双语:新疆的人口发展 PDF下载

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新疆的人口发展
Xinjiang Population Dynamics and Data

中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
2021年9月
The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
September 2021

 

目录
Contents

前言
Preface

一、新疆人口发展的历史
I. Population Growth in Xinjiang

二、新疆人口的现状
II. Latest Demographics of Xinjiang

三、维吾尔族人口的发展
III. Demographic Changes in the Uygur Population

四、新疆人口发展的现实必然性
IV. Factors Contributing to Xinjiang’s Demographic Development

五、新疆人口发展的趋势
V. Xinjiang’s Population Prospects

六、关于境外反华势力炒作的几个问题
VI. Falsehoods Fabricated by Anti-China Forces

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Preface

 

人口是社会生活的主体,是人类社会存在和发展的前提。人类的一切经济社会活动都与人口密切相关,人口发展关乎经济发展、社会和谐、民族兴衰、国家安全。
A healthy population is essential for the existence and development of human society. All economic and social activities are closely related to population. Its growth influences economic and social development, and national security and prosperity.

新疆地处中国西北、亚欧大陆腹地,自古以来就是多民族聚居地区。公元前60年,西汉中央政权在新疆地区设立西域都护府,标志着新疆地区正式纳入中国版图。2000多年来,新疆地区众多民族经过诞育、分化、交融,形成了“你中有我、我中有你”的和合共生关系和多元一体格局。
Lying in northwest China and central Eurasia, Xinjiang has been a place inhabited by multiple ethnic groups since ancient times. In 60 BC, the Western Han Dynasty established the Western Regions Frontier Command to govern the Xinjiang area, officially incorporating the area into the Chinese territory. Over the following 2,000 years and more, various ethnic groups have emerged, divided and mixed there. Today they live together in harmony and have formed a diverse unity.

中华人民共和国成立前,新疆经济社会发展落后,人口规模小,人口素质低,人均预期寿命短。1949年新中国成立后,新疆人口特别是少数民族人口数量快速增长,人口素质不断提升,人均预期寿命大幅提高。今日新疆,经济社会全面发展,社会大局持续稳定,各族人民安居乐业,人口发展均衡健康。
Work to remedy the backward economic and social situation in Xinjiang began immediately after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. The population of Xinjiang, particularly that of its ethnic minorities, has grown fast in both size and quality, and life expectancy has seen a substantial increase. Today, the region enjoys rapid growth in all areas and a stable and secure society. The ethnic groups there live in peace and contentment, and its population is experiencing healthy and balanced development.

 

一、新疆人口发展的历史
I. Population Growth in Xinjiang

新中国成立前,新疆生产力水平低下,生产方式落后,各族人民深受外国侵略势力、封建剥削阶级和宗教特权阶层的压迫,生活极端困苦,生命毫无保障,人口增长缓慢。据考证,从公元前60年到公元18世纪中期的1800多年间,新疆地区人口一直没有突破100万。受战乱等因素影响,1762年设立伊犁将军时,新疆人口不足30万。1884年,新疆建省。《湘军志》记载,1887年新疆人口183.9万人。1949年新疆和平解放时,人口达到433.34万人。
Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the mode of production in Xinjiang was backward and its productivity was low. Oppressed by foreign invaders, feudal exploiters, and a privileged religious hierarchy, people of all ethnic origins in the region led an extremely hard life with little security.
The population grew very slowly. Historical data show that the population in this vast region never exceeded one million during the 1,800 years from 60 BC to the mid-18th century. When the Qing government set up the post of Ili General as governor of the region in 1762, the local population was less than 300,000, mainly because of the turmoil of war. The region became a province during the Qing Dynasty in 1884. According to Records of the Xiang Army, the population in Xinjiang was 1.84 million in 1887. It had grown to 4.33 million by the time of the peaceful liberation in 1949.

新中国成立后,新疆人口发展进入崭新的历史时期。随着经济社会的发展、人民生活水平的提高,特别是医疗卫生条件的改善,新疆人口死亡率快速下降,自然增长率大幅上升。在国家大力开发建设边疆、促进民族地区加快发展等方针政策的引领下,大批知识分子和青年积极响应国家号召奔赴新疆,支援边疆建设。在人口自然增长与人口流入双重因素的作用下,新疆人口迅速增长。1953年第一次全国人口普查数据显示,新疆人口达到478.36万人;1964年第二次全国人口普查数据显示,新疆人口总量727.01万人,11年间,新疆人口增加248.65万人,年均增长率3.88%。到1978年中国实行改革开放前,新疆人口总量已增加到1233.01万人,比1949年净增799.67万人,年均增长率3.67%。
Xinjiang entered a new period of rapid population growth after the founding of the PRC. On the one hand, following its economic and social development, living standards and health care improved, so that the mortality rate fell rapidly and the population growth accelerated markedly. On the other, large numbers of intellectuals and young people streamed into Xinjiang from other parts of the country in response to the government’s call to support the development of border areas and areas with large ethnic minority populations. According to data from the first national census conducted in 1953, Xinjiang had a population of 4.78 million, and by the time the second national census was conducted in 1964, its population had increased to 7.27 million, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.88 percent. The number had grown to 12.33 million by the time China launched reform and opening up in 1978, an increase of 8 million compared to 1949, with a CAGR of 3.67 percent.

1978年后,新疆人口进入稳步增长阶段。根据全国人口普查数据,1982年新疆人口总量1308.15万人,1990年增加到1515.69万人,净增207.54万人,年均增长率1.86%;2000年达到1845.95万人,比1990年净增330.26万人,年均增长率1.99%。
Xinjiang’s population continued to grow steadily after 1978. According to data from national censuses, the region had 13.08 million people in 1982, then up by 2.08 million to 15.16 million in 1990 with a CAGR of 1.86 percent, and up by a further 3.3 million to 18.46 million in 2000 with a CAGR of 1.99 percent.

21世纪以来,新疆人口进入平稳增长阶段。2010年第六次全国人口普查数据显示,新疆人口达到2181.58万人,比2000年增加335.63万人,年均增长率1.68%;2020年第七次全国人口普查初步汇总数据显示,新疆人口达到2585.23万人,比2010年增加403.65万人,年均增长率1.71%。2000年至2020年这一阶段,新疆人口增长有所放缓,但年均增长率仍比全国平均水平高出1.15个百分点。
The steady growth trend has continued into the 21st century. According to data from the sixth national census conducted in 2010, the population in Xinjiang was 21.82 million, an increase of 3.36 million with a CAGR of 1.68 percent over 2000. Preliminary data from the seventh national census conducted in 2020 showed that the number increased by 4.04 million to reach 25.85 million with a CAGR of 1.71 percent. From 2000 to 2020, Xinjiang’s population growth slowed down, but was still 1.15 percentage points higher than the national average in CAGR.

