双语:西藏和平解放与繁荣发展 PDF 下载

 

——维护《十七条协议》,决定“六年不改”
– The central government upheld the 17-Article Agreement and honored its promise not to carry out reform for six years.

《十七条协议》明确:“有关西藏的各项改革事宜,中央不加强迫。西藏地方政府应自动进行改革,人民提出改革要求时,得采取与西藏领导人员协商的方法解决之。”和平解放后,西藏广大人民要求改革的呼声日益高涨,许多上中层的开明人士也认识到,如不改革旧制度,西藏民族断无繁荣昌盛可能。
The 17-Article Agreement stipulated, “In matters related to reform in Tibet, there will be no compulsion on the part of the central government. The local government of Tibet shall take initiative to carry out reform, and when the people raise demands for reform, the central government shall consult with the leading personnel in Tibet to settle the issue.” Following liberation, amidst the growing demand of the Tibetan people for democratic reform, many enlightened people of the upper and middle classes also realized that, if the old system were not reformed, the Tibetan people would never attain prosperity.

考虑到西藏历史和现实的特殊情况,中央人民政府采取十分慎重态度,耐心劝说和等待西藏地方上层统治集团主动进行改革,并给他们以充分的时间。1956年,中央人民政府作出“六年不改”决定,等待西藏上层的觉悟。1957年1月,国务院总理周恩来访问印度期间向十四世达赖、十世班禅及随行的西藏地方政府主要官员转交了毛泽东主席的信,传达了中央的决定,强调六年不改,六年之后是否改革,仍然由西藏根据情况和条件决定。中央人民政府对西藏上层统治集团作出了最大让步,可谓仁至义尽。
In consideration of Tibetan history and the region’s special situation, the Central People’s Government adopted a circumspect attitude of patient persuasion, waiting for the ruling elite to carry out reform, and giving them adequate time to do so. In 1956, still awaiting a change in the attitude of the ruling upper class, the Central People’s Government made a decision that no reform should be carried out in Tibet for six years. During his visit to India in January 1957, Premier of the State Council Zhou Enlai handed a letter from Chairman Mao Zedong to the 14th Dalai Lama and 10th Panchen Lama, and the accompanying senior local Tibetan government officials. The letter informed them of the central government’s decision that reform would be deferred for six years; whether reform should be carried out after six years would still be decided by Tibet in accordance with its own situation and the prevailing conditions. The Central People’s Government showed the utmost patience and made every concession.

 

——平息武装叛乱,进行民主改革
– The armed rebellion was quelled and democratic reform was implemented.

改革西藏社会制度是西藏社会发展的必然要求和西藏人民的根本愿望。西藏反动上层企图永远保持封建农奴制,蓄意破坏《十七条协议》,策划一系列分裂祖国的活动,最终于1959年3月10日发动全面武装叛乱。中央政府采取果断措施,与西藏人民一道坚决平息了叛乱,并决定在西藏进行一场彻底废除封建农奴制度的民主改革运动。
Reforming the social system was an essential requirement of social development and the fundamental aspiration of the Tibetan people. To preserve serfdom, the reactionaries from Tibet’s upper class planned a series of activities to split Tibet from China, in blatant violation of the 17-Article Agreement. These led to a full-scale insurrection on March 10, 1959. The Central People’s Government, together with the Tibetan people, took decisive measures to suppress the rebellion, and subsequently implemented a democratic reform in Tibet that brought feudal serfdom to an end.

民主改革废除了政教合一的封建农奴制,实现政教分离;废除生产资料封建领主所有制,确立农牧民个体所有制;废除对“三大领主”的人身依附,使农奴和奴隶获得人身自由。在民主改革中,农奴和奴隶共分得土地约280多万克(约18.67万公顷)。建立起第一个供销社、第一个农村信用社、第一所民办小学、第一所夜校、第一个识字班、第一个电影放映队、第一个医疗卫生机构。纳金水电站建成发电,拉萨普通市民首次用上电灯。民主改革是西藏社会进步和人权发展史上划时代的重大变革,使西藏百万农奴和奴隶在政治、经济和社会生活多方面实现了翻身解放,有效促进了西藏社会生产力的发展,为西藏的现代化建设开辟了道路。
Through this reform, the theocratic system was annulled and religion was separated from government. The feudal serf owners’ right to own the means of production was abolished and private ownership by farmers and herdsmen was established. The personal bondage of serfs and slaves to the officials, nobles and upper-ranking monks was annulled, and they won their freedom as individuals. Former serfs and slaves were granted around 186,700 hectares of land in the democratic reform.

During this period Tibet’s first supply and marketing cooperative, first rural credit cooperative, first community primary school, first night school, first literacy class, first film projection team, and first medical institution were established. The Ngachen Hydroelectric Station was completed and entered service, bringing electric lighting for the first time to the citizens of Lhasa.

