕产妇产前检查率为97.4%,住院分娩率为99.9%。实施农村妇女宫颈癌和乳腺癌免费检查项目,将宫颈癌和乳腺癌纳入国家大病救治范围。实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,截至2020年,累计1120万儿童从项目中受益。5岁以下儿童死亡率从1991年的61‰下降至2020年的7.5‰。
Improving health care for women and children. In 2020, the rate of prenatal care was 97.4 percent, and the rate of hospital deliveries was 99.9 percent. The government has carried out a program of free cervical and breast cancer checkups for women in rural areas, and brought cervical and breast cancer into the scope of national subsidies for serious illnesses.
The government has launched the Nutrition Improvement Program for Children in Poor Areas, benefitting 11.2 million children by 2020. Between 1991 and 2020, the mortality rate of children under five decreased from 61 per thousand to 7.5 per thousand.

 

儿童得到特别关爱和特殊保护。2020年,全国有儿童社区服务中心2.9万个,社区服务站24.9万个,城乡社区家长学校36万个,城乡社区儿童之家32万余个。全国乡镇一级配备儿童督导员5.6万名,村一级配备儿童主任67.5万名,基层儿童工作队伍建设和儿童关爱服务水平不断提高。进一步加强对孤儿、残疾儿童、农村留守儿童、困境儿童等特殊群体的关爱保护。加大孤儿保障力度。2019年,中央专项资金对孤儿基本生活补助标准提高50%,东、中、西部分别补助300元/月、450元/月和600元/月。截至2020年,全国儿童福利机构集中养育孤儿6万名,基本生活保障月平均标准达1611.3元/人;社会散居孤儿13.4万名,基本社会保障月平均标准达1184.3元/人。印发《关于进一步加强事实无人抚养儿童保障工作的意见》,将事实无人抚养儿童全面纳入制度保障范围。截至2020年,全国共有25.4万名事实无人抚养儿童纳入保障范围,全国平均保障标准达每人每月1184.3元。坚持对侵害未成年人犯罪“零容忍”。2017年至2020年,各级检察机关共批准逮捕侵害未成年人犯罪16.02万人,起诉21.85万人。在司法程序中充分保障未成年被害人的合法权利,推行具备取证、心理疏导、司法救助等功能的“一站式”询问、救助机制,截至2020年,全国共建成“一站式”询问、救助办案区1029个。加强未成年被害人多元综合救助,2019年共向4306名未成年被害人及其家庭等发放救助金6200余万元。
Providing special care and protection for children. In 2020, there were 29,000 community service centers and 249,000 service stations for children, 360,000 parenting schools, and 320,000 children’s activity centers in urban and rural communities. There were 56,000 child welfare supervisors in towns and townships, and 675,000 child welfare directors in villages, forming a strong grassroots force for children’s care and protection.
Greater care and protection have been given to orphans, children with disabilities, rural left-behind children whose parents work in cities, and children in need. The state has strengthened guarantee for the basic needs of orphans. In 2019, the basic living subsidies from special government funds for orphans increased by 50 percent to RMB300, RMB450 and RMB600 per person/month for eastern, central and western regions. At the end of 2020, there were 60,000 orphans in child welfare institutions, with an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,611 per person; there were 134,000 orphans not in care facilities, with an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,184 per person.
The government issued the Opinions on Further Strengthening Protection of Uncared-for Children, to bring all de facto orphans into the coverage of state support. By 2020, 254,000 uncared-for children were covered by state support, and given an average monthly living allowance of RMB1,184 per person.
The state maintains zero tolerance for crimes against minors. Between 2017 and 2020, prosecuting bodies at all levels approved the arrest of 160,200 people committing crimes against minors, and prosecuted 218,500 people. In judicial procedures, the rights of victimized minors are fully protected by promoting one-stop inquiry and assistance mechanisms integrating evidence collection, psychological counseling, and judicial assistance. By 2020, there were 1,029 one-stop inquiry and assistance sites across the country. More help is provided in different forms to minor victims. In 2019, more than RMB62 million of aid was granted to 4,306 minor victims and their families.