从少数民族人口增长看,历次全国人口普查数据显示,1953年,新疆少数民族人口445.15万人,1964年增加到494.89万人,净增49.74万人,年均增长率0.97%;1982年779.75万人,与1964年相比,净增284.86万人,年均增长率2.56%;1990年946.15万人,与1982年相比,净增166.4万人,年均增长率2.45%;2000年1096.96万人,与1990年相比,净增150.81万人,年均增长率1.49%;2010年1298.59万人,与2000年相比,净增201.63万人,年均增长率1.7%;2020年1493.22万人,与2010年相比,净增194.63万人,年均增长率1.41%。
The national censuses show that the ethnic minority population in Xinjiang has grown rapidly over the past seven decades.

双语:新疆的人口发展 PDF下载

 

 

二、新疆人口的现状
II. Latest Demographics of Xinjiang

2020年第七次全国人口普查初步汇总数据显示,新疆总人口2585.23万人,汉族人口1092.01万人,少数民族人口1493.22万人。与第六次全国人口普查相比,10年间,新疆人口增速居全国第4位,人口增量居全国第8位,人口总量的排位由第25位上升到第21位。
According to preliminary data from the seventh national census in 2020, the total population of Xinjiang was 25.85 million, among which the Han ethnic group numbered 10.92 million, and ethnic minorities 14.93 million. Compared with the data from the sixth national census in 2010, Xinjiang ranked fourth among 31 provinces and equivalent administrative units on China’s mainland in terms of the population growth rate. It ranked eighth in terms of the actual increase in population over that period. By 2020, Xinjiang’s total population ranking had risen from 25th to 21st in the country.

从性别结构看,新疆人口中,男性人口1335.44万人,占总人口的51.66%;女性人口1249.8万人,占总人口的48.34%;总人口性别比(每100名女性相对应的男性人数)为106.85,与第六次全国人口普查基本持平。
Gender composition: Of Xinjiang’s population in 2020, 13.35 million (51.66 percent) were male while 12.5 million (48.34 percent) were female. The male to female ratio was 106.85:100, basically the same as in 2010.

从年龄结构看,新疆0-14岁人口580.62万人,占22.46%;15-59岁人口1712.92万人,占66.26%;60岁及以上人口291.7万人,占11.28%。与2010年相比,0-14岁人口比例上升2.01个百分点,60岁及以上人口比例上升1.62个百分点。与全国平均水平相比,新疆0-14岁人口比例比全国的17.95%高4.51个百分点;60岁及以上人口比例比全国的18.7%低7.42个百分点,人口的老龄化程度相对较低。
Age breakdown: In 2020, there were 5.81 million in the 0-14 age group, accounting for 22.46 percent; 17.13 million in the 15-59 age group, accounting for 66.26 percent; and 2.92 million in the age group of 60 and above, accounting for 11.28 percent. Compared with 2010, the proportions of people in the age groups from 0 to 14, and 60 and above were up by 2.01 and 1.62 percentage points. In 2020, Xinjiang’s share of people in the 0-14 age group was 4.51 percentage points higher than the national average of 17.95 percent; and its share of people in the age group of 60 and above was 7.42 percentage points lower than the national average of 18.7 percent. The aging of its population was relatively moderate.

从受教育程度看,新疆15岁及以上人口的平均受教育年限由2010年9.27年提高至2020年10.11年,比全国人口平均受教育年限9.91年高出0.2年,居全国第10位。与2010年相比,每10万人口中拥有大学文化程度的由10613人增加到16536人;拥有高中文化程度的由11669人增加到13208人;拥有初中文化程度的由36241人降低至31559人;拥有小学文化程度的由30085人降低至28405人。
Education: The average years of schooling for people aged 15 and above rose from 9.27 years in 2010 to 10.11 years in 2020, 0.2 years higher than the national average of 9.91, and ranking 10th across the nation. Compared with 2010, the number of people with university education rose from 10,613 to 16,536 per 100,000 persons; those with high school education grew from 11,669 to 13,208; those with middle school education dropped from 36,241 to 31,559; and those with primary education fell from 30,085 to 28,405.

从健康水平看,新疆人口2019年平均预期寿命74.7岁,比2010年提高2.35岁。婴儿死亡率、5岁以下儿童死亡率、孕产妇死亡率分别由2010年的26.58‰、31.95‰、43.41/10万降至2020年的6.75‰、10.91‰、17.89/10万。2019年每千人执业医师数和医疗卫生机构床位数分别达到2.7人和7.39床,分别比2010年增加了0.58人和1.93床。
Health: The average life expectancy of people in Xinjiang was 74.7 in 2019, up 2.35 years from 2010. Infant mortality rate, mortality rate for children under five years of age, and maternal mortality rate went down from 26.58 per 1,000, 31.95 per 1,000, and 43.41 per 100,000 in 2010 to 6.75 per 1,000, 10.91 per 1,000, and 17.89 per 100,000 in 2020. In 2019, practicing doctors and hospital beds per 1,000 persons numbered 2.7 and 7.39, up 0.58 and 1.93 over 2010.

从城乡和流动人口结构看,2020年新疆城镇人口1461.36万人,乡村人口1123.87万人,分别占总人口的56.53%、43.47%。与2010年相比,城镇人口增加527.79万人,乡村人口减少124.13万人,城镇人口比例上升13.73个百分点。新疆流动人口805.14万人。其中,疆内流动人口466.07万人,跨省流入人口339.07万人。与2010年相比,流动人口增加406.11万人,增长101.78%。
Rural, urban and floating populations: In 2020, there were 14.61 million people living in the urban areas of Xinjiang, accounting for 56.53 percent; 11.24 million living in the rural areas, accounting for 43.47 percent. Compared with 2010, the urban population increased by 5.28 million and the rural population decreased by 1.24 million. The share of urban population went up by 13.73 percentage points. As of 2020, the floating population in Xinjiang numbered 8.05 million, with 4.66 million moving within the autonomous region and 3.39 million moving to Xinjiang from other parts of the country. Compared with 2010, the floating population grew by 4.06 million, an increase of 101.78 percent.

从区域分布看,新疆现有14个地(州、市),其中,北疆9个、南疆5个。历史上,南北疆人口数量相差较大,南疆人口一度占全疆人口的三分之二以上。随着经济社会的发展,南北疆人口分布趋于平衡。2020年,北疆人口1330.91万人,占总人口的51.48%,比2010年的1135.29万人,增加195.62万人;南疆人口1254.32万人,占48.52%,比2010年的1046.29万人,增加208.03万人。
Regional distribution: Xinjiang now has 14 prefectural-level areas – 9 in northern Xinjiang and 5 in southern Xinjiang. In the past, there was a big population gap between north and south. The population of southern Xinjiang once accounted for over two thirds of the region’s total. This gap has been gradually bridged thanks to economic and social development. In 2020, the population of northern Xinjiang was 13.31 million, making up 51.48 percent of the total, up by 1.96 million from 11.35 million in 2010. The population of southern Xinjiang was 12.54 million, accounting for 48.52 percent of the total, an increase of 2.08 million from 10.46 million in 2010.