Democratic reform represented an epoch-making change in Tibetan society and in the human rights of its people. It granted political, economic and social emancipation to a million serfs and slaves, effectively promoted the development of social productive forces in Tibet, and opened up the road toward modernization.

 

——成立西藏自治区,逐步走上社会主义发展道路
– The Tibet Autonomous Region was established to launch Tibet on the path to socialism.

西藏民主改革过程同时也是民主建政过程。1959年3月叛乱发生后,国务院发布命令,解散西藏地方政府,决定由西藏自治区筹备委员会行使西藏地方政府职权。随后相继撤销了昌都地区人民解放委员会和班禅堪布会议厅,建立了统一的人民民主政权。1961年,西藏各地开始实行普选,昔日的农奴和奴隶第一次获得了当家作主的民主权利,选举产生西藏各级人民政权,一大批翻身农奴和奴隶担任各级领导职务。1965年8月,西藏县乡选举工作完成。9月,西藏第一届人民代表大会第一次会议在拉萨开幕,西藏自治区及其人民政府宣告成立,西藏开始实行民族区域自治制度,通过农牧业社会主义改造,走上社会主义发展道路。
The democratic reform in Tibet coincided with the introduction of democratic politics. After the rebellion broke out in March 1959, the State Council issued an order to dissolve the Tibetan local government and decided to have the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region exercise the duties and power of local government. Later, the Qamdo People’s Liberation Committee and the Panchen Kampus Assembly were abolished, and a centralized people’s democratic government was set up. In 1961, a general election was held across Tibet. For the first time, the former serfs and slaves were able to enjoy democratic rights as their own masters, as they elected people’s governments at all levels. Many emancipated serfs and slaves took up posts of leadership at various levels in the region. In August 1965, elections were completed in townships and counties across Tibet. In September, the First Session of the First People’s Congress of Tibet was convened in Lhasa, at which the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region and the Regional People’s Government were officially proclaimed. With regional ethnic autonomy established and through the socialist transformation of agriculture and animal husbandry, Tibet embarked on the road of socialism.

西藏自治区的成立和社会主义制度的实行,保障了各民族平等、团结、互助和共同繁荣发展政策在西藏的实现,保障了西藏各族人民平等参与管理国家事务和自主管理本地区事务的权利,为西藏实现与全国共同发展进步提供了制度保证。
The founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region and adoption of the socialist system provided a guarantee for the realization of ethnic equality, solidarity, mutual help, and common development and prosperity in the region. It also created the conditions for all ethnic groups in Tibet to enjoy equal rights to participate in the administration of regional and state affairs. In this way, an institutional structure was put in place that would allow Tibet to develop along with other parts of China.

 

四、各项事业加快发展
IV. Rapid Development of Various Undertakings

在中央人民政府领导和全国人民大力支持下,经过各族人民艰苦奋斗,西藏经济社会的发展和全国站在同一起跑线上。发展基础更加扎实,发展机遇更加良好,发展后劲十足。
Thanks to the leadership of the Central People’s Government and strong support from the rest of China, and to the great endeavors of people of all ethnic groups in the region, Tibet is catching up with other parts of the country in terms of socioeconomic development. With a more solid base, it enjoys better opportunities and enormous potential.

 

——社会经济持续快速发展
– Sustained and rapid socioeconomic development

西藏和平解放70年来,中央政府为西藏制定了许多特殊优惠政策,涉及财税金融、基础设施、产业发展、教育卫生、文化保护、生态文明等各个领域。中央财政对西藏转移支付力度逐年加大,在不同时期相继安排一大批关系西藏长远发展和人民生活的重大工程项目,极大改善了西藏人民生产生活条件,各族群众获得感、幸福感、安全感不断增强。1994年至2020年,对口援藏省市、中央国家机关及中央企业分9批共支援西藏经济社会建设项目6330个,总投资527亿元,并选派9682名优秀干部援藏。1951年西藏地区生产总值仅为1.29亿元,2020年地区生产总值突破1900亿元,经济实力明显提升,经济结构持续优化。2020年全区社会消费品零售总额实现745.78亿元,比1959年增长2192倍。
Over the last seven decades, the central government has introduced many favorable policies for the region, covering tax and finance, infrastructure, industrial development, education, health, cultural preservation, environmental protection, and other fields. The central government increases its fiscal transfer to Tibet every year, and has planned and carried out a number of major projects at different stages which have a bearing on the long-term development of the region and the living standard of the people. As a result, the local people enjoy much better working and living conditions, and their sense of gain, happiness, and security is growing. From 1994 to 2020, the provinces and equivalent administrative units, central government departments, along with state-owned enterprises (SOEs) directly under the central government, provided support to Tibet in the form of paired assistance through 6,330 projects, representing a total investment of RMB52.7 billion. They also selected and dispatched 9,682 outstanding officials to assist the region. In 1951, Tibet’s GDP was only RMB129 million. In 2020, its GDP exceeded RMB190 billion. There has been substantial economic growth and significant improvements to the economic structure. In 2020, Tibet’s retail sales of consumer goods reached RMB74.6 billion, more than 2,000 times larger than in 1959.

