As U.N. Turns 75, the Celebration Is Muted by Calamity and Conflict
Worldwide contagion, the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression and a warming planet — not to mention rising hunger, growing legions of refugees, xenophobic bombast from strongmen leaders and a new cold war between the United States and China.
The United Nations is about to celebrate its birth in 1945 from the ruins of World War II, although “celebrate” might seem an odd choice of word amid the long list of current global woes and the organization’s own challenges.
So the marking of the anniversary will be muted, and not only because world leaders will be unable to gather in person to raise a glass — the pandemic has reduced the General Assembly beginning this week to virtual meetings. As the world body turns 75, it also faces profound questions about its own effectiveness and even its relevance.
“The U.N. is weaker than it should be,” said Mary Robinson, a former U.N. high commissioner for human rights and the first woman to become president of Ireland.
When the United Nations was founded by the Allied victors, the goal was to avert another descent into another global apocalypse. And for all its shortcomings, the organization that Eleanor Roosevelt called “our greatest hope for future peace” has at least helped achieve that.
As he looked ahead toward convening this year’s General Assembly, Secretary-General António Guterres emphasized the long view. The values embedded in the U.N. Charter, he said, have prevented “the scourge of a Third World War many had feared.”
Still, the organization is struggling like perhaps never before.
While it is the leading provider of humanitarian aid, and U.N. peacekeepers operate in more than dozen unstable areas, the United Nations has been unable to bring an end to the protracted wars in Syria, Yemen or Libya. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is nearly as old as the United Nations itself.
U.N. statistics show that the number of people forcibly displaced worldwide has doubled over the past decade to 80 million. The number suffering acute hunger is expected to nearly double by year’s end to more than a quarter billion, with the first famines of the coronavirus era lurking at the world’s doorstep.
Guterres’ entreaty for a global cease-fire to help combat the coronavirus has gone largely unheeded. His plea for contributions to a $10 billion emergency coronavirus response plan to help the neediest had, as of last week, been met with commitments totaling just a quarter of the goal. That response “barely justifies the description of ‘tepid,’ ” said Mark Lowcock, the top U.N. relief official.
The United Nations, which has grown from 50 members 75 years ago to 193 members and a global staff of 44,000, was intended at its inception to provide a forum in which countries large and small believed they had a meaningful voice.
But its basic structure gives little real power to the main body, the General Assembly, and the most to the World War II victors — Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States — with each wielding a veto on the 15-seat Security Council as permanent members. The council is empowered to impose economic sanctions and is the only U.N. entity permitted to deploy military force.
No permanent member seems willing to alter the power structure. The outcome is chronic Security Council deadlocks on many issues, often pitting the United States against not only China and Russia but also against U.S. allies.
It is not only on questions of war and cease-fires where the United Nations is struggling for results.
The Sustainable Development Goals, 17 U.N. objectives aimed at eliminating inequities that include poverty, gender bias and illiteracy by 2030, are imperiled. Barbara Adams, chairwoman of the Global Policy Forum, a U.N. monitoring group, told a conference in July that the objectives were “seriously off track” even before the pandemic, according to PassBlue, a news site that covers the United Nations.
联合国那17个旨在2030年以前消除贫困、性别偏见和文盲等不平等现象的可持续发展目标(Sustainable Development Goals)已经岌岌可危。据报道联合国的新闻网站PassBlue称，联合国监督小组《全球政策论坛》(Global Policy Forum)主席芭芭拉·亚当斯(Barbara Adams)在7月的一次会议上表示，这些目标甚至在大流行出现之前就已经“严重偏离轨道”。
U.N. veterans say multilateralism — solving problems together, a tenet of the organization’s charter — increasingly collides with principles in the same charter emphasizing national sovereignty and nonintervention in a country’s internal affairs.
The result is often delays of aid or denial of U.N. access to humanitarian crises, whether in delivering supplies to displaced Syrians, investigating evidence of Rohingya massacres in Myanmar or helping sick children in Venezuela.
Carrie Booth Walling, a political-science professor at Albion College and an expert on U.N. humanitarian interventions, said the turning inward of many countries afflicted by the virus might bode badly for the United Nations and the diplomacy it embodies.