 

三、维吾尔族人口的发展
III. Demographic Changes in the Uygur Population

新中国成立以来,新疆进入和平发展时期。1955年,新疆维吾尔自治区成立,党和国家在新疆实行民族区域自治制度,坚持各民族一律平等,实施一系列特殊扶持政策,维吾尔族等少数民族人口进入了历史上最好的发展时期。
Xinjiang has enjoyed peace and development since 1949. After the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was established in 1955, the CPC and the central government implemented regional autonomy to ensure the equal status of all ethnic groups, and adopted a series of preferential policies to assist and support regional development. Ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang, including the Uygurs, entered an optimal period for development.

从人口增长看,新疆维吾尔族人口持续增长。根据历次全国人口普查数据,维吾尔族人口1953年为360.76万人,1964年399.16万人,1982年595.59万人,1990年719.18万人,2000年834.56万人,2010年1000.13万人,2020年1162.43万人。每两次普查间净增人口分别为38.4万人、196.43万人、123.59万人、115.38万人、165.57万人、162.3万人,年均增长率分别为0.92%、2.25%、2.38%、1.5%、1.83%、1.52%。
The Uygur population in Xinjiang has continued to grow.

双语:新疆的人口发展 PDF下载

 

上述数据表明,新中国成立后,维吾尔族人口总体保持较高增长水平,与新疆人口发展的趋势基本一致。
These data show that since the founding of the PRC, the Uygur population has maintained a relatively high growth rate, a trend shared with the total population growth of the region.

 

进入新世纪以来,维吾尔族人口从2000年的834.56万人增长至2020年的1162.43万人,年均增长率1.67%,远高于同期全国少数民族人口年均增长率0.83%的水平。
In particular, the Uygur population grew at a CAGR of 1.67 percent during the first two decades in the 21st century, which was much higher than that of the country’s ethnic minority population, which stood at 0.83 percent.

从年龄结构看,维吾尔族人口与全疆人口相比,年龄结构轻。2020年维吾尔族0-14岁、15-59岁、60岁及以上人口占比分别为30.51%、60.95%、8.54%。2020年全疆0-14岁、15-59岁、60岁及以上人口占比分别为22.46%、66.26%、11.28%。
The Uygur population is on average younger than the overall region. In 2020, in the 0-14, 15-59, and 60 and above age groups, the Uygur proportions were 30.51 percent, 60.95 percent and 8.54 percent, while the overall figures for the region were 22.46 percent, 66.26 percent and 11.28 percent.

从受教育程度看,维吾尔族受教育水平不断提高。第七次全国人口普查数据显示,维吾尔族每10万人中拥有大学文化程度的人口为8944人,与2000年相比增加6540人,15岁及以上人口受教育年限从2000年的7.06年提高到2020年的9.19年。
The education level of the Uygur population has also continued to improve. According to data from the seventh national census in 2020, 8,944 per 100,000 Uygurs had received a university education, an increase of 6,540 compared to 2000. The average years in education for those aged 15 and above also grew from 7.06 to 9.19.

从区域分布看,维吾尔族人口主要分布在喀什、和田、阿克苏、克州等南疆四地州。据2020年全国人口普查数据,南疆四地州维吾尔族人口占当地人口的83.74%,占全疆维吾尔族人口的74.01%。其中,喀什、和田等地区,维吾尔族人口在200万以上,阿克苏地区接近200万。
Xinjiang’s Uygurs are mainly distributed in Kashgar Prefecture, Hotan Prefecture, Aksu Prefecture, and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture in the southern part of the region. According to data from the 2020 national census, Uygurs accounted for 83.74 percent of the population in these four prefectures, representing 74.01 percent of the total Uygur population in Xinjiang. The Uygur population has surpassed 2 million in both Kashgar and Hotan, and is approaching 2 million in Aksu.

 

四、新疆人口发展的现实必然性
IV. Factors Contributing to Xinjiang’s Demographic Development

新疆的人口发展,伴随着工业化、城镇化、现代化进程,经历了高出生、高死亡、低增长到高出生、低死亡、高增长,正在向低出生、低死亡、低增长转变,是经济社会发展、政策法规实施、婚育观念转变等多重因素综合作用的结果,符合世界人口发展的普遍规律。
Along with the process of industrialization, urbanization, and modernization, Xinjiang’s demographic development went through three periods of growth:
• high birth rates, high death rates and low growth rates;
• high birth rates, low death rates and high growth rates;
• low birth rates, low death rates and low growth rates.
This trend results from a combination of factors such as economic and social development, evolving policies and regulations, and changes in views on marriage and childbearing. It conforms clearly to general trends of demographic development elsewhere in the world.

从经济社会发展看,新中国成立以来,新疆各项事业取得巨大成就。国内生产总值从1952年的7.91亿元增长到2020年的13797.58亿元。人均国内生产总值从1952年的166元提高到2020年的53593元。教育事业稳步发展。1949年,新疆仅有1所大学、9所中学、1355所小学,学龄儿童入学率只有19.8%,文盲率在90%以上。经过70多年的发展,新疆已形成从学前教育到高等教育的完整教育体系。至2020年,村村建有幼儿园,小学3641所、普通中学1211所、中等职业学校(不含技工学校)147所、普通高校56所、成人高校6所,学前教育毛入园率达到98%以上,小学净入学率达到99.9%以上,九年义务教育巩固率达到95%以上,高中阶段毛入学率达到98%以上。阿克苏、克州、喀什、和田四地州实施从幼儿园到高中的15年免费教育。1951年至2020年,累计培养高校毕业生211.5万人,其中少数民族学生76.7万人,占36.3%。全民健康水平大幅提升。新中国成立前,新疆医疗卫生事业极其落后,只有医疗机构54个、病床696张,每千人拥有病床0.16张、医生0.019名。至2019年,新疆医疗卫生体系全面形成,医疗机构遍布城乡,共有18376个医疗机构、186426张病床。婴儿死亡率由1949年的400‰以上降至2020年的6.75‰,人均预期寿命由1949年的不到30岁提高到2019年的74.7岁。
Economic and social development: Commendable results have been achieved in many fields in Xinjiang since the founding of the PRC. From 1952 to 2020, Xinjiang’s GDP grew from RMB791 million to RMB1.38 trillion, and per capita regional GDP increased from RMB166 to RMB53,593.
Steady progress has been made in education. In 1949, Xinjiang had only 1 college, 9 secondary schools, and 1,355 primary schools. Only 19.8 percent of school-age children were receiving education at school and the illiteracy rate was over 90 percent. In the 70 years since, a complete education system with institutions providing education from preschool through higher education has been put in place. By 2020, Xinjiang had kindergartens in all villages, and 3,641 primary schools, 1,211 regular secondary schools, 147 secondary vocational schools (excluding skilled workers schools), 56 higher education institutions, and 6 adult colleges across the region. The gross enrollment rate of preschool institutions was over 98 percent, the net enrollment rate of primary schools was almost 100 percent, the completion rate of nine-year compulsory education was over 95 percent, and the gross enrollment rate of high schools was over 98 percent. In Kashgar, Hotan, Aksu, and Kizilsu prefectures, 15-year free education lasting from preschool to high school is available. From 1951 to 2020, Xinjiang produced a total of nearly 2.12 million college graduates, of whom 767,000 (36.3 percent) are ethnic minorities.
A significant improvement has been seen in public health. Before the founding of the PRC, Xinjiang was poorly provided with medical services. It had only 54 medical institutions with 696 beds, placing the medical service capacity at 0.16 beds and 0.019 doctors per 1,000 people. By 2019, a basic health care system had been set up, with 18,376 medical institutions covering urban and rural areas, providing a total of 186,426 beds. The infant mortality rate dropped from over 400 per 1,000 in 1949 to 6.75 per 1,000 in 2020. The average life expectancy rose from less than 30 in 1949 to 74.7 in 2019.