1930年出版的《西藏始末纪要》中形容西藏的道路:“乱石纵横,人马路绝,艰险万状,不可名态。”解放前从青海西宁或四川雅安到拉萨往返一次,需要半年到一年时间。和平解放以来,西藏逐步建立起涵盖公路、铁路、航空、管道等多种运输方式的综合立体交通网络。如今,建制村村村通公路,西藏公路通车里程达到11.88万公里,乡镇、建制村通畅率分别达94%、76%。高速及一级公路通车里程约700公里。青藏铁路和拉日铁路建成通车,川藏铁路开工建设。昌都邦达、林芝米林、日喀则和平、阿里昆莎等支线机场建成,国际国内航线达到140条,通航城市66个。以光缆、卫星为主的现代通讯网络体系将西藏带入信息快速路,所有行政村都有移动信号,光纤宽带通达率为99%。和平解放前西藏仅有一座只供少数上层贵族享受的小电站,目前已经形成以水电为主,太阳能、风能、地热等多能互补的综合能源体系。2020年,阿里与藏中电网联网工程正式投运,西藏实现主电网全区覆盖。
Xizang Shimo Jiyao, a book published in 1930, described the roads in Tibet as extremely rough and dangerous for passengers and their horses. In the old days, it took between six months and a year to make a round trip between Lhasa and Xining in Qinghai or Ya’an in Sichuan. Since 1951, Tibet has gradually built a comprehensive transport network composed of highways, railways, air routes, and pipelines. Highways with a total length of 118,800 km have been built, providing access to all administrative villages in the region. Ninety-four percent of towns and 76 percent of administrative villages have direct access to asphalt and concrete roads. Some 700 km of expressways and grade-one highways are in service. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway and the Lhasa-Xigaze Railway have been completed and opened to traffic. The construction of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway has begun. A number of feeder airports have been built, including Bamda Airport in Qamdo, Mainling Airport in Nyingchi, Peace Airport in Xigaze, and Gunsa Airport in Ngari. Tibet now has 140 domestic and international air routes in operation, reaching 66 cities. With a modern communications network mainly consisting of optical cables and satellites, Tibet is part of the information expressway. All administrative villages have mobile phone access, and optical cable broadband coverage has reached 99 percent. Before 1951, Tibet had only one hydropower station, which supplied electricity only to a handful of aristocrats. Now, a comprehensive energy network is in place, with hydro power as the mainstay, supplemented by solar, wind, and geothermal power. In 2020, Ngari Prefecture was connected to the central Tibet power grid, completing the full coverage of the main power grid across the whole of Tibet.

大力发展高原特色农牧业、绿色工业和第三产业。西藏农林牧渔业总产值从1965年的2.64亿元增长到2020年的233.5亿元。2015年,粮食产量突破100万吨,青稞产量保持在79.5万吨以上。清洁能源、天然饮用水、农畜产品加工业、民族手工业、藏医药、建材等在内的富有西藏特色的现代工业体系建立。清洁能源产业快速发展,电力总装机容量达423万千瓦,发电量超过90亿千瓦时。2020年,即使受到新冠肺炎疫情影响,西藏规模以上工业增加值增速仍达9.6%,居全国首位;旅游业保持高速增长态势,接待国内外游客3505余万人次。现代服务业整体发展,市县乡村四级电商服务全面推开,网络零售额累计突破200亿元,高新数字产业创新发展,数字经济规模突破330亿元。
A great effort has been made to develop agriculture, animal husbandry, green industries and tertiary industries adapted to local conditions. In 1965, the total value of output from Tibet’s agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries was no more than RMB264 million. In 2020, it reached RMB23.4 billion. In 2015, grain yield was over 1 million tonnes, and the yield of highland barley exceeded 795,000 tonnes. The region now has a modern industrial system with distinctive local features, covering clean energy, natural drinking water, farming and animal product processing, folk handicrafts, Tibetan medicine, and building materials, among others. The clean energy industry is developing rapidly, with a total installed capacity of 4.23 million kw and generation output of over 9 billion kwh. In 2020, despite the impact of Covid-19, the growth rate of the added value of industrial “enterprises of designated size” (enterprises with a turnover exceeding RMB20 million per annum) reached 9.6 percent, which was the highest in the country. Tourism in the region maintained rapid growth momentum, receiving more than 35 million tourist visits. There has been widespread development of service industries. E-commerce services are fully available at the city, county, township, and village levels, and total online retail sales exceeded RMB20 billion. The high-tech digital industry has seen multiple innovations, and the scale of digital economy surpassed RMB33 billion.

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