 

老年人生活和权益保障状况持续改善。中国大力发展养老服务,逐步建立居家社区机构相协调、医养康养相结合的养老服务体系,大力开展农村留守老年人关爱服务,推进老年人家庭适老化改造和老年宜居环境建设,将赡养老人支出纳入个人所得税抵扣范围,努力让老年人老有所养、老有所依、老有所乐、老有所安。2020年,国家将1834万困难老年人及时纳入最低生活保障范围,388万老年人纳入特困人员救助供养范围。经济困难的高龄失能等老年人补贴制度实现省级全覆盖。截至2020年,全国享受高龄津贴、护理补贴、服务补贴的老年人分别为3058.9万、81万和23.5万。截至2020年,全国建成各类养老机构3.8万个,社区养老服务机构和设施有28万个,养老床位合计823.8万张。国务院办公厅印发文件,强调坚持传统服务方式与智能化服务创新并行,切实解决老年人在运用智能技术方面遇到的困难。
Guaranteeing the lives and rights of the elderly. The Chinese government is developing an old-age service network that coordinates home, community and facility care, and combines medical care with health preservation. It has strengthened care and services for left-behind elderly people in rural areas, and adapted home and public environments to make life easier for the elderly. Individual income tax deduction applies to expenses for taking care of elderly family members. The government aims to ensure care, support, recreation, and security for the elderly.
In 2020, the government brought 18.3 million poor elderly people into the scope of subsistence allowances, and covered 3.9 million elderly people living in extreme poverty with government support. Subsidies are ensured at the provincial level nationwide for poor elderly people who cannot perform essential self-care. As of 2020, 30.6 million elderly people enjoyed old-age allowances, 810,000 enjoyed nursing subsidies, and 235,000 enjoyed service subsidies. There were 38,000 care institutions and 280,000 community care facilities for the elderly across the country, with a total of 8.2 million beds.
The State Council has issued policies supporting the provision of both traditional and digital public services to ensure ease of access for elderly people.

 

3.少数民族权益保障进一步完善
3. Furthering Protection of the Rights of Ethnic Minorities

少数民族参与国家事务管理权利得到有效保障。严格落实宪法法律关于民族自治地方的自治机关领导人员中配备少数民族领导干部的规定,以及关于少数民族人大代表选举的规定。选举法明确规定,人口特少的民族,至少应有全国人大代表一人。55个少数民族均有本民族的全国人大代表和全国政协委员。十三届全国人大代表中,少数民族代表438名,占14.7%。
Guaranteeing the right of ethnic minority groups to participate in the administration of state affairs. The provisions in the Constitution and laws regarding the representation of ethnic minority groups in the leadership of organs exercising regional autonomy and the election of ethnic minority deputies to the people’s congresses are strictly implemented.
The Electoral Law stipulates that ethnic groups with a small population shall have at least one deputy to the NPC. All 55 ethnic minority groups have deputies to the NPC and members in the CPPCC National Committee. The 13th NPC has 438 ethnic minority deputies, accounting for 14.7 percent of the total.

 

少数民族和民族地区生活水平大幅提升。国家制定专项规划,实施西部大开发、兴边富民行动、对口支援以及扶持人口较少民族发展、少数民族特色村镇保护与发展等一系列政策措施,促进民族地区经济快速发展。内蒙古、广西、西藏、宁夏、新疆五个自治区和贵州、云南、青海三个多民族省份2018年至2020年的总体经济增长幅度超过全国平均增长水平,居民人均可支配收入从1978年的150多元增长到2020年的24534元。
Raising the living standards of ethnic minority groups and areas. Special programs have been launched, and policies and measures have been implemented to boost the economy of ethnic minority areas, such as the development of the western region, the action plan to bring prosperity to border areas and their residents, paired assistance between developed areas and less developed ethnic autonomous areas, special support for ethnic groups with small populations, and preservation and development of ethnic minority villages and towns.
Between 2018 and 2020, the five autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang, and the three provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan and Qinghai with large ethnic minority populations recorded faster economic growth than the national average. The per capita disposable income of their residents increased from RMB150 in 1978 to RMB24,534 in 2020.

 

少数民族和民族地区教育事业快速发展。中国通过发展民族地区各级各类学校,举办预科班、民族班,在广大农牧区推行寄宿制教育,着力办好民族地区高等教育等举措,促进教育公平,保障少数民族受教育权利。民族地区已全面普及从小学到初中9年义务教育,西藏自治区和新疆维吾尔自治区的南疆阿克苏地区、克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州、喀什地区、和田地区四地州实现了从学前到高中阶段15年免费教育。
Developing education in ethnic minority areas. China has adopted a series of measures to promote educational equality and ensure ethnic minorities’ right to education. These measures include opening more schools in ethnic minority areas, offering preparatory courses or special classes at secondary schools and universities to ethnic minority students, running boarding schools in farming and pastoral areas, and developing higher education in ethnic minority areas.
All ethnic minority areas have enforced nine-year compulsory education from primary school to junior high school. In the Tibet Autonomous Region and in Hotan, Kashgar, and Aksu prefectures and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, students enjoy 15 years of free education from preschool to senior high school.