从政策法规实施看,中国实行计划生育经历了先内地后边疆、先城市后农村、先汉族后少数民族的过程,对少数民族执行有别于汉族的相对宽松政策。新疆依据国家法律法规,结合本地实际制定计划生育相关政策。20世纪70年代初,在汉族人口中先实行计划生育;80年代中后期,开始在少数民族中鼓励计划生育。1992年发布的《新疆维吾尔自治区计划生育办法》明确规定,汉族城镇居民一对夫妻生育1个子女,农牧民可生育2个子女;少数民族城镇居民一对夫妻可生育2个子女,农牧民可生育3个子女;人口较少民族不实行计划生育。这一差别化生育政策是新疆少数民族人口保持较快增长的重要原因。随着经济社会发展和各族群众生育意愿趋同,2017年新疆修订《新疆维吾尔自治区人口与计划生育条例》,规定各民族实施统一的计划生育政策,即城镇居民一对夫妻可生育2个子女,农村居民一对夫妻可生育3个子女。根据国家人口与计划生育法律政策调整情况,新疆还将进一步调整和完善本地人口与计划生育法规政策。新疆在实行计划生育过程中,始终坚持保障妇幼健康、预防降低出生缺陷、提高家庭生活质量等理念,越来越多的群众知情自主选择安全、有效、适宜的避孕节育措施,育龄妇女自愿接受输卵管结扎术和宫内节育器放置术,大大减轻了各族妇女非意愿妊娠和频繁生育负担。
Evolving policies and regulations: The application of family planning measures in China was gradually extended from coastal and inland to border regions, from urban to rural areas, and from the Han people to ethnic minorities. Preferential policies were implemented for ethnic minority groups.
In line with local conditions and in accordance with state laws and regulations, Xinjiang formulated its own family planning policies. Family planning was first applied to the Han people in the region in the early 1970s, and ethnic minorities were exempt until the mid and late 1980s. The Measures on Family Planning released by the autonomous region in 1992 stipulated that urban Han residents could have one child per couple and those residing in farming and pastoral areas could have two, while for ethnic minorities, urban residents could have two children per couple and those in farming and pastoral areas could have three. Ethnic minority groups with smaller populations were not required to follow the family planning policy. This was one of the main reasons why the ethnic minority populations in Xinjiang maintained a rapid growth rate.
In parallel with the region’s economic and social development, the different ethnic groups began to develop similar expectations in terms of family structure. Therefore, Xinjiang amended the Regulations on Population and Family Planning in 2017, introducing universal family planning policies for all ethnic groups: two children per couple for urban residents and three per couple for rural residents. In line with future adjustments to national laws and policies regarding population and family planning, Xinjiang will further modify and improve relevant local regulations and policies.
Xinjiang is committed to protecting the health of women and children, preventing and reducing birth defects, and improving the quality of family life in implementing family planning policies. Couples are now better informed on safe, effective and proper contraception, and are choosing their own preferred method. Women of childbearing age are entitled to voluntary tubal ligation surgery and intrauterine devices to avoid unwanted pregnancies and frequent childbirth.

从婚育观念看,在过去相当长一个时期,新疆尤其是南疆地区,由于宗教极端主义渗透时间长、影响范围广、毒害程度深,大量群众被套上沉重的精神枷锁,正常的社会生活受到严重干扰,不少少数民族群众在婚姻、家庭、生育等方面深受影响,早生早育、多生密育成为普遍现象。近年来,新疆依法开展去极端化工作,宗教极端主义干预行政、司法、教育、婚姻、医疗等现象得到有效遏制,各族群众对宗教极端思想危害性的认识明显提高,婚姻、生育、家庭观念积极转变,妇女经济、社会和家庭地位不断提高,各族妇女有更多机会接受中高等教育、参与经济社会活动,妇女就业人数和比例大幅提升。仅以2019年为例,新疆城镇新增妇女就业22.81万人,占城镇新增就业人数的47.43%。晚婚晚育、优生优育日益深入人心,并成为社会新风尚。
Changes in views on marriage and childbearing: In the past, under the prolonged, pervasive and toxic influence of religious extremism, the life of a large number of people in Xinjiang and particularly in the southern part of the region was subject to severe interference – early marriage and childbearing, and frequent pregnancy and childbirth were commonplace among ethnic minorities.
In recent years, law-based deradicalization has been implemented in Xinjiang. The interference of religious extremism has been eradicated in administration, judicature, education, marriage and health care. The public has become more aware of the dangers of religious extremism. Their views on marriage, childbearing and family have changed accordingly.
The economic, social and family status of women of all ethnic groups has improved, allowing them more opportunities to obtain secondary and higher education, and take an active part in economic and social life. The number and proportion of women in employment have significantly increased. In 2019 for example, 228,100 women joined the workforce in cities and towns across Xinjiang, accounting for 47.43 percent of the total newly employed in urban areas.
Late marriage and childbearing, and sound maternal and child care have penetrated deep into the hearts of local people and become the mainstream social attitude.

 

五、新疆人口发展的趋势
V. Xinjiang’s Population Prospects

随着新疆社会稳定红利的持续释放,未来一个时期,新疆人口特别是少数民族人口将保持稳步增长,人口规模持续扩大,人口素质不断提高,人口流动趋于活跃。
Benefiting from consistent social stability, Xinjiang’s population, in particular that of ethnic minority groups, will continue to maintain steady growth in the near term, improving the quality of the population and encouraging greater social and geographic mobility.

在人口数量方面,新疆少数民族年龄结构相对较轻,育龄妇女规模较大,少数民族人口的增长仍具潜力。随着新疆落实国家优化生育政策,实施一对夫妇可生育3个子女政策,并配套实施积极生育支持措施,将有利于促进人口总量稳步增长。
The ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang have considerable potential to grow as they have a relatively young population and a large number of women of childbearing age. Implementation of China’s new childbirth policy that allows a couple to have up to three children, and support measures to boost birth rates will also promote steady population growth in Xinjiang.

