纽约时报双语:美国亚裔人口30年增加近两倍,群体多样性显著

美国亚裔人口30年增加近两倍,群体多样性显著
Inside the Diverse and Growing Asian Population in the U.S.
ROBERT GEBELOFF, DENISE LU, MIRIAM JORDAN
2021年8月24日
纽约时报双语:美国亚裔人口30年增加近两倍,群体多样性显著
注:“其他亚裔族群”类别包括孟加拉国裔、不丹裔、缅甸裔、柬埔寨裔、苗族裔、印度尼西亚裔、老挝裔、马来西亚裔、蒙古裔、尼泊尔裔、冲绳裔、巴基斯坦裔、斯里兰卡裔、台湾裔和泰裔,以及其他单一种族的亚裔群体。每个县的亚裔人口比例来自2020年十年一次的人口普查。每个县的原籍群体来自于2019年美国社区调查。 THE NEW YORK TIMES

The number of people who identify as Asian in the United States nearly tripled in the past three decades, and Asians are now the fastest-growing of the nation’s four largest racial and ethnic groups, according to recently released census numbers.

根据最近公布的人口普查数据,在美国认同为亚裔的人数几乎是30年前的三倍,亚裔现在是美国四大种族和族裔群体中增长最快的。

But in addition to the uptick, the Asian population has become geographically diverse with wide variations in income, citizenship status and political preference, according to a New York Times analysis of census data.

但除了这种上升趋势外,根据《纽约时报》对人口普查数据的分析,亚裔人口的地理分布也变得多样化,收入、公民身份和政治倾向存在很大差异。

The Asian population is complex, made up of nearly 20 million people who trace their roots to more than 20 countries in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent, regions that the Census Bureau includes as places of origin for Asians.

近2000万的亚裔人口组成复杂,他们的祖先来自东亚、东南亚和印度次大陆的20多个国家,人口普查局将这些地区列为亚裔的起源地。

In 1990, the country’s Asian population numbered 6.6 million and was largely concentrated in a few pockets in cities on the coasts. Thirty years later, those enclaves have grown significantly, and the Asian population is more spread out, with families building lives in the suburbs of the South and in rural areas of the Midwest.

1990年,美国的亚裔人口为660万,主要集中在几个沿海城市。30年后,这些聚居地显著扩大,亚裔人口更加扩散,亚裔家庭在南部的城市郊区和中西部农村地区也建立起生活。

The number of counties where people of Asian descent represent more than 5 percent of the population has risen to 176 in 2020 from 39 in 1990.

亚裔人口占总人口5%以上的县,从1990年的39个增加到2020年的176个。

“When people think Asians in America, they think California, Hawaii. But this population is not a West Coast phenomenon. It’s now an American phenomenon,” said Neil G. Ruiz, the associate director of race and ethnicity research at Pew Research Center.

皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)种族和民族研究副主任尼尔·G·鲁伊斯(Neil G. Ruiz)说:“当人们想到美国的亚裔时,他们会想到加利福尼亚、夏威夷。但这个群体并不是西海岸的现象。它现在是一种美国现象。”

North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, North Carolina and Indiana are among states that experienced major growth in the past decade. And people of Asian descent have been settling in ever larger numbers in states like West Virginia, where the overall population has declined.

北达科他州、南达科他州、得克萨斯州、北卡罗来纳州和印第安纳州等在过去10年中都经历了大幅增长。西弗吉尼亚等州的总人口已经下降,然而定居那里的亚裔人口越来越多。

Diversity among groups and within groups

群体间和群体内的多样性

The diversity of the nation’s Asian population often gets overlooked. Most published statistics consider all Asians as a single entity, but the reality is more nuanced.

美国亚裔人口的多样性经常被忽视。大多数公布的统计数据都将所有亚裔视为一个整体,但实际情况要复杂得多。

In addition to Asians of a single race, an additional 3.5 million people identify as mixed-race Asian, making up more than a quarter of all mixed-race people in the United States.

除了作为单一种族的亚裔外,还有350万人认同自己为亚裔混血,占美国所有混血人口的四分之一以上。

Nearly 60 percent of all people of Asian descent, including those who are mixed race, were born outside the United States, and a majority are naturalized citizens. A vast majority of Asians in the United States are citizens, either naturalized or U.S.-born.

近60%的拥有亚裔血统的人——包括混血儿——出生在美国境外,且大多数是归化公民。绝大多数在美国的亚裔是公民,无论是归化的还是在美国出生的。

Among the two dozen groups analyzed by The Times, there are also vast differences in age, income and other demographic categories. Even within groups, there are wide gulfs between the characteristics of new immigrants and those who were born in the United States or who were naturalized many years ago.

在《纽约时报》分析的20多个群体中,年龄、收入和其他人口统计类别也存在巨大差异。即使在群体内部,在新移民、在美国出生或多年前入籍的人的特质方面,也存在很大差异。

For example, the household incomes of people of Asian descent exceed the overall U.S. population’s household incomes. Educational attainment is similarly higher. But among groups, there is quite a large variation.

例如,亚裔后代家庭收入超过了美国总体人口的家庭收入。受教育程度同样更高。但在不同的群体中,差异却相当大。

Economically, Indians are consistently wealthier, while residents of Bhutanese descent have the lowest income and are unlikely to own a home. Many are Nepali-speaking Bhutanese refugees, who were stranded for years in camps with limited access to education.