 

少数民族文化事业蓬勃发展。在民族地区推广普及国家通用语言文字,依法保障各民族使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,促进民族团结和社会和谐。截至2020年,民族自治地方共设置广播电台、电视台、广播电视台等播出机构729个。全国各级播出机构共开办民族语电视频道279套,民族语广播188套。元上都遗址、土司遗址、红河哈尼梯田文化景观、拉萨布达拉宫历史建筑群(含罗布林卡和大昭寺)、“丝绸之路:长安-天山廊道的路网”等列入世界文化遗产名录。中国入选联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产名录(名册)的42项非物质文化遗产中,少数民族项目有15项,占37.5%。在少数民族地区设立了11个国家级文化生态保护(实验)区。全国25个省(区、市)已建立民族古籍整理与研究机构,截至2020年,抢救、整理散藏民间的少数民族古籍约百万种(不含馆藏及寺院藏书),包括很多珍贵的孤本和善本。组织实施《中国少数民族古籍总目提要》编纂工程,全部完成后将收录书目约30万种。
Boosting cultural undertakings of ethnic minority groups. While promoting standard spoken and written Chinese, the state protects the right of ethnic minority groups to use and develop their own spoken and written languages to consolidate ethnic unity and social harmony. As of 2020, there were 729 radio and television stations in ethnic autonomous areas. The broadcasting stations across the country run 279 television channels and 188 radio programs in ethnic minority languages.
The Site of Xanadu, the Tusi Sites, the Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, the Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace of Lhasa, and Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor are all included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Of the 42 items from China included in the UNESCO Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage, 15 are from ethnic minority areas.
China has established 11 national (pilot) cultural reserves in ethnic minority areas. A total of 25 provinces and equivalent administrative units have institutions that catalogue and study ancient classics and records of ethnic minorities. By 2020, about 1 million privately-held ethnic minority ancient classics and records (excluding books collected in museums and temples), including many rare editions and single extant copies, had been rescued and catalogued. China has launched the compilation of Collection of Ancient Classics and Records of Chinese Ethnic Minorities, which will include about 300,000 books upon completion.

 

民族地区人民生活安宁祥和。在统一多民族的中国,不断铸牢中华民族共同体意识,坚持共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展,各民族共建美好家园,共创美好未来。在各族人民群众共同支持下,国家依法打击民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力,维护民族团结和社会稳定,人民的生活安宁权、生命健康权、财产权等得到有效保障,获得感、幸福感、安全感不断提升。
Safeguarding peace and stability in ethnic minority areas. In this unified multiethnic country, the sense of identity of the Chinese nation is heightened to unite all the people in pressing forward for common prosperity and a bright future. With strong support from all ethnic groups, the government takes lawful actions to combat terrorists, separatists and religious extremists, to safeguard ethnic unity and social stability. People’s rights to a peaceful existence, to life and health, and to property are effectively protected, and their sense of gain, happiness and security continues to grow.

 

4.残疾人权益保障更加有力
4. Strengthening Guarantee of the Rights of People with Disabilities

残疾人社会保障体系不断完善。全面建立困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度。截至2020年,享受困难残疾人生活补贴人数有1212.6万人,享受重度残疾人护理补贴人数有1473.8万人。截至2020年,共有2699.2万残疾人参加城乡居民社会养老保险,其中1140.5万残疾人领取养老金;1076.8万残疾人获得城乡最低生活保障,其中重度残疾人641.4万人;680.1万重度残疾人中政府代缴养老保险费比例达到96.7%;另有303.7万非重度残疾人享受全额或部分代缴养老保险费的优惠政策。
Improving social security. China has established a subsidy system to provide for the living expenses of disabled people in need and to pay the nursing costs of people with severe disabilities. By 2020, the system had benefitted 12.1 million poor disabled people and 14.7 million with severe disabilities in need of nursing. A total of 27 million people with disabilities were covered in old-age insurance schemes in both urban and rural areas, with 11.4 million receiving pensions. 10.8 million people with disabilities received urban or rural subsistence allowances, including 6.4 million with severe disabilities. The government paid basic old-age insurance premiums for 96.7 percent of the 6.8 million people with severe disabilities. The government also fully or partly paid the premiums for 3 million people with mild or moderate disabilities.