在人口素质方面,伴随经济社会的不断发展,新疆教育将进入高质量发展阶段,教育改革进一步深化,学前教育普及普惠,义务教育均衡发展,高中阶段教育全面普及,职业教育扩容提质,高等教育实力提升,各族群众受教育程度不断提高。新疆卫生健康体系日趋完善,城乡医疗设施条件显著改善,各族群众享有全方位、全周期健康服务,人口健康素质全面提升。与此同时,新疆将贯彻落实并不断完善妇女权益保障各项法律政策,深入实施妇女发展纲要,持续改善妇女发展环境,促进男女平等,提升各族妇女综合素质,倡导现代文明生活方式,使广大妇女彻底摆脱宗教极端主义桎梏,积极参与社会经济生活,实现自身价值,共享发展成果。
As a result of steady economic and social development, further reforms will also improve the quality of Xinjiang’s education system. To raise the level of educational attainment, Xinjiang will:
• ensure universal access to preschool education focused on public and non-profit kindergartens;
• balance the development of compulsory education;
• offer universal high school education;
• expand and improve vocational education;
• strengthen higher education.
The health care system in Xinjiang will also expand and improve. Medical facilities in both urban and rural areas will be upgraded, and the people will enjoy comprehensive lifecycle health services. Public health in Xinjiang will improve in all respects.
Xinjiang will strengthen the laws and policies protecting women’s rights and interests, and ensure that these are applied and respected. It will fully implement the National Program for the Development of Women, create an empowering environment for women, promote equality between the sexes, and raise the comprehensive quality of women. The region will advocate modern and healthy lifestyles, and encourage women to throw off the shackles of religious extremism and to participate in social and economic activities, so that they can realize their full potential and share development fruits with the rest of society.

在人口流动方面,新疆生活着汉族、维吾尔族、哈萨克族、回族等56个民族,呈现“大杂居、小聚居、交错杂居”的特点。新疆深入推进以人为核心的新型城镇化,到2035年基本实现城镇化,一批新兴城市将相继建成,城市规模不断扩大,城市聚集人口的效应不断显现。各民族广泛交往、全面交流、深度交融,相互嵌入式社会结构和社区环境更趋完善成熟。受市场导向等因素影响,以上学、务工、经商、旅游等为目的的自发自愿人口流动,在城乡之间、南北疆之间、疆内外之间将更加频繁活跃。加之丝绸之路经济带核心区建设深入推进,以及新时代西部大开发带来新机遇,新疆丰富的资源和区位优势将吸引更多外来人口前来投资兴业和居住生活。
All of China’s 56 ethnic groups can be found in Xinjiang, with Uygur, Han, Kazak and Hui the largest groups. The ethnic groups generally choose to live among each other, while some live in concentrated communities of their own.
Xinjiang is promoting people-oriented urbanization and will realize basic urbanization by 2035. A group of emerging cities will grow, and the cities will expand and gather more people.
Different ethnic groups will increase exchanges in all areas, further integrate with each other, and form a more cohesive society with diverse neighborhoods. Driven by market and other factors, voluntary movements of people for schooling, employment, business and tourism will increase between urban and rural areas and both inside and outside the region.
With abundant resources and a favorable geographic location, Xinjiang will attract more investors and migrants to grasp the opportunities presented by further development of core areas on the Silk Road Economic Belt and the implementation of the national strategy to develop western China.

未来的新疆,社会更加和谐稳定,经济更加繁荣发展,就业更加充分,基本公共服务均等化水平明显提高,多层次社会保障体系更加健全,各族群众的获得感、幸福感、安全感不断增强,人民生活更加幸福美好。
In the future, Xinjiang will enjoy a more stable and harmonious society and a more prosperous economy. It will guarantee fuller employment, ensure equal access to public services, and establish a sound and multitiered social security system, so that all people in the region will lead better lives and have a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness and security.

 

六、关于境外反华势力炒作的几个问题
VI. Falsehoods Fabricated by Anti-China Forces

近年来,境外反华势力大肆炒作“强迫劳动”“强制绝育”“亲子分离”“文化灭绝”“宗教迫害”等谬论,疯狂歪曲抹黑新疆,攻击诋毁中国政府的治疆政策,妄图给中国扣上“种族灭绝”的帽子,妖魔化中国。世人皆知,联合国大会1948年通过的《防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约》对“种族灭绝”有明确规定,“系指蓄意全部或局部消灭某一民族、人种、种族或宗教团体”。对灭绝种族罪的认定,需要由有管辖权的国际司法机构严格依照相关公约和国际法规定的要件和程序进行。中国政府依法保障新疆维吾尔族等少数民族各项权利的铁的事实与境外反华势力的构陷形成鲜明对照。
In recent years, various anti-China forces have been accusing China of actions such as “forced labor”, “mandatory sterilizations”, “parent-child separation”, “cultural genocide”, and “religious persecution”. They smear Xinjiang, demonize China, and vilify China’s governance of the region with accusations of “genocide”.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, provides a clear definition of genocide – acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. A country can only be convicted of genocide by a competent international judicial institution with proper jurisdiction, in strict accordance with the requirements and procedures stipulated by the relevant conventions and international law.
The Chinese government protects the rights of the Uygurs and all other ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang in accordance with the law. This fact stands in sharp contrast to the fabrications by anti-China forces.

1. 所谓“强迫劳动”
1. “Forced labor”

境外反华势力肆意编造“强迫劳动”谎言,抹黑中国反恐、去极端化工作,打压新疆棉花、番茄、光伏等产业,破坏中国参与全球产业链合作,进而剥夺新疆各族群众的劳动权、发展权,妄图使其处于封闭落后的贫困状态,进而在新疆制造混乱。
Through the lie of “forced labor”, anti-China forces malign China’s actions against terrorism and extremism, suppress the development of industries in Xinjiang such as cotton, tomatoes, and photovoltaic products, and undermine China’s participation in global industrial chain cooperation. Their acts effectively deprive the local people in Xinjiang of their rights to work and development and opportunities to move out of poverty and backwardness, with the intent of stirring up trouble in the region.

事实上,新疆始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,高度重视劳动就业和社会保障工作,大力实施积极的就业政策,充分尊重劳动者意愿,依法保障公民劳动权利,积极践行国际劳工和人权标准,落实劳动保障法律法规,维护劳动者合法权益,努力使各族群众都能通过辛勤劳动创造幸福生活、实现自身发展。2014年至2020年,新疆的劳动就业总人数从1135.24万人增加到1356万人,增长19.4%;年均新增城镇就业47万人,其中,南疆地区14.91万人,占31.72%;农村富余劳动力年均实现转移就业281.82万人次,其中,南疆地区173.14万人次,占61.44%。
Xinjiang is committed to the people-centered philosophy of development, attaches great importance to employment and social security, and implements proactive policies on employment. It fully respects the wishes of workers, protects the right to work in accordance with the law, and applies international labor and human rights standards. It implements labor laws and regulations, safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of workers, and strives to enable people of all ethnic groups to create a happy life and achieve their own development through hard work.
From 2014 to 2020, the total employed population in Xinjiang grew from 11.35 million to 13.56 million, up by nearly 20 percent. The urban employed population grew by an annual average of 470,000, of which 149,100, or nearly 32 percent, were in southern Xinjiang. An average of 2.82 million job opportunities were created every year for the surplus rural workforce, of which 1.73 million, or more than 61 percent, were offered to those in southern Xinjiang.