阿尔比安大学的政治学教授、联合国人道主义干预问题专家凯莉·布思·沃林(Carrie Booth Walling)表示，许多受病毒影响的国家开始向内转，对联合国及其象征的外交而言可能是个坏兆头。
“What is really frightening at this moment,” Walling said, is “the state of multilateralism in general, and whether the world’s governments and people will see the value of multilateral cooperation.”
The ascendance of autocratic-minded leaders has presented further challenges.
President Donald Trump has been a frequent U.N. critic, rejecting notions of global governance and complaining about what he sees as wasteful spending on a budget that totals roughly $9.5 billion annually, including $6.5 billion for peacekeeping operations.
President Jair Bolsonaro of Brazil has called the U.N.’s Human Rights Council a “communist meeting place.” Prime Minister Viktor Orban of Hungary has railed against U.N. policy protecting refugees. President Rodrigo Duterte of the Philippines has expressed fury over a U.N. human rights inquiry into his war on drugs.
巴西总统贾伊尔·博尔索纳罗(Jair Bolsonaro)称联合国人权理事会是“共产主义的会场”。匈牙利总理欧尔班·维克托(Viktor Orban)谴责联合国保护难民的政策。菲律宾总统罗德里戈·杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)对联合国人权机构对其禁毒战争的调查表示愤怒。
Under Trump’s “America First” approach, the United States intends to withdraw from the World Health Organization, with Trump criticizing its coronavirus response and calling it a mouthpiece for China. Trump also has abandoned or slashed support for U.N. agencies, including the U.N. Population Fund, the Human Rights Council and the agency that aids Palestinians classified as refugees.
While the United States has been lashing out, China has maneuvered to assert more control at the United Nations, taking leadership positions in agencies that include the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the International Telecommunications Union and the Human Rights Council.
A May 2019 study, “People’s Republic of the United Nations,” by the Center for New American Security, a bipartisan research group, suggested China’s U.N. actions were part of its effort to redefine how such institutions are run, shifting away from Western concepts of democracy and human rights.
两党研究机构新美国安全中心(Center for New American Security) 2019年5月的研究报告《人民共和国的联合国》(People ‘s Republic of the United Nations)指出，中国在联合国的行动是为了重新定义此类机构的运作方式，使其偏离西方的民主和人权概念。
China’s U.N. reach extended deeper this year when Chinese candidates were chosen, over U.S. opposition, to lead the Food and Agriculture Organization, to join a panel that chooses investigators for the Human Rights Council, and to become a judge on a U.N.-affiliated tribunal that adjudicates Law of the Sea disputes.
President Xi Jinping of China has exhorted subordinates “to take an active part in leading the reform of the global governance system.”
The U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Kelly Craft, has insisted she is confronting the Chinese — telling a Fox News interviewer last month, for example, that she raises human rights issues in China “at every opportunity we have in the Security Council.”
美国驻联合国大使凯莉·克拉夫特(Kelly Craft)坚称她正在与中国人对抗。例如，她上个月在接受福克斯新闻(Fox News)采访时表示，她“利用安理会的一切机会”提出中国的人权问题。
Still, current and former U.N. officials say Trump’s isolationist behavior has hurt U.S. influence at the United Nations, even as the United States remains vital as the host country and biggest single contributor. They see an emboldened China asserting itself in contested areas of the South China Sea, suppressing dissent in Hong Kong, interning 1 million Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang, and lending aggressively to the needy countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
“If the United States pulls its cards out of the game, that leaves more scope for China,” said Edward Mortimer, who was the chief speechwriter for former Secretary-General Kofi Annan. “Now China is behaving in an incredibly heavy-handed and provocative way, and has a lot of countries worried.”
“如果美国撤出自己的牌，就给中国留下了更多空间，”前联合国秘书长科菲·安南(Kofi Annan)的首席演讲撰稿人爱德华·莫蒂默(Edward Mortimer)说。“现在，中国的行为极度强硬而挑衅，让很多国家感到担忧。”