残疾人康复服务普惠可及。残疾人康复服务纳入基本公共服务规划,建立残疾儿童康复救助制度,实施残疾人精准康复服务行动,发展精神障碍社区康复服务,推进康复辅助器具产业发展,为残疾儿童和持证残疾人提供基本康复服务和产品。2020年,1077.7万名残疾儿童及持证残疾人得到基本康复服务,242.6万名残疾人得到各类辅助器具适配服务。自2018年建立实施残疾儿童康复救助制度以来,全国接受康复救助的残疾儿童达67.6万人次。残疾预防工作取得积极成效。2017年国务院批准将每年8月25日设立为“残疾预防日”,提高公众残疾预防意识。制定发布《国家残疾预防行动计划(2016-2020年)》,有效控制出生缺陷和发育障碍致残、着力防控疾病致残、努力减少伤害致残和显著改善康复服务等四项行动取得积极进展,主要任务目标基本实现。
Making rehabilitation universally available. The government has included rehabilitation services for the disabled in plans for basic public services, and carried out targeted rehabilitation programs to help those in need. It has established a rehabilitation assistance mechanism for disabled children, developed community rehabilitation services for people with mental illnesses, and boosted the industry of rehabilitation assistive devices. Basic rehabilitation services and products are provided to disabled children and people with certified disabilities.
In 2020, 10.8 million disabled children and people with certified disabilities received basic rehabilitation services, and 2.4 million people with disabilities benefited from adaption services for assistive devices. About 676,000 disabled children have benefited from a rehabilitation assistance mechanism that was initiated in 2018.
Efforts to prevent disability have paid off. In 2017, the State Council approved the establishment of August 25 as the Disability Prevention Day, to promote public awareness of disability prevention. The National Disability Prevention Action Plan (2016-2020) laid out effective measures for controling the occurrence of birth defects and disabilities caused by development disorders, preventing disabilities caused by illnesses, reducing injuries that cause disabilities, and improving rehabilitation services. Substantial progress has been made in these four areas, and the main targets have been reached.

 

残疾人受教育水平稳步提高。着力办好特殊教育,大力发展融合教育,努力保障残疾人享有平等受教育权。2020年全国共有特殊教育学校2244所,专任教师6.62万人,在校学生88.08万人,比2013年增加51.27万人,增长139.3%。不断完善随班就读支持保障体系,在普通学校随班就读的残疾学生规模不断扩大,由2013年的19.1万人增加到2020年的43.58万人,增长128.2%。近10年来,残疾学生在普通学校就读的比例均接近或超过50%。全国实现了家庭经济困难残疾学生从小学到高中阶段教育的12年免费教育。
Creating better access to education. People with disabilities have an equal right to education that is guaranteed through special education and inclusive education. In 2020, there were 2,244 special education schools with 66,200 full-time teachers and 880,800 students, an increase of 512,700 students or 139 percent from 2013. Continued efforts have also been made to provide the necessary support for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, and the number of students with disabilities attending regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 435,800 in 2020, an increase of 128 percent. Over the past decade, about 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools. Free 12-year education from primary school to senior high school has been ensured for disabled students from poor families.

残疾人就业权利得到更好保障。中国通过完善法律法规、拓展就业渠道、完善服务体系,促进残疾人就业权利的实现。截至2020年,全国共有残疾人就业服务机构2811家,国家级残疾人职业培训基地478家,城乡持证残疾人就业人数855.2万人。积极开展残疾人扶贫。2015年至2020年,全国共建立4581个残疾人扶贫基地,扶持近40.9万残疾人就业增收;建档立卡贫困残疾人家庭人均纯收入由2015年的2776.2元增长到2019年的8726.2元。
Guaranteeing the right to work. China promotes the employment of people with disabilities by improving relevant laws and regulations, expanding employment channels, and improving services. In 2020, there were 2,811 employment service agencies and 478 vocational training centers for people with disabilities, and the number of employed people with certified disabilities reached 8.6 million.
Efforts have been made to help people with disabilities emerge from poverty. Between 2015 and 2020, China built 4,581 poverty alleviation centers for people with disabilities, helping 409,000 disabled people find jobs and increase income. The per capita net income of registered poor household with disabled members grew from RMB2,776 in 2015 to RMB8,726 in 2019.