新疆在反恐和去极端化斗争中依法设立的职业技能教育培训中心(以下简称教培中心),与世界上许多国家推行的去极端化中心、社区矫正、转化和脱离项目等,在本质上没有区别。实践证明,这是预防性反恐和去极端化的成功探索,完全符合《联合国全球反恐战略》、联合国《防止暴力极端主义行动计划》等一系列反恐决议的原则和精神。教培中心提升了学员使用国家通用语言文字的能力和就业能力,增强了学员的国家意识、公民意识、法治意识。2019年10月,教培中心学员全部结业。结业学员或自主择业、或自主创业、或在政府帮助下就业,大都实现了稳定就业。
In its fight against terrorism and extremism, Xinjiang has established vocational education and training centers in accordance with the law. There is no essential difference between these institutions and the deradicalization centers and community correction, transformation and disengagement programs in many other countries. There is a substantial body of evidence showing that this is an effective approach to preventive counter-terrorism and deradicalization, and it fully complies with the principles of counter-terrorism resolutions such as the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the UN Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism.
The vocational education and training centers in Xinjiang have improved the trainees’ command of standard spoken and written Chinese and increased their employability. These centers have also strengthened their sense of national identity, citizenship, and the rule of law. By October 2019, all trainees had completed their studies. Most of them have found stable employment, either by choosing their own jobs, by starting their own businesses, or with the help of the government.

一直以来,新疆各族劳动者包括教培中心结业学员,都是根据自己的意愿选择职业,并依据《中华人民共和国劳动法》《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》等法律法规,本着平等自愿、协商一致原则,与有关用工单位签订劳动合同,获得相应报酬,不存在任何强迫行为。
Workers of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, including graduates from the vocational education and training centers, always choose their jobs of their own volition. In line with the principles of equality, free will, and consensus, and in accordance with laws and regulations such as the Labor Law and the Labor Contract Law, they sign labor contracts with employers and receive their salaries. There is no coercion of any kind.

 

2. 所谓“强制绝育”
2. “Mandatory sterilizations”

境外反华势力采取数据造假、无中生有、妄加揣测、玩弄数字游戏等手段,炮制虚假报告,诬称“新疆对维吾尔族等少数民族采取强制性计划生育政策抑制其出生率”,旨在进行“人口灭绝”。
By means of fabrication, unfounded conjecture, and data fraud, false reports have been concocted by anti-China forces, making accusations that Xinjiang is carrying out “demographic genocide” by forcing birth control on the Uygurs and other ethnic minority groups to suppress their birth rates.

众所周知,中国是一个法治国家,宪法法律明确规定,国家尊重和保障人权,公民有生育的权利,也有依法实行计划生育的义务。中国的计划生育技术服务一直坚持国家指导和个人自愿相结合的原则,公民享有避孕方法的知情选择权。新疆依法实行计划生育,严厉禁止强制节育、强制孕检等行为,各族群众是否采取避孕措施、采取何种方式避孕,均由个人自主自愿决定,任何组织和个人不得干涉。广大妇女享有根据自己身体及家庭情况选择节育的自主权。随着妇女地位的提高和婚育观念的转变,越来越多的妇女倾向于晚婚晚育、少生优生,选择长效避孕措施。一系列数据显示,新中国成立以来维吾尔族人口增长长期保持较高水平,人口规模持续扩大,所谓“抑制出生率”“人口灭绝”完全是无稽之谈。
China is a country under the rule of law. The Constitution and relevant laws stipulate unequivocally that the state shall respect and protect human rights, and that all citizens have reproductive rights and also the obligation to practice family planning. China follows the principles of government guidance and individual choice in providing technical services for family planning, and all citizens enjoy the rights to know about and to choose their own contraceptive methods.
Xinjiang implements its family planning policy in accordance with the law. Forced birth control and pregnancy tests are strictly prohibited. It is up to individuals to decide whether or not to use contraceptives and how to use them. No organization or individual may interfere with this freedom.
Women are entitled to decide on birth control based on their own physical and family conditions. With the improvement in women’s status and changes in views on marriage and childbearing, an increasing number of women are choosing to marry later and have fewer and healthier children. As a result, they are opting for long-term contraceptive methods.
Statistics show that the Uygur population has been growing steadily and significantly over the decades since the PRC was founded in 1949. Therefore, accusations of “suppression of birth rates” and “demographic genocide” are utterly groundless.

 

3. 所谓“亲子分离”
3. “Parent-child separation”

境外反华势力谎称,新疆“为实施大规模拘禁行动,设置寄宿制学校”,“阻止维吾尔族父母、亲戚或社区成员抚养其子女”,制造“代际分离”,“同化”维吾尔族。
Anti-China forces have created a fabrication that Xinjiang has set up boarding schools to deal with the fallout of its massive internment campaign and seeks to preempt any possibility on the part of Uygur parents, relatives or community members to recover their children, so as to create “intergenerational separation” and “assimilate” the Uygurs.

事实是,《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国教育法》明确规定,中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。公民不分民族、种族、性别、职业、财产状况、宗教信仰等,依法享有平等的受教育机会。《中华人民共和国义务教育法》也规定,县级人民政府根据需要设置寄宿制学校,保障居住分散的适龄儿童、少年入学接受义务教育。设立寄宿制学校,是中国义务教育阶段的通行做法。2020年全国小学寄宿生1087.8万人,占小学在校生的比例为10.14%;初中寄宿生2301.17万人,占初中在校生的比例为46.83%。新疆地域辽阔,总面积166.49万平方公里,村镇距离较远,一些农牧区的群众居住分散,家长接送孩子上学不便。开展寄宿制教育有利于巩固义务教育普及水平、实现教育均衡发展,有利于集中优质教育资源,保障教学质量,同时大大减轻学生家庭负担。寄宿制学校学生周一至周五在校,周末及节假日在家,有事可随时请假。学生是否寄宿,完全由家庭自愿选择。所谓“亲子分离”,完全是歪曲事实、造谣污蔑。
China’s Constitution stipulates that citizens shall have the right and the obligation to receive education. The Education Law further provides that citizens shall enjoy equal opportunity of education regardless of their ethnicity, race, gender, occupation, property, religious belief, etc. The Compulsory Education Law states that where necessary, the people’s government at the county level may set up boarding schools so as to ensure that the school-age children and adolescents who are dwelling in scattered areas receive compulsory education.
Establishing boarding schools is a standard practice in China’s compulsory education. In 2020, there were nearly 11 million primary school boarders across the country, accounting for about 10 percent of the total number of primary school students, and there were 23 million middle school boarders, or nearly 47 percent of the total number of middle school students.
The vast land of Xinjiang covers a total area of 1,664,900 sq km. Villages and towns are far from each other and residents in some farming and pastoral areas are sparsely distributed, making the daily travel between home and school very difficult for students who live at a distance.
Boarding schools can help consolidate universal access to compulsory education and promote balanced education. They are conducive to concentrating superior education resources and ensuring teaching quality. They can also greatly alleviate the burden on students’ families. Boarders live at school from Monday to Friday and at home on weekends and holidays. They can ask for leave whenever necessary. It is up to students’ families to decide whether to board or not. Claims of “parent-child separation” are a gross distortion of facts.