在经济上,印度人一直比较富裕,而不丹血统的居民收入最低,并且拥有房产的较少。许多人是讲尼泊尔语的不丹难民,他们被困在难民营中多年,受教育机会有限。

In Columbus, Ohio, home to the largest Bhutanese community outside of Asia, many sort and pack items for Amazon, FedEx, Kroger and Bath & Body Works, among other companies.

俄亥俄州哥伦布市拥有亚洲以外最大的不丹人社区,许多人为亚马逊(Amazon)、联邦快递(FedEx)、克罗格(Kroger)和Bath & Body Works等公司整理和打包货物。

The Asian population in one area of that city jumped to more than 1,000 in 2020 from nearly none in 2010, thanks to the arrival of people from Bhutan, many of whom are transplants from cities where they were originally resettled by the government.

由于不丹人的到来,该城市一个地区的亚裔人口从2010年的几乎为零跃升至2020年的1000多人,其中许多人是从最初由政府重新安置的城市移民而来的。

“To find a job in Columbus, it is known you don’t have to speak English because there are so many warehouse jobs,” said Jhuma Acharya, a case manager at a refugee resettlement agency, “because there are so many warehouses.”

“众所周知,在哥伦布找工作不必说英语,这里有太多仓库工作,”难民安置机构的个案经理朱玛·阿查里亚(Jhuma Acharya)说,“因为仓库太多了。”

In a census tract in Montgomery, Ala., where the arrival of a Hyundai Motors assembly plant in 2005 jump-started the growth of a Korean community, one out of three people is Asian, and they include auto company executives and independent grocers.

在阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利的一个人口普查区,2005年建成的现代汽车(Hyundai Motors)组装厂启动了一个韩裔社区的发展,该社区三分之一的人是亚裔,有汽车公司高管,也有独立经营的杂货店主。

Disparities in incomes are driven by the types of jobs held by different groups and the number of earners per household, which vary by citizenship status.

收入的差距来源于不同群体所从事的工作类型和每个家庭的收入者数量,后者因公民身份而异。

A disproportionate share of workers in health care are people of Filipino descent. But there are even more workers of Filipino descent with jobs in the service sector, particularly those without U.S. citizenship.

医疗保健工作者中,菲律宾裔占比极高。但在服务业工作的菲律宾裔还要更多,尤其是那些没有美国公民身份的人。

Among Korean households, those headed by a person born in the United States have a median income of $95,000, but ones headed by Koreans who are not citizens have a median income of just $54,000. The gap is even wider for those of Chinese or Taiwanese descent.

在韩裔家庭中,以出生在美国的人为户主的家庭收入中位数为9.5万美元,但以非公民韩裔为户主的家庭收入中位数仅为5.4万美元。对于中国或台湾后代的人来说,差距更大。

People of Indian descent hold a significant share of jobs in several high-paying fields, including computer science, financial management and medicine. Nine percent of doctors in the United States are of Indian descent, and more than half of them are immigrants.

印度裔在计算机科学、财务管理和医学等几个高薪领域的工作占据很大比例。美国9%的医生是印度裔,其中一半以上是移民。

Dr. Nihit Gupta, a child psychiatrist, and his wife, Dr. Shikha Jaiswal, a nephrologist, who are Indian, have been practicing in West Virginia since 2016. “This place really embraces us. The whole state is underserved, and they value our work,” said Dr. Gupta, 38, one of two psychiatrists within a 70-mile radius.

儿童精神科医生尼希特·古普塔(Nihit Gupta)医生和他的妻子、肾脏病学家希哈·贾伊斯瓦尔(Shikha Jaiswal)医生都是印度裔,自2016年以来一直在西弗吉尼亚州执业。38岁的古普塔医生是方圆70英里范围内的两名精神病医生之一,他说:“这个地方真的很欢迎我们。整个州人均医疗人员不足,他们重视我们的工作。”

The couple had their first child, a son named Tasmay, 20 months ago.

20个月前,这对夫妇有了他们的第一个孩子,一个名叫塔斯梅(Tasmay)的男孩。

Asian Americans born in the United States tend to be younger — half of them are children. They are the children of older, naturalized citizens who immigrated to the country a generation before.

在美国出生的亚裔美国人往往更年轻——其中一半是儿童。他们是上一代移民到这个国家的年长的归化公民的孩子。

As a growing group in American demographics, Asian Americans are also playing an increasing role in electoral politics.

作为美国人口结构中不断壮大的群体,亚裔美国人在政治选举中也发挥着越来越大的作用。

Analysis by The Times found that neighborhoods with high concentrations of Asian residents overwhelmingly favored Joseph R. Biden Jr. in the 2020 presidential election, though variations exist among different groups. More than half of places where Vietnamese Americans were a majority, for example, favored President Donald J. Trump in 2020.

《纽约时报》的分析发现,在2020年总统大选中,亚裔居民高度集中的社区压倒性地支持小约瑟夫·R·拜登(Joseph R. Biden Jr.),尽管不同群体之间存在差异。例如,2020年,超过一半的越南裔美国人占多数的地方都支持唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)总统。

With their numbers continuing to expand at a fast clip, demographers expect the Asian population to surpass 46 million by 2060.

随着他们的人数继续快速增长,人口统计学家预计,到2060年亚裔人口将超过4600万。

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