 

残疾人无障碍环境建设大力推进。制定实施《无障碍环境建设条例》。截至2020年,1753个市、县开展无障碍建设,全国累计创建469个无障碍市县村镇。全国村(社区)综合服务设施中有81.05%的出入口、56.58%的服务柜台、38.66%的厕所进行了无障碍建设和改造。2016年至2020年,全国共有65万贫困重度残疾人家庭得到了无障碍改造。截至2019年,全国已建成各级残疾人综合服务设施2341个,康复设施1006个,托养服务设施887个;共有省级残疾人专题广播节目25个、电视手语栏目32个;设立盲文及盲文有声读物阅览室1174个。全面推进信息无障碍建设,增强信息无障碍终端产品供给,推进无障碍产品和服务技术推广应用,拓宽残疾人参与信息社会的渠道,推动信息化与无障碍环境的深度融合,消除“数字鸿沟”,助力社会包容性发展。
Building an accessible environment. The Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment have come into effect. As of 2020, 1,753 cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers, and 469 cities, counties, towns, and villages had been recognized by the state as barrier-free. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 81 percent of entrances and exits, 56.6 percent of service counters and 38.7 percent of restrooms had been upgraded for accessibility. Between 2016 and 2020, home adaptation was carried out for 650,000 poor families with severely disabled members. As of 2019, there were 2,341 comprehensive service facilities, 1,006 rehabilitation facilities, and 887 care facilities for people with disabilities; at the provincial level, 25 radio programs and 32 sign language television programs serviced people with disabilities; and there were 1,174 reading rooms with Braille and audio books.
A variety of measures have been taken to promote information accessibility, increasing the supply of accessible terminal products, and applying accessible products and technologies for better services. By expanding the channels for people with disabilities to engage in an information society, and facilitating the application of information technology to build an accessible environment, China is trying hard to eliminate the digital divide and create a more inclusive society.

全面小康,贵在全面。中国始终把人民安危冷暖、安居乐业放在首位,全力解决好人民群众关心的问题,在幼有所育、学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居、弱有所扶上取得显著进展。全面建成小康社会惠益了全体人民,使中国人民享有了比任何时候都更为充分的人权。
Moderate prosperity covers every aspect. The Chinese government gives top priority to ensuring people’s wellbeing, and spares no effort in addressing concerns of the people. Significant progress has been made in ensuring access to childcare, education, employment, housing, medical services, elderly care, and social assistance. Moderate prosperity in all respects benefits all Chinese people and enables them to enjoy greater human rights than ever before.

 

结束语
Conclusion

全面建成小康社会,是全体中国人民在中国共产党领导下拼搏奋斗的一项伟大壮举。
Under the CPC’s leadership, the Chinese people have achieved moderate prosperity in all respects, a historic undertaking completed through consistent hard work.

全面建成小康社会的伟大实践,积累了尊重和保障人权的宝贵经验。这就是在中国共产党的领导下,在中国特色社会主义制度中,坚持人权的普遍性与中国国情相结合,坚持以人民为中心的人权理念,坚持生存权发展权是首要的基本人权,坚持以发展促人权,坚持人民幸福生活是最大的人权,坚持人权法治保障,坚持促进人权事业全面发展,推动构建人类命运共同体。
In this process, China has respected and protected human rights within the institutional framework of Chinese socialism under CPC leadership:
• applying the principle of universality of human rights in China’s context;
• taking a people-centered approach to human rights;
• protecting the rights to subsistence and development as the primary task;
• promoting human rights through development;
• with a happy life as the ultimate goal;
• providing legal guarantee for the protection of human rights;
• promoting comprehensive progress in human rights;
• building a global community of shared future.

 

中国人口占世界总人口的近五分之一。中国全面建成小康社会,是世界人权事业发展史上的重要里程碑。中国在全面建成小康社会的伟大进程中,所创造的尊重和保障人权的成功做法和经验,为增进人类福祉贡献了中国智慧、提供了中国方案。
China’s population is about one fifth of the world’s total. China’s success in realizing moderate prosperity is a milestone in the history of global human rights. China’s approach and experience have provided a distinctive path forward for human progress.

 

人权保障没有最好,只有更好。全面建成小康社会,奠定了中国人权发展进步的新起点。在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程中,中国共产党将把握新发展阶段,贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,推动高质量发展,继续带领全体人民为享有更加幸福安康的生活和更高水平的人权而奋斗。中国必将为世界人权事业发展作出新的更大贡献。
There is no end to improving human rights. Moderate prosperity is a new starting point on China’s quest for human rights. To fully build China into a modern socialist country, the CPC will practice the new development philosophy, build a new development dynamic, and pursue high-quality development, to ensure the Chinese people live a happier life and enjoy more extensive human rights. As a commitment to the world, China will make a greater contribution to global human rights.

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