 

4. 所谓“文化灭绝”
4. “Cultural genocide”

境外反华势力捏造事实,诬称新疆推广普及国家通用语言文字,旨在“同化”少数民族,消灭少数民族语言文字和文化传统,实施“文化灭绝”。
Anti-China forces claim that Xinjiang’s efforts to promote standard Chinese represent a campaign of “cultural genocide”, and that they are a means of “ethnic assimilation”, designed to eliminate the spoken and written languages and cultural traditions of ethnic minorities.

人所共知,国家通用语言文字是国家主权的象征,学习使用国家通用语言文字是每个公民的权利和义务。不仅中国如此,世界其他国家也是如此。学习和使用国家通用语言文字,有利于促进各民族交往交流交融,推动各民族发展进步。中国政府大力推广和规范使用国家通用语言文字,依法保障各民族使用和发展本民族语言文字的自由。《中华人民共和国教育法》明确规定“民族自治地方以少数民族学生为主的学校及其他教育机构,从实际出发,使用国家通用语言文字和本民族或者当地民族通用的语言文字实施双语教育”。
The standard language of a country is a symbol of its sovereignty. Every citizen has the right and obligation to learn and use the standard language. This is true not only in China but also in the rest of the world. Learning and using the standard language helps different ethnic groups to communicate, develop and progress.
The Chinese government works hard to promote the use of standard Chinese, but it also protects by law the freedom of ethnic groups to use and develop their own spoken and written languages. China’s Education Law prescribes that in ethnic autonomous areas, “schools and other educational institutions dominated by ethnic minority students shall, according to the actual circumstances, use the standard spoken and written Chinese language and the spoken and written languages of their respective ethnicities or the spoken and written language commonly used by the local ethnicities to implement bilingual education”.

新疆依法开展国家通用语言文字教学,同时在中小学开设了维吾尔语、哈萨克语、柯尔克孜语、蒙古语、锡伯语等课程,充分保障了少数民族学生学习本民族语言文字的权利,有效促进了少数民族语言文化的传承发展。少数民族语言文字在教育、司法、行政、社会公共事务等领域得到广泛使用。
While carrying out the teaching of standard Chinese, Xinjiang also provides Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Mongolian, Xibe and other language courses at primary and secondary schools, thereby ensuring the right of ethnic minorities to learn and use their own languages and effectively protecting their languages and cultures. Ethnic minority languages are extensively used in such areas as education, judicature, administration and public affairs.

中国政府高度重视各民族优秀传统文化的传承、保护和发展。新疆加强文物资源保护传承,交河故城、克孜尔石窟等6处文物被列入《世界遗产名录》,楼兰古城等133处文物公布为全国重点文物保护单位,9000余处不可移动文物得到有效保护。新疆积极搜集、保护、抢救了一批各民族古籍,如翻译出版了濒于失传的《福乐智慧》,整理出版了蒙古族史诗《江格尔》等多种民间口头文学作品。依托民族乐器制作技艺,维吾尔族桑皮纸制作技艺、地毯织造技艺、哈萨克毡绣和布绣项目设立了4个国家级非物质文化遗产生产性保护示范基地。“新疆维吾尔木卡姆艺术”“玛纳斯”“维吾尔族麦西热甫”等被列入联合国教科文组织人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录和急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录。新疆坚持尊重差异、包容多样、相互欣赏,充分尊重和保护各种民俗文化,实现多元文化和谐共处。“元宵灯会”“麦西热甫”“阿依特斯”“库姆孜弹唱会”“那达慕大会”“花儿会”等深受各族群众欢迎的民俗活动广泛开展。这一系列事实证明,所谓“文化灭绝”完全是罔顾事实、颠倒黑白。
The Chinese government attaches great importance to protecting and developing the best of its traditional ethnic cultures. Xinjiang continues to strengthen the protection and preservation of cultural relics. Six cultural heritage sites, including the Jiaohe Ancient City Ruins and the Kizil Grottoes, have been in the UNESCO World Heritage List; 133, including the Loulan Ancient City Ruins, have been listed as key cultural heritage sites under state protection; and more than 9,000 other fixed cultural relics are well preserved.
Xinjiang has been active in collecting, preserving and rescuing ancient books of all ethnic groups. It has supported the translation and publishing of Kutadgu Bilig (Wisdom of Fortune and Joy), a Uygur masterpiece on the verge of being lost, and has enabled the publication of works of folk literature, including the Mongolian epic Jangar.
The Uygur Muqam and the Kirgiz epic Manas have been registered on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, and the Uygur Meshrep on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The region has established four state-level demonstration bases for the preservation of intangible cultural heritage items. They produce ethnic musical instruments, Uygur mulberry paper, Uygur carpets, and Kazak embroidery handicrafts.
Xinjiang embraces cultural diversity and inclusiveness, and upholds mutual learning among cultures. The region fully respects and protects folk traditions, thus realizing the harmonious coexistence of different cultures. Folk festivals are widely celebrated, including the Han Lantern Festival, the Uygur Meshrep, the Kazak Aytes, the Kirgiz Kobuz Ballad Singing Fair, the Mongolian Nadam Fair, and the Hui Hua’er Folk Song Festival.
All of this demonstrates clearly that there is no truth in the accusations of “cultural genocide”.

 

5. 所谓“宗教迫害”
5. “Religious persecution”

境外反华势力污蔑新疆限制宗教自由,监视信教群众的宗教活动,禁止穆斯林封斋,强拆清真寺,迫害宗教人士。
Anti-China forces have spread false accusations that Xinjiang restricts freedom of religion, keeps religious activities under surveillance, prohibits Muslims from fasting, forcibly demolishes mosques, and persecutes religious practitioners.

尊重和保护宗教信仰自由是中国政府一项长期的基本国策。《中华人民共和国宪法》明确规定,“公民有宗教信仰自由”“任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民”“国家保护正常的宗教活动。任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动”。
Respect for and protection of freedom of religious belief is a long-term basic national policy of the Chinese government. The Constitution stipulates that citizens shall enjoy freedom of religious belief, and that no state organ, social organization or individual shall coerce citizens to believe in or not to believe in any religion, nor shall they discriminate against citizens who believe in or do not believe in any religion. It also provides that the state shall protect normal religious activities, and that no one shall use religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the state’s education system.

新疆依照国家宪法法律,保护公民宗教信仰自由,保障正常宗教活动有序进行。信教群众依照教义、教规和传统习俗,在宗教场所和自己家进行正常宗教活动,包括礼拜、封斋、过宗教节日等,完全遵从个人意愿,不受干涉和限制。新疆翻译出版了中文、维吾尔文、哈萨克文、柯尔克孜文等多种文字的《古兰经》《布哈里圣训实录精华》等宗教经典书籍,为各族信教群众获得宗教知识提供便利。关心关爱宗教人士,将教职人员纳入社会保障体系,免费为其购买医疗保险、养老保险、大病保险、人身意外伤害保险等,每年进行健康体检。重视伊斯兰教教职人员的培养培训,新疆现有10所伊斯兰教院校,培养了一批较高素质的教职人员,有效保障了伊斯兰教健康有序传承。
In accordance with the Constitution and relevant laws, Xinjiang protects freedom of religious belief and ensures orderly practice of religion. Believers are free to engage in lawful religious activities, including worship, fasting, and observance of religious festivals, in accordance with religious doctrines, canons and traditions, at religious venues or in their homes. They face no inference and restriction in this regard.
Religious classics have been translated and published, including the Koran and Selections from Sahih al-Bukhari, in the Chinese, Uygur, Kazak and Kirgiz languages, so as to facilitate believers’ access to religious information.
The region cares for religious practitioners. It includes clerical personnel in the social security system by providing them with medical, old-age, serious illness, and personal accident insurance, as well as arranging for them to have free annual health checks. It attaches importance to the training of clerical professionals. There are 10 Islamic schools in Xinjiang, which have trained a contingent of high-caliber clerics, effectively ensuring the healthy and orderly development of Islam.

为满足信教群众正常宗教需求,新疆通过修缮、新建、迁建、扩建等措施,积极改善宗教场所条件,优化环境布局。政府还出资对清真寺实施“七进两有”(水、电、路、气、讯、广播电视、文化书屋进清真寺,主麻清真寺有净身设施、有水冲厕所)、“九配备”(配备医药服务、电子显示屏、电脑、电风扇或空调、消防设施、天然气、饮水设备、鞋套或鞋套机、储物柜),极大便利了宗教人士和信教群众。所谓“宗教迫害”,完全是子虚乌有、恶意中伤。
To meet believers’ legitimate religious needs, Xinjiang has been actively improving the conditions of religious venues and their surrounding environments by means of renovation and relocation, expanding existing facilities and building new ones.
Mosques in Xinjiang have been equipped with running water, electricity, natural gas, telecommunications tools, radio and television facilities, libraries, and easy road access. Washing and cleansing facilities have been installed in congregational mosques for Juma prayers. Mosques also have medical services, LED screens, computers, electric fans or air conditioners, fire-fighting equipment, water dispensers, shoe coverings or automatic dispensers of shoe coverings, and lockers. All this provides greater convenience for religious believers. The accusations of “religious persecution” are completely baseless.

由上可见,境外反华势力炒作的所谓新疆“种族灭绝”是彻头彻尾的谎言,是对中国治疆政策和新疆发展成就的污蔑,是对国际法和国际关系基本准则的严重践踏。美国等一些国家的反华势力俨然以“人权卫士”自居,无视自身对印第安人等土著居民犯下种族灭绝罪行的黑暗历史,无视自身存在根深蒂固的种族歧视等系统性问题,无视自身挑起战乱造成他国数以百万计无辜民众伤亡的人权污点,以己度人,贼喊捉贼,充分暴露了其在人权问题上的双重标准和虚伪丑陋的霸权逻辑。
There is a wealth of evidence that the accusations of “genocide” in Xinjiang conjured up by the anti-China forces are devoid of any truth. They are a calumny against China’s Xinjiang policy and the successes achieved in developing the region, and a serious violation of international law and the basic principles of international relations.
Posing as “human rights defenders”, anti-China forces in some countries such as the United States ignore the dark history of their own countries, where real genocide was committed against indigenous peoples such as Native Americans. Along with sundry others, they turn a blind eye to the deep-rooted racial discrimination and other systemic problems in their own countries today, and to the stain on human rights spread by their relentless wars in other countries which claim millions of innocent civilian lives. Their hideous double standards, hypocrisy, and hegemonic mindset recall the infamous quote: “Accuse the other side of that of which you are guilty.”

 

结束语
Conclusion

新疆的人口发展是中国人口发展的缩影,也是新疆发展进步的写照,是统一的多民族国家促进少数民族人口健康发展的成功范例。
Xinjiang’s demographic development, reflecting the situation across the nation, bears witness to the region’s social progress. It marks the success of a unified multiethnic country in ensuring the healthy population growth of its ethnic minorities.

70余年来,新疆人口快速发展,规模持续扩大,素质不断提升,人均预期寿命稳步提高,新型城镇化、现代化加速推进,各族人民团结和谐,共同进步,幸福生活,充分展现了在中国共产党领导下,新疆繁荣发展的光辉历程。
Over the past 70 years, Xinjiang has seen rapid and steady population growth, improving population quality, higher life expectancy, and faster urbanization and modernization. All the ethnic groups enjoy unity, harmony, common progress, prosperity and happy lives under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

真理必将战胜谬误,正义终将战胜邪恶。新疆人口的发展是经济社会发展的必然结果,是工业化、现代化的必然结果,是过去任何一个历史时期无法比拟的,也是任何尊重事实的人士都不会否认的。境外反华势力编造所谓新疆“种族灭绝”的欺世谎言,企图蒙蔽国际社会,误导国际舆论,阻遏中国发展进步,这种用心险恶的图谋注定不会得逞。
Xinjiang’s evolving demographics are a natural result of local economic and social development, and of industrialization and modernization. This success is unparalleled in history, and is apparent to any person who respects facts. Anti-China forces have fabricated stories of “genocide” in Xinjiang to deceive the international community, mislead international public opinion, and impede China’s development and progress. These malicious efforts will not succeed. Truth will prevail over falsehoods.

中国政府坚定不移维护国家主权、安全和发展利益,坚定不移促进各民族共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展,坚定不移贯彻新时代党的治疆方略,坚持依法治疆、团结稳疆、文化润疆、富民兴疆、长期建疆,努力建设团结和谐、繁荣富裕、文明进步、安居乐业、生态良好的新时代中国特色社会主义新疆。青山遮不住,毕竟东流去。新疆迈向现代化的进程是任何人任何势力都无法阻挡的,新疆的明天必将更加美好!
The Chinese government will continue to safeguard China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests, and contribute to the common unity, development and prosperity of all ethnic groups. The CPC’s strategy for governance in Xinjiang in the new era will not change:
• governing Xinjiang in accordance with the law,
• maintaining stability through ethnic unity,
• strengthening cultural identity and bonds,
• bringing greater prosperity to the region and its people,
• developing Xinjiang from a long-term perspective.
It will continue to promote unity, harmony and cultural progress and strive for a prosperous and eco-friendly Xinjiang under socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, where people live and work in peace and contentment. Xinjiang’s march towards modernization will not be stopped by any force, and its future is bright and secure.

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